[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) stimulation leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/AP-1 and Ca2+–nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathways in osteoclastogenesis. Targeting these pathways has been an encouraging strategy for bone-related diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effects of caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester (CADPE) on osteoclastogenesis. In mouse bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells, CADPE suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and actin-ring formation in a dose-dependent manner within non–growth inhibitory concentrations at the early stage, while CADPE had no effect on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced proliferation and differentiation. At the molecular level, CADPE inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), without significantly affecting the NF-κB signaling pathway. CADPE abrogated RANKL-induced activator protein 1 (AP-1)/FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-Fos) nuclear translocation and activation. Overexpression of c-Fos prevented the inhibition by CADPE of osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, CADPE suppressed RANKL-induced the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) interaction with c-src tyrosine kinase (c-Src), blocked RANKL-induced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), and inhibited RANKL-induced Ca2+ oscillation. As a result, CADPE decreased osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including NFATc1, TRAP, cathepsin K, and c-Src. To test the effects of CADPE on osteoclast activity in vivo, we showed that CADPE prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity. Together, our data demonstrate that CADPE suppresses osteoclastogenesis and bone loss through inhibiting RANKL-induced MAPKs and Ca2+-NFATc1 signaling pathways. CADPE is a novel agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 02/2012; 27(6):1298-1308. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared with traditional cytotoxic cancer therapy, therapy-induced cancer cell senescence attracts much interest because it is similarly effective, has fewer side effects, and is more efficiently cleared by immune cells. In this study, we demonstrate that unlike caffeic acid phenethyl ester, caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester (CADPE), which is isolated from the medicinal plants Sarcandra glabra and Teucrium pilosum, inhibits human cancer cell growth and colony formation by inducing cancer cell senescence, not apoptosis. CADPE induces cell senescence and morphology changes by increasing cellular size and cytoplasmic granularity, enhancing senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and differentiated embryo-chondrocyte expressed gene 1 expression, and blocking cell-cycle arrest in the G(1) phase. To help understand the underlying mechanisms, we show that CADPE significantly suppressed the expression of Twist1 and led to the up-regulation of rat sarcoma, p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), and p16(INK4a) proteins in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in the hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Furthermore, overexpression of Twist1 prevented CADPE-induced cell senescence in tumor cells. Therefore, our studies provide evidence for a novel role of CADPE in cancer cell senescence by targeting the Twist1-dependent senescence signaling pathway.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2011; 339(1):238-47. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of NF-κB and MAPK/activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling pathways by receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast activity. Targeting NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 signaling to modulate osteoclast activity has been a promising strategy for osteoclast-related diseases. In this study we examined the effects of maslinic acid (MA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid that is widely present in dietary plants, on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast function, and signaling pathways by in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells, MA inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner within nongrowth inhibitory concentration, and MA decreased osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including TRACP, MMP9, c-Src, CTR, and cathepsin K. Specifically, MA suppressed osteoclastogenesis and actin ring formation at early stage. In ovariectomized mice, administration of MA prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity. At molecular levels, MA abrogated the phosphorylation of MAPKs and AP-1 activity, inhibited the IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, blocked NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and DNA-binding activity by downregulating RANK expression and blocking RANK interaction with TRAF6. Together our data demonstrate that MA suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathways and that MA is a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 03/2011; 26(3):644-56. · 6.04 Impact Factor