[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although adequate bowel preparation is a prerequisite for colonoscopy, preparation among inpatients is often suboptimal. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ward nurse education on the quality of bowel preparation of inpatients.A prospective, double-blinded, non-randomized, controlled study was performed. Expert endoscopists provided enhanced education to nurses who belonged to an "educated ward" followed by training that was repeated every week for 1 month. The primary outcome was the quality of the bowel preparation, which was based on the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (OBPS). Patient compliance and their subjective feelings and the factors affecting inadequate bowel preparation were also analyzed.One hundred three inpatients in the educated ward and 102 patients in the control ward were enrolled. Baseline data were comparable between the 2 wards. The mean values of the total OBPS scores were 4.42 ± 2.23 and 6.15 ± 2.38 in the educated and control wards, respectively (P < 0.001). The rate of poor preparation (OBPS ≥ 6) in the educated ward was significantly lower than that in the control ward (31.1% vs 58.8%, P < 0.001). Compliance with preparation and diet instructions in the educated ward was superior to that in the control ward (P<0.001). Control patients were more likely to be anxious before colonoscopy (P < 0.001), whereas patients in the educated ward showed higher level of satisfaction (P = 0.001) and better sleep quality (P < 0.001). A lack of ward nurse education (OR 2.365, P = 0.025), constipation (OR 6.517, P < 0.001), and insufficient water ingestion (OR 2.044, P = 0.042) were independently associated with inadequate bowel preparation among inpatients.Ward nurse education effectively improved the quality of bowel preparation, and relevant colonoscopic outcomes among inpatients. Additional efforts are needed to control constipation and to encourage additional water ingestion in inpatients for better bowel preparation.
Medicine 08/2015; 94(34):e1423. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000001423 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The photocatalytic removal of amoxicillin (AMX) over a TiO2/Ge composite under ultraviolet-A irradiation was investigated in this study. The optimal composition of the TiO2/Ge composite was determined by the response surface method to maximize AMX removal and the reduction of toxicity in the aqueous phase; the photocatalytic degradation of AMX over the optimal TiO2/Ge composite was approximately 91.6%.
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 07/2015; 27. DOI:10.1016/j.jiec.2015.01.003 · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemangioma is the most common type of benign tumor that arises in the liver. Although rupture and hemorrhage of hepatic hemangioma are rare complications, they can be the cause of mortality. The authors report a case of hemorrhagic hepatic hemangioma: in a 54-year-old woman who was admitted with epigastric pain. She had taken oral contraceptives several weeks prior. The results of a blood examination were normal. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a tumor in hepatic segment 4, and a hemorrhage inside the cystic mass was suspected. The mass was removed laparoscopically to confirm the tumor properties and control the hemorrhage. The pathologic findings of the resected mass were consistent with hepatic hemangioma with intratumoral hemorrhage. The patient was discharged 8 d after the surgery, without further complications or complaints, and the patient's condition was found to have improved during follow-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic angiosarcoma, a rare and aggressive liver malignancy, is difficult to diagnose because of a lack of specific clinical features. The clinical and radiological features of patients with histologically confirmed hepatic angiosarcoma were examined.
Among 2,336 patients diagnosed with primary hepatic carcinoma at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center (Daegu, Korea) between May 2002 and February 2012, eight (0.03%) with histologically confirmed primary hepatic angiosarcoma were included. The patterns of disease diagnosis, tumor characteristics, treatment responses, and prognoses were reviewed retrospectively.
Median age was 66 years-old (range, 41-80 years). Four patients were male. Five patients were compulsive drinkers. All patients had no HBsAg and anti-HCV. Initial radiologic diagnoses revealed primary hepatic angiosarcoma (n=2), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=2), hemangioma (n=2), and hepatic metastatic carcinoma (n=2). Definitive diagnoses were made by percutaneous needle biopsies in seven patients and surgical resection in one patient. At the time of the initial diagnosis, extrahepatic metastases were detected in three patients (37.5%). Metastatic sites included the spleen and lung, pericardium, and bone, in one patient each. Two patients underwent conservative treatments. The remaining patients underwent surgical resection (n=1), transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (n=1), and systemic chemotherapy (n=4). The median survival period was 214 days (range, 21-431 days).
Hepatic angiosarcoma is a highly progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Detailed studies including histological examinations are essential to facilitate early diagnosis of the disease.
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 04/2015; 65(4):229-35. DOI:10.4166/kjg.2015.65.4.229
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This multicenter, randomized, open-labeled, clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (CF-HAIC) versus adriamycin adding to CF-HAIC (ACF-HAIC) in advanced HCC patients.
Fifty-six patients with advanced HCC were randomized to two treatment groups: (1) CF-HAIC group [n = 29, 5-FU, 500 mg/m(2) on days 1-3, and cisplatin, 60 mg/m(2) on day 2] and (2) ACF-HAIC group [n = 27, adriamycin, 50 mg/m(2) on day 1, 5-FU, 500 mg/m(2) on days 1-3, and cisplatin, 60 mg/m(2) on day 2] every 4 weeks via an implantable port system. Primary efficacy endpoint was overall survival (OS). Treatment response and time to progression were secondary endpoints.
Treatment response rates did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. Time to progression (5.4 vs. 5.8 months, P = 0.863) and OS (11.1 vs. 8.8 months, P = 0.448) were not significantly different. When the factors affecting patient OS were analyzed, disease control rate [P < 0.001, HR 6.437 (95 % CI 2.580-16.064)] was independently associated with OS. Age (≥60 years) and serum AFP level (≥200 ng/dL) also were significant factors for OS [P = 0.007, HR 4.945 (95 % CI 1.543-15.850), P = 0.048, HR 2.677 (95 % CI 1.010-7.095), respectively]. Grade 4 treatment-related toxicity and mortality was not observed in both groups.
Although both HAIC regimens are safe and effective in patients with advanced HCC, HAIC adding adriamycin did not show delayed tumor progression and survival benefit compared to CF-HAIC in advanced HCC.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/2015; 75(4). DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2692-0 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of polymeric materials using elemental sulfur (S8) as the chemical feedstock has recently been developed using a process termed inverse vulcanization. The preparation of chemically stable sulfur copolymers was previously prepared by the inverse vulcanization of S-8 and 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB); however, the development of synthetic methods to introduce new chemical functionality into this novel class of polymers remains an important challenge. In this report the introduction of polythiophene segments into poly(sulfur-random-1,3-diisopropenylbenzene) is achieved by the inverse vulcanization of S-8 with a styrenic functional 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT-Sty) and DIB, followed by electropolymerization of ProDOT side chains. This methodology demonstrates for the first time a facile approach to introduce new functionality into sulfur and high sulfur content polymers, while specifically enhancing the charge conductivity of these intrinsically highly resistive materials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially those on hemodialysis. Chronic HCV infection in patients with end-stage renal disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the pre- and post-kidney transplant periods. Increased mortality is associated with liver complications and an elevated cardiovascular risk in HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. Antiviral treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with HCV, and standard interferon remains the cornerstone of treatment. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) are a potential new treatment modality for chronic HCV infection. Whatever DAA combination is administered, the use of ribavirin is still problematic in this population and this might affect the virological outcomes of some anti-HCV therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Azathioprine (AZA) has been widely used in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). However, studies evaluating the adverse effects of AZA in these two diseases are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare the adverse effects of AZA in Korean IBD and AIH patients.
Patients with IBD or AIH who were treated with AZA at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center (Daegu, Korea) between January 2002 and March 2011 were enrolled. Their medical records were reviewed retrospectively in terms of clinical characteristics and adverse effects of AZA.
A total of 139 IBD patients and 55 AIH patients were finally enrolled. Thirty IBD patients (21.6%) and eight AIH patients (14.5%) experienced adverse effects of AZA. In particular, the prevalence of leukopenia was significantly higher in the IBD group than in the AIH group (p=0.026). T474C mutation was observed in three of 10 patients who were assessed for thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype.
IBD patients are at increased risk for the adverse effects of AZA compared with AIH patients, of which leukopenia was the most commonly observed. Therefore, IBD patients receiving AZA therapy should be carefully monitored. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2014;64:348-355).
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 12/2014; 64(6):348-55. DOI:10.4166/kjg.2014.64.6.348
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to compare these levels with those of normal controls. Among 595 health screen examinees who had visited our institute between January 2013 to March 2013, 355 patients (84 NAFLD patients and 271 normal controls) were enrolled depending on whether they gave written informed consents and their history of alcohol intake, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings. Age; sex; laboratory test parameters; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; and levels of leptin, adiponectin, and irisin were assessed. Serum irisin levels (ng/ml) were significantly higher in the NAFLD group than in normal controls (63.4±32.6 vs. 43.0±29.7, p<0.001) and higher in the mild fatty liver group than in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group (68.3±38.2 vs. 56.6±21.2, p<0.001). Additionally, serum irisin levels were not different between the non-obese and obese groups (48.4±34.2 vs. 45.8±22.9, p = 0.492); however, the levels were significantly lowest in normal controls and highest in the mild fatty liver group in the non-obese (44.9±31.7 vs. 73.1±48.5 vs 59.7±18.0, p<0.001) and obese groups (35.0±17.0 vs. 62.9±21.2 vs. 54.6±23.3, p<0.001). Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is not consistent with the results of previously published studies. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm the role of irisin in NAFLD.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110680. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110680 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims
Given the characteristic procedures involved in the endoscopy unit, the spread of pathogens is much more frequent in this unit than in other environments. However, there is a lack of data elucidating the existence of pathogens in the endoscopy unit. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of possible pathogens in the endoscopy unit.
We performed environmental culture using samples from the endoscopy rooms of 2 tertiary hospitals. We used sterile cotton-tipped swabs moistened with sterile saline to swab the surfaces of 197 samples. Then, we cultured the swab in blood agar plate. Samples from the colonoscopy room were placed in thioglycollate broth to detect the presence of anaerobes. After 2 weeks of culture period, we counted the colony numbers.
The most commonly contaminated spots were the doctor's keyboard, nurse's cart, and nurse's mouse. The common organisms found were non-pathogenic bacterial microorganisms Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus spp.. No definite anaerobe organism was detected in the colonoscopy room.
Although the organisms detected in the endoscopy unit were mainly non-pathogenic organisms, they might cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, the environment of the endoscopy room should be managed appropriately; moreover, individual hand hygiene is important for preventing possible hospital-acquired infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only a few studies have evaluated the population-adjusted prevalence of gallbladder polyps (GBP). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in GBP prevalence and risk factors at a single health screening center in Korea from 2002 to 2012. Of 48,591 adults who underwent health screening between 2002 and 2012, 14,250 age- and gender-matched subjects were randomly selected to evaluate prevalence. Risk factors were analyzed between the GBP-positive and GBP-negative groups during 2002-2004 (Period A) and 2010-2012 (Period B). The annual prevalence of GBP over the 11-yr period was 5.4%. Annual prevalence increased from 3.8% in Period A to 7.1% in Period B. Male gender and obesity were independent risk factors for GBP in both periods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was a risk factor for GBP in Period A but not in Period B. The risk factors for GBP changed from HBsAg positivity to lipid profile abnormalities. Other variables including age, hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and liver function tests did not correlate with GBP. In conclusion, GBP prevalence is increasing and risk factors for GBP have changed in Korea. More attention should be paid to this issue in the future.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 09/2014; 29(9):1247-52. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.9.1247 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) and sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT).
A total of 110 patients were observed between February 2008 and May 2013 in seven Korean centers. Fifty patients were treated with HAIC, and 60 patients were treated with sorafenib.
The disease control rate in the HAIC was significantly higher than that in the sorafenib group (p < 0.001), although there was no significant difference in the objective response rate (p = 0.214). The median overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (7.1 vs. 5.5 months, p = 0.011). The median time to-progression (TTP) was also significantly longer in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (3.3 vs. 2.1 months, p = 0.034). In the multivariate analysis, tumor diameter (≥ 10 cm) and the absence of combined loco-regional treatment were significant prognostic factors influencing OS (p = 0.002 and p = 0.010, respectively) and TTP (p = 0.017 and p = 0.006, respectively). The treatment modality tended to be a significant prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.052), but not for tumor progression (p = 0.121).
HAIC is comparable with sorafenib in terms of OS and TTP in advanced HCC patients with PVTT. HAIC shows more favorable treatment responses compared with sorafenib. Therefore, HAIC might be an alternative treatment modality to sorafenib in advanced HCC patients with PVTT.
Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2014; 50(4). DOI:10.1007/s00535-014-0978-3 · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To compare outcomes using the novel portable endoscopy with that of nasogastric (NG) aspiration in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.
Patients who underwent NG aspiration for the evaluation of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding were eligible for the study. After NG aspiration, we performed the portable endoscopy to identify bleeding evidence in the UGI tract. Then, all patients underwent conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy as the gold-standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the portable endoscopy for confirming UGI bleeding were compared with those of NG aspiration.
In total, 129 patients who had GI bleeding signs or symptoms were included in the study (age 64.46 ± 13.79, 91 males). The UGI tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) was the most common site of bleeding (81, 62.8%) and the cause of bleeding was not identified in 12 patients (9.3%). Specificity for identifying UGI bleeding was higher with the portable endoscopy than NG aspiration (85.4% vs 68.8%, P = 0.008) while accuracy was comparable. The accuracy of the portable endoscopy was significantly higher than that of NG in the subgroup analysis of patients with esophageal bleeding (88.2% vs 75%, P = 0.004). Food material could be detected more readily by the portable endoscopy than NG tube aspiration (20.9% vs 9.3%, P = 0.014). No serious adverse effect was observed during the portable endoscopy.
The portable endoscopy was not superior to NG aspiration for confirming UGI bleeding site. However, this novel portable endoscopy device might provide a benefit over NG aspiration in patients with esophageal bleeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) areas observed in sedated and non-sedated patients during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
Data were collected prospectively from consecutive patients who underwent EGD for various reasons. The patients were divided into three groups according to the sedation used: propofol, midazolam, and control (no sedation). The EGJ was observed during both insertion and withdrawal of the endoscope. The extent of the EGJ territory observed was classified as excellent, good, fair, or poor. In addition, the time the EGJ was observed was estimated.
The study included 103 patients (50 males; mean age 58.44 ± 10.3 years). An excellent observation was achieved less often in the propofol and midazolam groups than in the controls (27.3%, 28.6% and 91.4%, respectively, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the time at which EGJ was observed among the groups (propofol 20.7 ± 11.7 s vs midazolam 16.3 ± 7.3 s vs control 11.6 ± 5.8 s, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that sedation use was the only independent risk factor for impaired EGJ evaluation (propofol, OR = 24.4, P < 0.001; midazolam, OR = 25.3, P < 0.001). Hiccoughing was more frequent in the midazolam group (propofol 9% vs midazolam 25.7% vs control 0%, P = 0.002), while hypoxia (SaO2 < 90%) tended to occur more often in the propofol group (propofol 6.1% vs midazolam 0% vs control 0%, P = 0.101).
Sedation during EGD has a negative effect on evaluation of the EGJ.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2014; 20(18):5527-32. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i18.5527 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel synthetic and processing strategy for converting elemental sulfur into polymeric and nanocomposite materials is reported. We describe a facile one-pot reaction using elemental sulfur and oleylamine as comonomers to prepare high sulfur content copolymers and lead sulfide nanoparticle (PbS NP) nanocomposites. This process enables the preparation of solution processable copolymers and nanocomposites, where the loading and dispersion of PbS NP inclusions could be precisely controlled. We demonstrate the dual roles of oleylamine with sulfur for both the copolymerization of sulfur copolymers as well as the in situ synthesis of PbS NPs in a one-pot fashion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymers for IR imaging: The preparation of high refractive index polymers (n = 1.75 to 1.86) via the inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur is reported. High quality imaging in the near (1.5 μm) and mid-IR (3-5 μm) regions using high refractive index polymeric lenses from these sulfur materials was demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common form of cancer in the Korean population, caused primarily by infection with either the Hepatitis B or C virus. Progression of this disease is frequently associated with mutations in either phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) or hepatitis B virus X (HBx) gene. Previous studies have examined the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in HCC, although the clinical significance of these mutations has not been studied in a Korean population. In addition, HBx appears to play a key role in modulating a wide range of cellular functions, leading to HCC. In this study, we examined microdissected tumor samples from 50 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. These patients were screened for mutations in PIK3CA and HBx to identify the clinical outcomes associated with these mutations. Exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA and the entirety of HBx were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 7 of 50 patients (14%). Among the 42 patients who were seropositive for hepatitis B, 17 (40.5%) had HBx mutations and 4 (9.52%) had mutations in PIK3CA. PIK3CA mutations were strongly correlated with tumor size. Patients harboring HBx mutations exhibited a longer time to recurrence; this difference was statistically significant not only in comparison with the PIK3CA mutation but also compared with those without any mutations. This result suggests a role for PIK3CA and HBx mutations as prognostic markers in HCC.