[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major neutralizing epitope, the "a" determinant of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E surface antigen (HBsAg) is most divergent from that of genotype A, which is used for preparing monoclonal antibodies used in commercially available HBV reagents. To evaluate the performance of the latest generation of HBsAg detection assays with respect to genotype E HBsAg. Three commercial assays were evaluated using sera from 200 Nigerian patients compared to the preS/S sequence of DNA positive samples. Out of 200 samples, 61 and 103 gave concordant positive and negative results between the three HBsAg assays. Of 36 samples with discordant results, 35 were confirmed negative by neutralisation. One of the three assays showed significantly high rate of false positives (29 of 35). DNA positive samples with no detectable HBsAg or reduced HBsAg detection signals (<75% of mean signal obtained with HBsAg positive samples) revealed several mutations (V14A, F46S, N48T, L49R, I49T, D51G, A53V, P54L, Q82P, F83C, L127P, A184V, T189I, S204N, V224A), mostly outside the a-determinant. Several of these mutations are found as wild type nucleotides normally in genotype A and only exceptionally in genotype E. All three assays showed comparable sensitivities for genotype E HBsAg detection (98.4-100%) but differed considerably in specificity (84-99%). Failure to detect HBsAg antigen and differences in signal intensity were mainly associated with mutations in the preS/S gene outside the "a" determinant.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology 12/2007; 196(4):247-52. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence implicate the immune system in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia (FM). We investigated the role of cytokines and adhesion molecules involved in immune cell trafficking and the influence of 1.5 mg of dexamethasone (DEX) per os on their expression. L-selectin was elevated on monocytes and neutrophils of FM patients. Differences in group response to DEX were observed for CD11b on NK cells, sICAM-1 and IL-2. This study shows a slight disturbance in the innate immune system of FM patients, and suggests an enhanced adhesion and recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 09/2007; 188(1-2):159-66. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Africa, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus was first detected in northern Nigeria and later also in other regions of the country. Since then, seven other African countries have reported H5N1 infections. This study reports a comparison of full-length genomic sequences of H5N1 isolates from seven chicken farms in Nigeria and chicken and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso with earlier H5N1 outbreaks worldwide. In addition, the antigenicity of Nigerian H5N1 isolates was compared with earlier strains. All African strains clustered within three sublineages denominated A (south-west Nigeria, Niger), B (south-west Nigeria, Egypt, Djibouti) and C (northern Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire), with distinct nucleotide and amino acid signatures and distinct geographical distributions within Africa. Probable non-African ancestors within the west Asian/Russian/European lineage distinct from the south-east Asian lineages were identified for each sublineage. All reported human cases in Africa were caused by sublineage B. Substitution rates were calculated on the basis of sequences from 11 strains from a single farm in south-west Nigeria. As H5N1 emerged essentially at the same time in the north and south-west of Nigeria, the substitution rates confirmed that the virus probably did not spread from the north to the south, given the observed sequence diversity, but that it entered the country via three independent introductions. The strains from Burkina Faso seemed to originate from northern Nigeria. At least two of the sublineages also circulated in Europe in 2006 as seen in Germany, further suggesting that the sublineages had already emerged outside of Africa and seemed to have followed the east African/west Asian and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways of migratory birds.
Journal of General Virology 09/2007; 88(Pt 8):2297-306. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the avian influenza virus H5N1 swept from Asia across Russia to Europe, Nigeria was the first country in Africa to report the emergence of this highly pathogenic virus. Here we analyse H5N1 sequences in poultry from two different farms in Lagos state and find that three H5N1 lineages were independently introduced through routes that coincide with the flight paths of migratory birds, although independent trade imports cannot be excluded.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The construction is described of a HIV-1 proviral, eGFP-tagged plasmid that allows for the recombination of any selected env gene without the use of restriction enzymes and for the quantitation of the infection by the recombinant virus using flow cytometry. The system was tested showing that an isoleucine to valine substitution at residue position 37 of the HIV-1 gp41 impairs the fitness of the virus but does not lead by itself to T-20 resistance.
Journal of Virological Methods 02/2006; 131(1):99-104. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal and cord blood collected from 33 Nigerian mother-child pairs were tested for measles-sepcific IgG. All 33 had protective measles antibodies at the time of delivery with a positive correlation of r = 0.87. Determination of the rate of waning of these antibodies revealed that 58 per cent of these children had lost the protective maternal antibody by the age of 4 months and only 3 per cent of the children had enough antibody to protect them between the ages of 6-9 months. Fifty-five colostrum samples from the same mothers and 347 breastmilk samples collected at various periods of breastfeeding also showed that anti-measles IgA had dropped below the protective cut-off within the first 2 weeks of birth. It is evident that the Nigerian child is born with solid anti-measles antibody but the rate of waning has left a large number unprotected before the first dose of the vaccine. There is an urgent need to review the measles vaccination programme in Nigeria to protect these susceptible infants.
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 03/2005; 51(1):45-8. · 0.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current live-attenuated measles vaccine leaves many children unprotected until they reach the recommended age of vaccination. We have previously shown that the short peptide corresponding to the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) of the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin protein induced virus-neutralizing antibodies even in the presence of protective levels of anti-whole virus-specific antibodies. Here we investigate the immunogenicity of HNE peptide-conjugates of diphtheria or tetanus toxoid in mice after active and passive priming with antibodies against the peptide, toxoids and conjugates. Both conjugates induced high titers of peptide antibodies which crossreacted with the virus and protected against a lethal intracranial challenge with a rodent-adapted measles virus, even after active priming with homologous or heterologous toxoid or conjugate. Peptide-specific epitopic suppression was stronger after passive priming with carrier or conjugate antibodies, but diphtheria toxoid as a carrier was less susceptible to suppression than tetanus toxoid and suppression was overcome by an additional boost. Furthermore, prior immunization with peptide-conjugate did not interfere with the development of a complete response to a subsequent injection of MV, suggesting that the benefits of a follow-up vaccination with the current live-attenuated vaccine would not be lost. These results underline the potential of these peptide-based conjugates as vaccine candidates for use in early infancy to close the window of susceptibility before the live-attenuated vaccine can be administered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from an excessively high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV), but little is known about the prevalent genotypes. In this study, we investigated the PreS1/PreS2/S genes of 127 viruses obtained from 12 locations in Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Except for those obtained from the Cameroon HIV cohort (18/22 HBV genotype A), 96 of 105 sequences belonged to HBV genotype E (HBV/E), and viral DNA was very similar (1.67% diversity) throughout this vast HBV/E crescent, which spans 6000 km across Africa. The low diversity suggests that HBV/E may have a short evolutionary history. Considering a typical mutation rate of DNA viruses, it would take only 200 years for the strain diversity of HBV/E viruses to develop from a single introductory event. The relatively recent introduction of HBV/E into humans would also explain its conspicuous absence in the Americas, despite the forced immigration of slaves from west Africa, until the early 19th century. Infection during infancy is mostly associated with chronic carrier status, and this combination can account for the explosive spread of virtually identical viruses within a community, but whether other routes of long-range transmissions must be considered becomes an important question.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2004; 190(2):400-8. · 5.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite vaccination, measles remains a burden in both developed and developing countries and complications may necessitate an efficient therapy. Measles virus (MEV) is susceptible to ribavirin (RBV), but the use of this drug is limited by its toxicity. Cyclodextrins (CDs) can form complexes with numerous molecules, improving their bioavailability and their biological properties. We have evaluated in vitro the antiviral effects of complexes of RBV with alpha-, beta- or gamma-CD against two clade A laboratory strains of MEV (Edmonston and CAM/RB) grown on Vero cells. Complexation of RBV with alpha-CD or beta-CD lead to a five-fold or a two-fold decrease in the 50% inhibitory concentration, respectively, against both MEV strains. In contrast, gamma-CD complexation showed no modification.
Antiviral Research 07/2004; 62(3):135-7. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifty-eight outbreaks of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were observed in vaccinated chicken flocks in four Southwestern states of Nigeria between 1995 and 2000. Bursa samples from 40 flocks were found virus-positive in VP2-specific nested RT-PCR. Sequences of the hypervariable region of VP2 were compared to reference strains of the different IBDV variants including also 1988 isolates from Nigeria. Sequence analysis revealed that all 40 Nigerian isolates belonged to the very virulent (vv) variant. The maximum sequence diversity of 5.7% was higher than in all other vvIBDV sequences listed in Genbank (3.6%). Two clusters within Nigerian isolates are unique to this region. Serotype 1 IBDV was also detected in four symptomatic turkey flocks. The turkey isolates were found within 2 of the 3 VV-clusters of chicken isolates. Full length sequence of a turkey isolate (NIE009t) confirmed its close relation to vvIBDV strain D6948NET for both segment A (1.4% sequence diversity) and segment B (2.1%). Thus, turkeys should be considered susceptible to vvIBDV infection. The unusually high sequence diversity of vvIBDV may be an indication of a West-African origin of this virus, from where it spread to other continents.
Archives of Virology 05/2004; 149(4):653-72. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sera samples from seven poultry farms in southwest Nigeria consisting of 7 broiler, 10 pullet, 1 layer, 1 cockerel, and 1 broiler breeder flocks were tested for the presence of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Eleven of the 20 flocks (55%) and six out of seven (86%) farms were positive for CIAV antibodies. The seroprevalence largely depended on the age of the flocks. Seroprevalence was higher within the older pullet and layer flocks (83%-100%) than in the younger broiler flocks (0%-83%). In essence, all flocks older than 6 to 8 wk became infected. This is the first report of serologic evidence of CIAV in Subsaharan Africa. Since Southwest Nigeria is the main port of entry of imported chicken and the hub of major poultry breeders, the disease can probably be found throughout the country and beyond. Further studies are necessary to assess economic losses due to CIAV and the cost benefit of countermeasures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent National Immunization Days in Burkina Faso, the rural province of Houët reported >400 measles cases in 2001 (82% not vaccinated). Phylogenetic analysis of 58 measles virus field isolates plus the first sequences from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Congo are reported. All viruses were genotype B3, which is common in the region. In Houët, there were two geographically confined genetic variants, suggesting two independent importation events. Strain diversity in Houët (1.5%) and the Congos was limited in comparison with Ibadan, Nigeria (4.6%), where measles is endemic. Strain variability, assessed by heteroduplex mobility assay, confirmed these findings. Despite large local pools of susceptible persons even after several rounds of vaccination, the limited strain diversity suggests that parts of rural Burkina Faso may be moving from an endemic to an epidemic transmission pattern of measles virus.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2003; 187 Suppl 1:S277-82. · 5.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to fine-map the highly conserved hemagglutinin noose epitope (H379-410, HNE) of the measles virus. Short peptides mimicking this epitope were previously shown to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies [El Kasmi et al. (2000) J. Gen. Virol.81, 729-735]. The epitope contains three cysteine residues, two of which (Cys386 and Cys394) form a disulfide bridge critical for antibody binding. Substitution and truncation analogues revealed four residues critical for binding (Lys387, Gly388, Gln391 and Glu395) and suggested the binding motif X7C[KR]GX[AINQ]QX2CEX5 for three distinct protective mAbs. This motif was found in more than 90% of the wild-type viruses. An independent molecular model of the core epitope predicted an amphiphilic loop displaying a remarkably stable and rigid loop conformation. The three hydrophilic contact residues Lys387, Gln391 and Glu395 pointed on the virus towards the solvent-exposed side of the planar loop and the permissive hydrophobic residues Ile390, Ala392 and Leu393 towards the solvent-hidden side of the loop, precluding antibody binding. The high affinity (Kd = 7.60 nm) of the mAb BH216 for the peptide suggests a high structural resemblance of the peptide with the natural epitope and indicates that most interactions with the protein are also contributed by the peptide. Improved peptides designed on the basis of these findings induced sera that crossreacted with the native measles virus hemagglutinin protein, providing important information about a lead structure for the design of more stable antigens of a synthetic or recombinant subunit vaccine.
European Journal of Biochemistry 05/2003; 270(7):1515-27. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many parts of Asia measles virus (MV) continues to be endemic. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of viruses circulating on this continent. This study reports the molecular epidemiological analysis based on the entire nucleocapsid (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes of the first isolates from Nepal and Taiwan, as well as of recent MV strains from India, Indonesia, and China. Four isolates collected in various regions in Nepal during 1999 belonged to a new genotype, tentatively called D8. Another Nepalese isolate and one from India belonged to genotype D4. The diversity of the Nepalese strains indicated that measles continues to be endemic in this country. The isolate from Taiwan grouped with D3 viruses and one Chinese strain isolated in The Netherlands was assigned to the previously described clade H, known to be endemic in Mainland China. Molecular characterization emerges as an important tool for monitoring virus endemicity and vaccination efforts.
Virus Research 08/2001; 76(1):71-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neutralization capacity of sera from Luxembourgian adolescent vaccinees and from Nigerian women with measles-induced immunity to a number of measles virus strains was compared. Although both cohorts were matched for their hemagglutination inhibition and standard neutralization titers, 12 of the 22 late convalescent sera, and only 6 of 24 vaccinees neutralized all viruses. Similarly, only 2 of 20 viruses were not neutralized by at least 75% of late convalescent sera, in comparison to 10 of 20 viruses that resisted neutralization by at least 75% of the vaccinees. The more resistant viruses were not limited to a certain clade. One Nigerian virus was resistant to neutralization by 30% of the late convalescent women and by 75% of vaccinees. These results suggest that qualitative differences in neutralizing antibodies may reduce further protection of infants by passively acquired immunity against wild-type viruses when vaccinated girls become mothers.
Journal of Medical Virology 10/2000; 62(1):91-8. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate a strategy for the design of chimeric antigens based on B cell epitopes (BCEs) we have genetically recombined multiple copies of loop- (L) and helix-forming (H) sequential and protective BCEs of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein (MVH) in a number of high-molecular-weight polyepitope constructs (24.5-45.5 kDa). The BCE cassettes were combined semi-randomly together with a promiscuous T cell epitope (TCE; tt830-844) to yield 13 different permutational constructs. When expressed in mammalian cells, all constructs were detectable by Western blot as distinct bands of predicted molecular weight. Flow cytometry with conformation-specific antibodies revealed the Cys-loop in two [(L(4)T(4))(2) and (L(2)T(2))(4)] and the helix conformation in one [(H(2)T(2))(4)] of the different permutational constructs. The larger constructs, containing 16 epitope cassettes, seemed more likely to express the BCEs in their native conformation than the 8-mers. In the T cell proliferation assay, constructs with a higher copy number of TCEs, such as (L(2)T(2))(4), were more antigenic, as long as tandem repeats were separated by spacers. Since the conformation of even sequential BCEs and the processing of TCEs are both sensitive to their molecular environment it is difficult to predict the antigenic properties of polyepitopes. However, with the permutational approach we have developed several polyepitope constructs [(L(4)T(4))(2), (L(2)T(2))(4), (H(2)T(2))(4)] based on complex sequential BCEs that are antigenic for both T and B cells. Several constructs induced sera that reacted with reporter peptides, demonstrating that the sequential nature of the viral epitopes was conserved in the polyepitopes. Although several sera contained antibodies directed against amino acids critical for neutralization, only one construct induced antibodies that cross-reacted with the virus. Our results show the difficulty of designing chimeric antigens based on B cell epitopes mimicking their antigenic and immunologic properties even when these are sequential in nature.
Journal of Immunological Methods 09/2000; 242(1-2):145-57. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Europe measles incidence remains high and in some parts the disease is likely to be still endemic due to insufficient vaccination. Luxembourg experienced an outbreak with at least 110 cases in 1996, and cases continued to be reported throughout 1997. We used molecular epidemiology to investigate this apparent endemicity. On the basis of their N gene sequences, the isolates were assigned to the typical European C2 and D6 genotypes. Sequence diversity within the outbreak was 0.2%. The nucleotide distance between the C2-viruses of the outbreak and the other C2 isolates was at least three or four times higher, suggesting an independent origin of the latter viruses. Similarly, the four D6 viruses found in Luxembourg were thought to be of at least two or three origins. Thus, we propose here to use intra-outbreak sequence diversity to differentiate between sporadic endemic cases and a "pseudo-outbreak" of multiple unrelated imported cases.
Archives of Virology 02/2000; 145(3):541-51. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The isolation of 98/ASF/NG, a strain of African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) associated with a 1998 epizootic in Nigeria, is reported. This first isolate of the virus from West Africa was identified through a successful polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of a 280 base pair (bp) fragment of the Major Capsid Protein (VP72) gene. Further amplification and sequence analysis of a 1.9 kilobase pair (kbp) fragment encompassing the complete VP72 gene showed that the isolate has a 92.2%, 92.4%, and 97.2% homology with previously sequenced Ugandan, Dominican Republican and Spanish isolates respectively. Of the 50 nucleotide changes observed in this highly conserved gene, 45 were found to result in 40 amino acid changes clustered around the central region (position 426 to 516) of the VP 72 protein while changes at the remaining 5 positions were silent. These changes also led to the loss of two out of the seven potential N-glycosylation sites which are in this gene conserved among all isolates. The possible epizootiological implications of such mutations in a highly conserved gene of a DNA virus is discussed in relation to this outbreak.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive phylogenetic study based on the hemagglutinin (H) protein of all known African measles virus (MV) isolates is presented. The study includes 64 new H gene sequences from Ghana. Nigeria and South Africa as well as viruses from Zambia and The Gambia for which only incomplete sequencing data were available and that have previously not been genotyped. The results provide further support to the tentative assignment of the Nigerian and Ghanaian viruses to a new genotype B3 within clade B. A distinct geographic distribution pattern emerged with clade B viruses circulating exclusively in African countries north of the equator. All MV strains from southern Africa grouped in clades A and D with the majority of viruses belonging to genotype D4. The viruses considerably differed by their sensitivity to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAb), but three selected antibodies were sufficient to distinguish between African MVs representing four different genotypes.
Virus Research 08/1999; 62(1):89-95. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibody BH47 defines the sequential epitope H236-255 of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein (MV-H). The objective of this study was to design peptides combining this B cell epitope (BCE) with different T cell epitopes (TCE) to obtain protective immunity. Most TTB peptides based on the 15mer BCE H236-250 induced MV-crossreactive antibodies, but only certain TCE induced virus neutralizing antibodies. The shortest BCE required for MV-reactivity and -neutralization was the 8mer H243-250 containing residue R243 implicated in CD46 down-regulation. Sera obtained after immunization with the TTB peptide containing the MV-derived TCE F421-435 protected mice against a lethal challenge with a neuro-adapted MV strain. Our results further demonstrate that this TTB peptide is fully immunogenic, even in the presence of protective levels of pre-existing MV-specific antibodies, suggesting that subunit vaccines based on such peptides could potentially be used to immunize infants in the presence of persisting maternal antibodies. It is therefore interesting that neutralizing antibodies were also obtained with a TTB peptide comprising a human promiscuous TCE (tt830). However, our results also emphasize the need to test sera induced with epitope-based vaccines against different virus strains, in particular if the epitope is not fully conserved.