[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of the different types of cutaneous lymphoma (CL) in 1 university hospital in Brazil and compare this frequency with those observed in other countries. Methods: After review, 72 (84.7%) cases of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and 13 (15.3%) cases of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL) were included. Results: Of the CTCLs, 40.3% were mycosis fungoides (MF); 26.4% were adult T-cell leukemias/lymphomas (ATLs); 23.6% were peripheral T-cell lymphomas, unspecified; and 8.3% were anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Of the MF cases, 17.2% progressed to transformed MF. Five-year survival for primary human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-negative CTCL, ATL, and CBCL was 64.0%, 42.1%, and 62.5%, respectively. MF and ATL were the most frequent primary CTCLs. Conclusions: The frequencies observed here are close to those observed in Peru but different from those of European countries. Unfortunately, the World Health Organization/ European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer classification does not include primary cutaneous ATL.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 09/2013; 140(3):348-54. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the benefits of HAART, HIV-infected patients are increasingly affected by different malignancies. We compared a 5-year-period survival time and prognostic factors for HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) in a nested case-control study, with non-HIV-infected individuals in Salvador, Brazil. Survival time and prognostic factors were compared to HIV-negative patients. 31 cases (versus 63 controls) had a significantly more advanced NHL at diagnosis and lower mean CD4 count (26 cells/mm(3)) than controls. Mean overall survival (OS) was 35.8 versus 75.4 months, for cases and controls, respectively (P < 0.001), while mean event-free survival time (EFS) was 34.5 months for cases, versus 68.8 for controls (P = 0.002). Higher IPI, increased LDH levels, bone marrow infiltration, lower absolute lymphocyte counts (<1,000 cells/mm(3)), and type B symptoms were associated with a shorter survival time for cases. Although patients without poorer prognostic factors at baseline had an OS comparable to controls, the mean CD4 cell count for cases was similar for patients with favorable and nonfavorable response to therapy. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 infection is significantly associated with a shorter survival time for patients with NHL, independently of other predictive factors and of disease stage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents approximately 30%-40% of all diagnoses of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and may represent up to 80% of all lymphomas that arise in the palatine tonsils. Several studies have attempted to correlate clinical, laboratorial, and tissue factors with the prognosis of the lymphomas, such as the International Prognostic Index, the tissue expression of some proteins, and the lymphocyte count at the time of diagnosis, as well as to correlate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with worse prognoses. Patients with palatine tonsil DLBCL, from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were studied in order to identify prognostic factors. Twenty-four patients with DLBCL were studied. The factors that negatively influenced the patients' survival rates were the lymphocyte count at the time of diagnosis <1.000/mm(3) and the Bcl-2 protein expression. There was no CD5 expression in these lymphomas, and neither was there an association with EBV infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphomas (SPTLs) α/β are rare in childhood. The present report refers to a case of a 7-year-old male child presenting an extensive skin lesion that began when he was 5 years of age. Two biopsies were evaluated using the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, βF1, and TIA markers. A dense infiltrate of CD3+, CD4-, CD8+, CD56-, βF1+, and TIA+ pleomorphic lymphocytes was found in the subcutis. The previous biopsy showed cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis with a small focus on CD8+ and βF1+ malignant cells. The lesion regressed spontaneously. This case shows that prognosis may be excellent in SPTL (α/β). On the other hand, it also serves as an alert that a biopsy performed in an area of cytophagic panniculitis may lead to misdiagnosis.
Case reports in oncological medicine. 01/2011; 2011:639240.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a consistent MYC translocation. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with BL at different frequencies, depending on the clinical variant and geographic regions. This is a large-scale study of BL in Brazil, including 234 patients from 5 geographic regions that are widely disparate socioeconomically, including pediatric (61.1%) and adult (37.6%) populations. EBV was present in 52.6% of all BL cases, varying from 29% (12/42) in the South to 76% (13/17) in the North. Most of the cases were EBV type A. The frequency was higher in the pediatric group, and EBV association within this age range predominated in all regions except the South. Expression of p53 protein was observed in 16.2%, and only rare cases showed p63 expression. BL in Brazil is regionally distinct and has a low incidence of p53 overexpression and a higher-than-expected association with EBV in sporadic cases.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2009; 130(6):946-56. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, composed of a monomorphic population of medium-sized B cells with a high proliferation rate and a consistent MYC translocation. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with BL with different frequencies depending on the clinical variant. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), infects a wide range of normal cells, having a well-established role in the pathogenesis of various neoplasms, including Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) and MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma. In secondary immunodeficiencies, such as HIV-1 infection and organ transplantation, HHV-8 is considered an opportunistic pathogen linked to the development of lymphomas in patients with AIDS and HIV + patients. We studied the association of EBV and HHV-8 by immunohistochemical analysis, in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction in a large number of well-characterized BLs. EBV was present in 45.0% of all BL cases with higher incidence in the pediatric group; most cases were EBV type A. We found no association of BL with HHV-8 in EBV + BL or in EBV-cases, including the HIV + BL group.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 08/2008; 130(2):186-92. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EBV-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified and their functions are being studied. The expression pattern of these miRNAs in clinical samples of EBV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is unknown. We analyzed five primary "endemic" pediatric Burkitt's lymphomas (BL), two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related type I latency BL lines, a type III latency line, three EBV(+) primary effusion lymphomas (PEL), and three AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) for expression of EBV-encoded miRNAs. A markedly elevated expression of miRNA BHRF1-3 in type III relative to its parental type I BL line was found. Primary unmanipulated type I BLs and EBV(+) PELs expressed high levels of BART2 miRNA, whereas DLBCLs expressed both BART2 and BHRF1-3 species. BHRF1-3 miRNA expression inversely correlated with levels of a putative cellular target, the IFN-inducible T-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-11/I-TAC, and suppression of this factor was reversed by transfection of an antisense oligo to the EBV miRNA BHRF1-3. EBV-encoded miRNAs are expressed in primary lymphomas classically linked to the virus and are associated with the viral latency status. Targeted suppression of CXCL-11/I-TAC by a viral-encoded miRNA may serve as an immunomodulatory mechanism in these tumors.
Cancer Research 04/2008; 68(5):1436-42. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been relatively few studies of HIV-related malignancies in Brazil. Universal access to antiretroviral drugs in Brazil has changed both the mortality and morbidity rates of AIDS. Nevertheless, there is also extreme poverty in both urban and rural areas and complications of prolonged immune suppression such as mycobacterial and malignant diseases have put a significant strain on the country's healthcare system. This brief review outlines the existing data regarding AIDS related malignancies in the largest Latin American country.
Currently, there are almost 600 000 people infected with HIV in Brazil and 170,000 patients are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. In the studies done of HIV malignancies in Brazil, it appears that these tumors are histologically similar to those that occur in other equatorial countries and differ somewhat from those seen in Europe and the US. Another unique distinction is the high association with oncogenic herpes viruses.
The existence of federally sponsored highly active antiretroviral therapy, clinicians and healthcare providers experienced in the care of HIV patients and high incidence of malignancies associated with oncogenic viruses make Brazil an important site for clinical and basic research in AIDS and immunodeficiency related malignancies.
Current Opinion in Oncology 10/2007; 19(5):476-8. · 4.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) occurring in developing regions is different from HL in industrialized countries due to the higher frequency of association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This infection is related to classical HL (cHL) but is virtually absent in nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (nLPHL). We studied the phenotype and the expression of EBV gene products in 90 pediatric cases by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. EBV-positive tumor cells were found exclusively in cHL. The infection occurred with high frequency in all cHL subtypes, but it predominated in the mixed cellularity and lymphocyte depletion subtypes. These results reinforce the hypothesis that EBV plays a major role in the etiology of pediatric cHL in developing areas. Curiously, the frequency of EBV infection in HL was identical to the previously described for Burkitt's lymphoma in the same pediatric population. As both lymphomas have a postulated precursor cell in the germinal center (GC), the pattern of latently EBV-infected GC cells previously described in Bahia may be related to the development of these lymphomas.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 10/2006; 449(3):315-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common malignant neoplasia in HIV-positive patients. Certain subtypes of NHL are included in CDC´s AIDS diagnosis criteria. NHL occurring in these patients has different features when compared to NHL from general population. Since NHL occurrence in HIV-positive patients is poorly known in Brazil, specially in Bahia, we decided to compare clinical, morphological and immunophenotypical aspects in NHL occurring in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients from this area. For this purpose, clinical, epidemiological and HIV status data were collected of 279 NHL diagnosed in Salvador between January/1998 and February/2003. Seventeen HIV-positive NHL (group-1) and 30 HIV-negative NHL (group 2) were obtained. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis were done to classify the NHL according to WHO-2001. There was male predominance in the two groups (11/17 group 1 and 20/30 group 2). Mean age in group 1 (41±8.5) was smaller than in group 2 (53±18.5) – p=0.002. Primary extra-nodal commitment occurred in 12/17 (70.6%) of group 1 and in 10/30 (34.4%) of group 2 (p=0,01). All NHL of group 1 were of B cells while in group 2, 23/30 (82.1%) NHL were of B cells, 4/27 (14.2%) NHL were of T cells and 1/30 (3%) NHL presented null phenotype. The mean proliferation rate was 79% in group 1 and 55% in group 2 (p=0.02). In conclusion, we observed peculiarities of HIV-positive NHL when compared to HIV-negative NHL, as predominance in youths, primary extra-nodal involvement, morphology of big cells, B phenotype and high cellular proliferation.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Cancerologia. 01/2005; 29:13-19.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkitt's lymphoma may involve the maxilla or mandible, but to date, there has been no reference in the literature to scapular involvement by this tumor. This article describes the case of a 9-year-old child who presented with a huge tumor involving the right shoulder with osteolytic and sclerotic lesions in the scapula. The histopathological findings were suggestive of Burkitt's lymphoma, and the immunohistochemical findings discard a lymphoblastic lymphoma or plasmablastic lymphoma. In addition, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER) was positive. Although the child also presented a cervical lymphadenopathy, the fact that Burkitt's lymphoma is generally extranodal, the marked swelling of the shoulder, and the extensive involvement of the bone strongly argue that this tumor had its origin in the scapula. This case demonstrates the importance of including Burkitt's lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of lymphoma involving bones in children.
Pediatric Pathology and Molecular Medicine 01/2003; 22(4):271-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A distinct pathologic entity (ALK+ lymphoma) that is characterized by expression of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein has recently emerged within the heterogeneous group of CD30(+) anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. Information on clinical findings and treatment outcome of ALK+ lymphoma is still limited, and no data are available concerning the value of the International Prognostic Index when applied to this homogeneous disease entity. To clarify these issues, a recently developed monoclonal antibody ALKc (directed against the cytoplasmic portion of ALK) was used to detect expression of the ALK protein in paraffin-embedded biopsies from 96 primary, systemic T/null anaplastic large-cell lymphomas, and the ALK staining pattern was correlated with morphological features, clinical findings, risk factors (as defined by the International Prognostic Index), and outcome in 78 patients (53 ALK+ and 25 ALK-). Strong cytoplasmic and/or nuclear ALK positivity was detected in 58 of 96 ALCL cases (60.4%), and it was associated with a morphological spectrum (common type, 82.7%; giant cell, 3.5%; lymphohistiocytic, 8. 6%; and small cell, 5.2%) that reflected the ratio of large anaplastic elements (usually showing cytoplasmic and nuclear ALK positivity) to small neoplastic cells (usually characterized by nucleus-restricted ALK expression). Clinically, ALK+ lymphoma mostly occurred in children and young adults (mean age, 22.01 +/- 10.87 years) with a male predominance (male/female [M/F] ratio, 3.0) that was particularly striking in the second-third decades of life (M/F ratio, 6.5) and usually presented as an aggressive, stage III-IV disease, frequently associated with systemic symptoms (75%) and extranodal involvement (60%), especially skin (21%), bone (17%), and soft tissues (17%). As compared with ALK+ lymphoma, ALK- cases occurred in older individuals (mean age, 43.33 +/- 16.15 years) and showed a lower M/F ratio (0.9) as well as lower incidence of stage III-IV disease and extranodal involvement at presentation. Overall survival of ALK+ lymphoma was far better than that of ALK- anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (71% +/- 6% v 15% +/- 11%, respectively). However, within the good prognostic category of ALK+ lymphoma, survival was 94% +/- 5% for the low/low intermediate risk group (age-adjusted International Prognostic Index, 0 to 1) and 41% +/- 12% for the high/high intermediate risk group (age-adjusted International Prognostic Index, >/=2). Multivariate analysis identified ALK expression and the International Prognostic Index as independent variables that were able to predict survival among T/null primary, systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Thus, we suggest that such parameters should be taken into consideration for the design of future clinical trials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD) occurring in developing regions are frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and have a high incidence in childhood. Recent genotyping studies indicate that the tumour cells of both neoplasms represent B cells that contain somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. This implies that the precursors of these neoplasms have participated in the germinal centre (GC) reaction. We therefore presumed that normal lymphoid tissues from children living in developing regions would harbour an increased number of EBV-infected cells within the GC, when compared with children living in industrialized nations. To test this hypothesis, hyperplastic tonsils from 40 children living in Bahia (Brazil) and 40 from German children were analysed for the presence of EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER) and EBV-encoded proteins by in situ hybridization and immunohistology, respectively. Although the overall EBV infection rate was similar in both groups (50 per cent of Bahian vs. 45 per cent of German cases), a significantly higher number of EBER-positive lymphoid cells were found in the GCs of 8/20 EBV-positive tonsils from Brazil (9-89 cells/GC; mean: 14.5 cells/GC per case), while only 3/18 tonsils from Germany displayed a few EBER positive cells (1-9 cells/GC; mean: 0.5 cell/GC per case) in this compartment (p < 0.007). In addition, the EBV-infected GC cells in Bahian samples resembled centroblasts, exhibited mitotic activity, and in two cases showed expression of EBV-encoded latent membrane protein (LMP)-1, findings not present in German samples. These data show that latently EBV-infected cells participate more frequently in GC reactions in developing regions than in industrialized countries and may abnormally express the oncogenic protein LMP-1. This could in part explain the higher incidence in this region of EBV association with lymphomas related to GC cells or their progeny, such as BL and HD.
The Journal of Pathology 03/1999; 187(3):326-30. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the main angiogenic cytokines in human solid tumours and inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumour growth. Some groups of malignant lymphoma, including peripheral T-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease, are characterized by a conspicuous proliferation of small vessels. To test the hypothesis that VEGF may also be involved in the angiogenesis in lymphomas and other lesions of the lymphoid system, VEGF expression was analysed in tissues, employing in situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled RNA probe specific for this cytokine. Significant expression of VEGF transcripts was observed in Hodgkin's disease and peripheral T-cell lymphomas, particularly of the angioimmunoblastic type. In contrast, expression of this cytokine was minimal or absent in follicle centre lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B-cell type. VEGF was mainly observed in reactive non-lymphoid CD68-negative cells, which probably represent fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. In normal and ulcerated tonsils, VEGF was expressed in the squamous epithelium but only rarely found in the lymphoid tissue. Although infectious mononucleosis tonsils contained high numbers of VEGF-positive cells in the interfollicular zone, expression of this cytokine was not found in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells, as determined by simultaneous in situ hybridization for VEGF and EBV-encoded small nuclear RNAs (EBER). In 5/8 cases of Castleman's disease, germinal centres containing small vessels also showed expression of VEGF, in contrast to normal tonsillar germinal centres which are devoid of both vessels and VEGF transcripts. It is concluded that VEGF may be involved in the induction of the angiogenesis of both peripheral T-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease, but not in low-grade B-cell lymphomas. In contradistinction to solid tumours, in which this cytokine is commonly secreted by the tumour cells themselves, in malignant lymphoma VEGF is not a product of neoplastic cells. Vascularization of germinal centres in Castleman's disease may also be a consequence of abnormal local expression of VEGF.
The Journal of Pathology 10/1997; 183(1):44-50. · 7.59 Impact Factor