Xing Ye

Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 北江, Zhejiang Sheng, China

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Publications (30)42.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Beta-defensins (β-defensins) are small cationic amphiphilic peptides that are widely distributed in plants, insects, and vertebrates, and are important for their antimicrobial properties. In this study, the β-defensin (Onβ-defensin) gene of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cloned from spleen tissue. Onβ-defensin has a genomic DNA sequence of 674bp and produces a cDNA of 454bp. Sequence alignments showed that Onβ-defensin contains three exons and two introns. Sequence analysis of the cDNA identified an open reading frame of 201bp, encoding 66 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that Onβ-defensin encodes a cytoplasmic protein molecule containing a signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequence of this peptide contains six conserved cysteine residues and two conserved glycine residues, and shows 81.82% and 78.33% sequence similarities with β-defensin-1 of fugu (Takifugu rubripes) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the level of Onβ-defensin expression was highest in the skin, (307.1-fold), followed by the spleen (77.3-fold), kidney (17.8-fold), and muscle (16.5-fold) compared to controls. By contrast, low levels of expression were found in the liver, heart, intestine, stomach, and gill (<3.0-fold). Artificial infection of tilapia with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS] strain) resulted in a significantly upregulated expression of Onβ-defensin in the skin, muscle, kidney, and gill. In vitro antimicrobial experiments showed that a synthetic Onβ-defensin polypeptide had a certain degree of inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli DH5α and S. agalactiae. The results indicate that Onβ-defensin plays an role in immune responses that suppress or kill pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 04/2015; 566(1). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.04.025 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The grass carp, which is one of the most important farmed fish species in China, is widely distributed in different river basins. In this study, 21 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, developed in the grass carp expressed sequence tag database, were used with the snapshot genotyping method to analyze the genetic structure of six grass carp populations (SS, JL, HH, YJ, NX, and FS) from the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. The effective numbers of alleles (Ne) of the six grass carp populations was 1.7680–1.8038, the observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.5938–0.6305, the expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.4420–0.4443, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.3241–0.3403. The PIC, Ne, and He of the JL population were the highest among all populations, whereas those of the YJ population were the lowest. The NJ tree analysis based on genetic distance of the grass carp populations revealed that the six populations clustered into two branches: the SS, JL, and HH populations clustered first into one branch, which then clustered with YJ population; the FS and NX populations constituted a separate branch. The established genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships of some of the grass carp populations of the Yangtze River and Pearl River may lay the foundation for selecting core breeding populations.
    Fisheries Science 05/2014; 80(3):475-481. DOI:10.1007/s12562-014-0709-y · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tilapia is an important freshwater aquaculture species worldwide. In recent years, streptococcal diseases have severely threatened development of tilapia aquaculture, while effective prevention and control methods have not yet been established. In order to understand the immunological response of tilapia to infection by Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae), this study employed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and digital gene expression (DGE) technology to investigate changes in the tilapia transcriptome before and after S. agalactiae infection. We obtained 82,799 unigenes (mean size: 618 bp) using de novo assembly. Unigenes were annotated by comparing against databases including Nr, Swissprot, cluster of orthologous groups of proteins, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes, and gene ontology. Combined with DGE technology, transcriptomic changes in tilapia before and after bacteria challenging were examined. A total of 774 significantly up-regulated and 625 significantly down-regulated unigenes were identified, among which 293 were mapped to 181 signaling pathways including 17 immune-related pathways involving 65 differentially expressed genes. We observed a change in the expression of six genes in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and this was subsequently confirmed via quantitative real-time PCR. This comparative study of the tilapia transcriptome before and after S. agalactiae infection identified important differentially-expressed immune-related genes and signaling pathways that will provide useful insights for further analysis of the mechanisms of tilapia defense against S. agalactiae infection.
    Molecular Biology Reports 09/2013; 40(10). DOI:10.1007/s11033-013-2667-3 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In April 2011, 40% mortality of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides juveniles occurred at a farm of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Infected fish became lethargic, exhibited corkscrew and irregular swimming, and developed a distended abdomen and crooked body. Fish began to die within 2 d after the appearance of clinical signs. In order to analyze the pathogeny and diagnose the disease earlier, observation of clinical signs, cell infection, titer calculation, electron microscopy, immersion infection assay for fish, and nucleotide sequence analysis were carried out. Fathead minnow (FHM) cell cultures, inoculated with filtrate of liver and spleen homogenates from the diseased fish, developed the obvious cytopathic effect 46 h after inoculation in the primary culture and 24 h at the first passage. Typical rhabdovirus particles, 115-143 nm in length and 62-78 nm in diameter, were observed in infected FHM cells by direct transmission electron microscopy. The isolated virus produced a titer of 10(7.15) TCID50/mL. Immersion-Fish infected with the virus had similar clinical signs and 80% mortality with 10(2.5) LD50/mL. The data indicated that the rhabdovirus was the lethal pathogeny of the current disease. Based on nucleoprotein-gene nucleotide sequence multiple alignment analysis, the newly isolated virus is a strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) under family Rhabdoviridae, which was initially isolated from Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi. Up to the present, at least four virus strains have been isolated from diseased Largemouth Bass, which have had different clinical signs. Comparison of the clinical signs can help in an early diagnosis of the disease. Received October 30, 2012; accepted April 19, 2013.
    Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 09/2013; 25(3):197-204. DOI:10.1080/08997659.2013.799613 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat-shock proteins (Hsps), known as stress proteins and extrinsic chaperones, play important roles in the folding, translocation, and refolding/degradation of proteins. In this study, we identified four Hsps in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which display conserved Hsp characteristics in their predicted amino acid sequences. Further analyses on the structures, homology, and phylogenetics revealed that the four Hsps belong to Hsp70 family. One of them does not contain introns and is named Hsp70, while all the other three contain introns and are named Hsc70-1, Hsc70-2, and Hsc70-3. Expressions of the four Hsp proteins were observed in all examined tissues. Six hours after infection of Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile tilapia, the expression of Hsp70 was significantly increased in the liver, head kidney, spleen and gill, while Hsc70s' expression was unchanged in all examined tissues except the head kidney that showed significantly reduced expression of both Hsc70-2 and Hsc70-3. These results suggest that Hsp70 may participate in the defense against S. agalactiae infection. We then isolated the promoter of Hsp70 gene and inserted it into the donor plasmid of Tgf2 transposon system containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The plasmid was microinjected into zebrafish embryos, where the expression of GFP was induced by heat shock, S. agalactiae immersion challenge, indicating that the isolated Hsp70 promoter has transcriptional activity and is inducible by both heat shock and bacterial challenge. This promoter may facilitate the future construction of disease-resistant transgenic fish. The work also contributes to the further study of immune response of tilapia after bacterial infection.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10695-013-9838-y · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • 06/2013; 19(3):423-429. DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1118.2012.00423
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    ABSTRACT: Grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain (GCRV-GD108) was recently isolated in Guangdong province, China. M6 gene of GCRV-GD108 was speculated encoding virus major outer capsid protein VP4. Blast analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of GCRV-GD108 VP4 was homologous to the structural protein VP4 of known Aquareoviruses (27.3%-32.9%). Immunogenicity prediction by DNAStar software revealed there were multiple B cell epitopes on GCRV-GD108 VP4. Prokaryotic expression vector pET32a was used to express VP4 recombinant protein (rVP4) in E.coli BL21(DE3) strain. As expected, the molecular weight of recombinant VP4 was about 87 kDa showed by SDS-PAGE result. Neutralization assay demonstrated that the rabbit polyclonal antibody of rVP4 could prevent virus infection efficiently. After 14 days immunization with the rVP4, grass carps were challenged with GCRV-GD108, the results showed that different doses of rVP4 (1 μg/g, 3 μg/g and 5 μg/g) all provided protection against virus infection (47%-82%). The relative percent survival reached 82% in the group immunized with 3 μg/g of rVP4. ELISA revealed rVP4 induced high antibody titer in immunized fish. IgM expression levels in head kidney of grass carp were detected by RT-PCR, and the results showed that IgM expressed at a significantly higher level in immunization groups than in blank control, indicating the rVP4 can induce strong immune response. In conclusion, rVP4 is a candidate vaccine against GCRV-GD108.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2013.04.022 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • 01/2013; 37(1):109. DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38170
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    ABSTRACT: From April to September in 2010, a sequential epidemic outbreak with a loss of 30–40% occurred in a tilapia fishery in Maoming, Guangdong Province, China. The present study documented the causative agent of the diseased fish that mainly suffered from congestive gill and the abdomen, swelling gallbladder and a severe diffusion in liver. Two isolates were obtained from the diseased fish and the pathogenicity was confirmed by challenge experiments and histopathological analysis. Biochemically, the isolates showed properties and biochemical characteristics both identical to Aerococcus viridans. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the two isolates were highly homogeneous with A. viridans. Consequently, they were confirmed as A. viridans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences gene. This work firstly reports the infection and histopathological changes of A. viridans in tilapia.
    Aquaculture 04/2012; s 342–343:18–23. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.02.012 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysozyme is an important molecule of innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infections. Three genes encoding chicken-type (c-type) lysozymes, C1-, C2-, C3-type, were obtained from tilapia Oreochromis aureus by RT-PCR and the RACE method. Catalytic and other conserved structure residues required for functionality were identified. The amino acid sequence identities between C1- and C2-type, C1- and C3-type, C2- and C3-type were 67.8%, 65.7% and 63.9%, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analyze indicated the three genes were firstly grouped to those of higher teleosteans, Pleuronectiformes and Tetraodontiformes fishes, and then clustered to those of lower teleosteans, Cypriniformes fishes. Bioinformatic analysis of mature peptide showed that the three genes possess typical sequence characteristics, secondary and tertiary structure of c-type lysozymes. The three tilapia c-type lysozymes mRNAs were mainly expressed in liver and muscle, and C1-type lysozyme also highly expressed in intestine. C1-type lysozyme mRNA was weakly expressed in stomach, C2- and C3-type mRNAs were weakly expressed in intestine. After bacterial challenge, up-regulation was obvious in kidney and spleen for C1-type lysozyme mRNA, while for C2- and C3-type lysozyme obvious increase were observed in stomach and liver, suggesting that C1-type lysozyme may mainly play roles in defense, while C2- and C3-type lysozyme mainly conduct digestive function against bacteria infection. All the three c-type recombinant lysozymes displayed lytic activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicated that three c-type lysozymes play important roles in the defense of O. aureus against bacteria infections.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 02/2012; 32(5):779-88. DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2012.01.031 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A reovirus was isolated from sick grass carp in Guangdong, China in 2009, and tentatively named 'grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain' (GCRV-GD108). This reovirus was propagated in grass carp snout fibroblast cell line PSF with no obvious cytopathic effects. Its genome was 24,703bp in length with a 50% G+C content and 11 dsRNA segments encoding 11 proteins instead of 12 proteins. It has been classified as an Aquareovirus (AQRV). Sequence comparisons showed that it possessed only 7 homologous proteins to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) (with 17.6-45.8% identities), but 9 homologous proteins to mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) (with 15-46% identities). GCRV-GD108 lacked homology to VP7, NS4&NS5 and NS3 of GCRV, while it had sigma1 and sigma NS homology to MRV. VP2 of GCRV-GD108 shared high amino acid sequence identity (44-47%) with AQRVs, whereas VP5 did not exhibit much identity (24-25%) to AQRVs. Conserved terminal sequences, 5'-GUAAUUU and UUCAUC-3', were found in all of the 11 genomic segments of GCRV-GD108 at the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) of the segments. The 5' NCRs of GCRV-GD108 was similar to GCRV, but differed from other species of AQRV or Orthoreoviruses (ORV). Phylogenetic analysis of coat proteins belonging to Reoviridae, VP1-VP6, showed that GCRV-GD108 clustered with AQRVs and grouped with ORVs, suggesting that GCRV-GD108 belonged to the genus Aquareovirus but was distinctive from any known species of AQRV. Morphological and pathological analyses, and genetic characterization of GCRV-GD108 suggested that it may be a new species of AQRV and it was more closely related with ORVs than other AQRVs. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of diseased grass carp samples collected from different regions of China indicated that these viruses displayed high similarities to each other (95.3-99.4%). They also shared high sequence similarities to GCRV-GD108 (96.7-99.4%), indicating that GCRV-GD108 is representative of the prevalence strain in southern China.
    Virus Research 10/2011; 163(1):275-83. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2011.10.014 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is involved in the regulation of somatic growth and metabolism in many fishes. IGF-II is an important candidate gene for growth traits in fishes and its polymorphisms were associated with the growth traits. The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) IGF-II gene and to analyze potential association between IGF-II gene polymorphisms and growth traits in largemouth bass. Four SNPs (C127T, T1012G, C1836T and C1861T) were detected and verified by DNA sequencing in the largemouth bass IGF-II gene. These SNPs were found to organize into seven haplotypes, which formed 13 diplotypes (haplotype pairs). Association analysis showed that four individual SNPs were not significantly associated with growth traits. Significant associations were, however, noted between diplotypes and growth traits (P < 0.05). The fish with H1H3 (CTCC/CGCC) and H1H5 (CTCC/TTTT) had greater body weight than those with H1H1 (CTCC/CTCC), H1H2 (CTCC/TGTT) and H4H4 (TGCT/TGCT/) did. Our data suggest a significant association between genetic variations in the largemouth bass IGF-II gene and growth traits. IGF-II SNPs could be used as potential genetic markers in future breeding programs of largemouth bass.
    Molecular Biology Reports 09/2011; 39(4):4359-65. DOI:10.1007/s11033-011-1223-2 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria strains with strong virulence were isolated from pond-cultured tilapia in China. They were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae by biochemical assays, and confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and groupB Streptococcus (GBS)-specific gene cfb analyses. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of the alphaC protein (ACP) gene and capsular polysaccharide antigen (cps) gene was employed to identify their molecular serotype (MS). Amplification of the ACP gene produced a 400-bp C alpha protein gene (bca) fragment, suggesting that these isolates belong to MS Ia, Ib or II; amplification of cps produced a 790-bp amplicon, indicating that they belong to MS Ia/III-3. An additional PCR based on nucleotide difference in the cps H–I region of MS Ia and III further suggested that the isolates belong to serotype MS Ia. Moreover, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) indicated that these strains were of sequence type7 (ST-7). These results showed that isolates from different regions of China shared the same MS and ST. However, none of the isolated ST-7 GBS corresponded to the capsular serotype, suggesting that these fish GBS possessed specific molecular characteristics not present in human or other animals. Data from this study will facilitate the understanding of epidemiology and nosogenesis of tilapia GBS and the establishment of effective disease prevention methods. KeywordsTilapia– Streptococcus agalactiae –Molecular serotype–ACP– cps –MS la–MLST–ST-7
    Fisheries Science 07/2011; 77(4):623-632. DOI:10.1007/s12562-011-0365-4 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A strain of grass carp reovirus was isolated from sick grass carp with symptoms of haemorrhage in Guangdong province in 2009. The strain was tentatively named as GCRV-GD108 because it was isolated from grass carp and possessed 11 segments of dsRNA. Complete genome sequence analysis showed that significant differences existed between GCRV-GD108 and GCRV, as well as other known species of aquareovirus. In this study, molecular characteristics of diseased grass carp collected from different farms in Guangdong, Fujian and Hunan provinces were assayed. Based on the sequences of the 11 segments of GCRV-GD108, PCR primers corresponding to each of the segments were designed and synthesized. Total RNA of the diseased fish was extracted and used as templates of RT-PCR reaction. Specific amplification bands were obtained from all of the samples whereas no band was produced from GCRV standard strain. While using the primers specific to GCRV produced specific band in GCRV standard strain rather than in these collected samples. Sequencing of the amplification products showed that these samples displayed high similarities with each other (95.2%-99.4%), and they also shared high sequence similarities with that of GCRV-GD108 (95.0%-99.8%), suggesting that these samples shared similar molecular characteristics with those of GCRV-GD108, and were quite different from GCRV as well as the known species of genus aquareovirus. The results indicated that there are different molecular types of reovirus existed in the pond-cultured grass carp in China, and GCRV-GD108 is a representative strain in southern China, therefore great attention should be paid in order to control the disease efficiently, especially in vaccine preparation. Two pairs of primers were chosen to establish a duplex PCR assay method by combining each pair of the primers specific to GCRV-GD108 with the GCRV primer pair respectively. The duplex PCR assay method will enable the identification of GCRV-GD108 or GCRV by only a single PCR reaction.
    Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] 07/2011; 27(4):358-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.
    Hereditas (Beijing) 05/2011; 33(5):494-503. DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1005.2011.00494
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    ABSTRACT: Growth hormone plays important roles in various physiological processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction. In this study, two cDNAs encoding growth hormone receptor (GHR) were isolated from the liver of zanzibar tilapia (Oreochromis hornornum). The two cDNAs were 2,831 and 2,044 bp in length and named GHR1 and GHR2, respectively. GHR1 and GHR2 shared 57.4% similarity in nucleotide sequences and 33.5% similarity in deduced amino acid sequences. Consequently, it was presumed that they were two different genes. Conserved regions of GHR1 and GHR2 in zanzibar tilapia were different from those of other vertebrates. For example, conserved box2 regions of GHR1 and GHR2 in zanzibar tilapia were, respectively, WVELM and WVEFT, while it was WVEFI for GHRs in other vertebrates. Similar to other fish species, GHR1 and GHR2 were expressed in brain, gill, liver, muscle, spleen, gonad, stomach, kidney, and pituitary in zanzibar tilapia. The expression levels were the highest in liver. Unlike fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and mossambique tilapia (O. mossambicus), the expression levels of GHR1 in most female fish tissues were higher than those in male fish. No significant difference in GHR2 expression was found in all the tissues in male and female of zanzibar tilapia. Under fasting condition, the expressions of GHRs and IGF-II were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) in liver, while the expression of IGF-I remained stable. This observation would contribute to understanding the evolution of the GHR family in further investigation of growth regulation of zanzibar tilapia.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 12/2010; 37(3):553-65. DOI:10.1007/s10695-010-9457-9 · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • 08/2010; 36(4):449-452. DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1238.2010.00449
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    ABSTRACT: A beta actin cDNA of Tanichthys albonubes was isolated through the RT-PCR and RACE approach. The cDNA was 1,787-bp in length, including a 1,128-bp CDS, a 95-bp 5'UTR and a 564-bp 3'UTR. Genomic DNA containing the transcription region and 5'-flanking region was cloned based on the beta actin cDNA by Genome walker. A 3,000-bp beta actin gene promoter was then produced by PCR according to the sequences of the 5'-flanking region and the first intron. This promoter consisted of a 1,800-bp 5'-flanking region, and a 1,200-bp 5'-UTR. 3 transcription elements, CAAT box, CArG motif and TATA box were found in the 5'-flanking region. This promoter was inserted into the vector pDsRed2-1 and microinjected into fertilized eggs of Tanichthys albonubes to prove its transcription activity. The beta actin promoter and GH CDS of Tanichthys albonubes were then fused to construct an expression vector pTLA-GH. GH-transgenic Tanichthys albonubes was obtained by microinjection of the pTLA-GH into the fertilized eggs. Fast-growth individuals were observed in the transgenic group and the body weight of the largest individual was 2.1-fold that of the maximum in its non-transgenic siblings in 100 dph. In addition, a co-injection strategy was employed with pTLA-DsRed and pTLA-GH vector and proven to enhance the efficiency of GH-transgenic fish detection.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 06/2010; 36(2):173-80. DOI:10.1007/s10695-008-9238-x · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysozyme is an important molecule of innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infections. We identified two genes encoding g-type and c-type lysozymes from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by the RACE method. The deduced amino acids of both lysozymes possessed typical structural residues and conserved catalytic sites similar to their counterparts across the species. In contrast, there was only 8.6% similarity of amino acid sequence between these two lysozymes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two genes evolved at different rate. C-type lysozyme of grass carp was diverged early in the evolutionary history. Moreover, the expression patterns of these two genes differed. The mRNA levels of both genes were increased after bacterial infection, but the up-regulation of g-type lysozyme was much stronger than that of c-type lysozyme. We also showed that the c-type and g-type recombinant lysozymes possessed different lytic activities against fish bacterial pathogens. These results confirmed that both lysozymes play important roles in the defense of grass carp against bacterial infections. The g-type lysozyme may be induced for the defense against bacterial infections, while c-type lysozyme might be the main molecule for the house-keeping defense under normal conditions. These two types of lysozymes likely use different mechanisms to regulate their expressions.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2010; 34(5):501-9. DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2009.12.009 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of four reference genes of grass carp, including beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S rRNA (18S) and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1alpha), was studied in tissues of normal individuals and bacteria-infected individuals. EF1alpha had the most stable expressions followed by 18S rRNA then GAPDH; ACTB had the least stability. After being infected with bacteria, the grass carp showed minimal changes in expression levels of EF1alpha in the liver and head kidney, while ACTB had the most stable expressions in spleen but the least stable in liver. EF1alpha is thus the optimal reference gene in quantitative real-time PCR analysis to quantitate the expression levels of target genes in tissues of grass carp.
    Biotechnology Letters 04/2010; 32(8):1031-8. DOI:10.1007/s10529-010-0258-0 · 1.74 Impact Factor