Woong Youn Chung

Yonsei University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (99)263.84 Total impact

  • Jung U Shin, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung, Ju Hee Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreases inflammatory cell infiltration and TGF-β expression during wound healing. Several clinical studies show that recovery of various ulcer wounds, such as diabetic and radiation ulcer, is promoted by EGF. Objective: To evaluate effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on cutaneous scar quality after thyroidectomy. Method: Scar quality was evaluated by Vancouver scar scale (VSS) in two groups of female thyroidectomy patients (control, n = 11; rhEGF-treated, n = 10). Scar erythema, pigmentation, elasticity and hydration were measured by mexameter, cutometer and corneometer. Results: Scar pliability (at 4 weeks) and thickness (2 weeks) after surgery were significantly lower in the rhEGF group than control. Total VSS score was significantly lower in the rhEGF group after 4 weeks. However, erythema, pigmentation, elasticity and hydration of the scar were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: The early use of rhEGF in surgical wound healing may improve cutaneous scar quality.
    Journal of Dermatological Treatment 04/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Nor Azham Hakim Darail, So Hee Lee, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung
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    ABSTRACT: In 2001, the authors developed a novel method of gasless transaxillary endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET) and have now performed >1000 operations. This review was performed to document surgical outcomes after 10 years of experience with this technique and to determine what the role of ET has in the current era. All patients who underwent elective ET using the gasless transaxillary approach from November 2001 to December 2010 were evaluated. Patient demographics, surgical data, histologic analysis results, and complications were recorded and analyzed. A total of 1085 patients underwent ET during the study period. Mean patient age was 36.9±9.7 years; the gender ratio was 1:49 (male:female). There were 228 benign thyroid tumor cases and 857 thyroid malignancies. Trend analysis showed a progressive increase in case numbers per month until the end of 2007, followed by a steady decline. There were 175 total thyroidectomy cases and 910 cases of less-than-total thyroidectomy. Mean overall operating time was 132.92±48.6 minutes, and the overall complication rate was 13.5%. The most common complications were: transient hypocalcemia (6.3%), transient hoarseness (3.9%), hematoma (0.4%), permanent hypocalcemia (0.1%), and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (0.2%). Gasless ET is comparable to open thyroidectomy in terms of early surgical outcomes and complications, and it bridges the gap between conventional open surgery and robotic transaxillary thyroidectomy.
    Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques 04/2014; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Robotic thyroidectomy (RT), a new gasless, transaxillary approach developed by the Yonsei University group in Seoul, Korea, eliminates the need for a cervical incision. Since RT is technically complex and has a steep learning curve, the surgical complication rate may initially be higher than with conventional surgery. This study evaluated the complication rates of transaxillary RT and assessed ways to prevent surgical complications. Between October 2007 and March 2013, 3,000 patients underwent RT for thyroid cancer in the Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine at Severance Hospital, Seoul. The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively, and surgical complications were assessed on the basis of clinical findings. The most common surgical complication was symptomatic hypocalcemia, of which 37.43 % cases were transient and 1.10 % permanent. Other surgical complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (1.23 % transient, 0.27 % permanent), seroma (1.73 %), hematoma (0.37 %), chyle leakage (0.37 %), trachea injury (0.2 %), Horner's syndrome (0.03 %), carotid artery injury (0.03 %), and brachiocephalic vein injury (0.03 %). The technique-related complications, which were never seen in conventional open thyroidectomy, were axillary skin flap perforation (0.1 %), and traction injury of the arm on the side the lesion was located (0.13 %). Surgeons who have mastered standardized robotic surgical procedures and who understand potential complications and how to prevent them can perform RT safely.
    Surgical Endoscopy 03/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate the natural history of thyroid nodules found to be benign at initial fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the percentage of nodules that increased in volume by more than 50% as being an indicator of malignancy. Materials and Methods This retrospective observational cohort study was approved by the institutional review board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. The study included 854 FNAB-confirmed benign thyroid nodules. Suspicious ultrasonographic (US) features included marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margin, microcalcification, and taller-than-wide shape. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the association with nodule growth greater than 50% in volume. Results For the 854 nodules, the initial mean diameter was 19.92 mm (range, 3.10-60.00 mm), and the initial mean volume was 3.19 cm(3) (range, 0.01-4.64 cm(3)). The majority (682 [79.9%] of 854) of thyroid nodules with benign cytologic results at initial FNAB did not grow more than 50% in volume during 4 years of mean follow-up (range, 7-101 months). More than 4 years of follow-up time versus less than 2 years, younger age, a cystic component of less than 25%, and nodule size 1 cm or larger versus less than 1 cm were independently associated with growth. There was only one malignant nodule (0.6%) among 172 thyroid nodules with a volume increase of 50% or greater during the entire follow-up time. Ten malignant nodules (overall malignancy rate: 1.2%) were detected among the 854 total nodules, and eight of these 10 nodules showed suspicious features at US. Conclusion Repeat FNAB for nodules showing more than 50% growth in volume is unlikely to result in a diagnosis of malignancy. A positive FNAB result for malignancy is significantly more likely in the presence of suspicious US features. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 01/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Body image is associated with self-esteem and identity and has a close relationship with quality of life (QoL). We compared the impact of surgical scars on patient body image between conventional open thyroidectomy (OT) and robotic thyroidectomy (RT) in female papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. Methods From October 2009 to December 2010, 116 PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy at the Yonsei University Health System (Seoul, Korea) were prospectively enrolled. Of these 116 patients, 56 had OT, and 60 had RT. Their scars were assessed using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and psychometric properties were evaluated using the body image scale (BIS) questionnaire postoperatively. Both groups were compared using cross-sectional and time series methods. Results The mean age was significantly younger in the RT group. Regarding scar quality, the OT group showed superiority in scar pigmentation and the total VSS score during the early postoperative period, but the VSS score improved over time and was similar between both groups at 9 months. The RT group received better scores regarding most of the BIS items, a trend that remained relatively constant over time. In patients with noticeable scars (VSS ≥2) at 9 months, the RT group received better BIS scores regarding almost all items, including “self-conscious,” “physical attractiveness,” “feeling of less feminine,” “sexual attractiveness,” “dissatisfaction with body, scar and appearance when dressed,” and “avoidance of people due to appearance.” Conclusions RT provides better self-body image and improves QoL compared with conventional OT by avoiding a noticeable cervical scar.
    Surgery 01/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the necessity of completion thyroidectomy for patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) that was later pathologically diagnosed as central lymph node (CLN) metastasis. Between 1986 and 2001, we assessed 551 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with prophylactic ipsilateral central compartment neck dissection, and 409 patients were followed-up completely. Thyroid lobectomy were performed in 281 and 128 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to CLN metastasis. Clinicopathological profiles and follow-up details were investigated by retrospective chart review. The CLN-positive and -negative groups were comprised of 43 (15.2 %) and 238 patients (84.8 %), respectively. The mean ages of the two groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The mean tumor size of the CLN-positive group (6.8 mm) was significantly larger than that of the CLN-negative group (5.6 mm; p < 0.05). Microscopic capsular invasion was significantly higher in the CLN-positive group (51.2 vs. 23.9 %; p < 0.05). Overall, 21 patients (7.4 %, 21/281) experienced recurrence. Among these, 2 (4.7 %, 2/43) and 19 (8.0 %, 19/238) were in the CLN-positive and -negative groups, respectively. There was no significant correlation between CLN metastasis and tumor recurrence. Postoperative recurrence was lower in the CLN-positive group, and there was no significant correlation between CLN metastasis and tumor recurrence. Our results suggest that it is not necessary to perform completion thyroidectomy for PTMC patients who have undergone thyroid lobectomy and who have been pathologically diagnosed with CLN metastasis.
    World Journal of Surgery 12/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the da Vinci(®) robotic system, surgeons can complete secure thyroidectomy without noticeable neck scarring. This study compared the surgical completeness of transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy (RT) with conventional open procedures (OT) in treating papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. From April 2009 through February 2011, 94 PTC patients underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection (CCND) at Yonsei University College of Medicine. All patients received 1.1 GBq radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, post-therapy whole-body scans (TxWBS), and diagnostic WBS (DxWBS) 1 year later. We prospectively compared patient clinicopathologic characteristics and surgical completeness between the two groups. Fifty-one patients underwent OT and 43 underwent RT. Mean age was significantly younger in the RT group. Tumor size, capsular-invasion frequency, multifocality, bilaterality, and central nodal metastasis were not different between the two groups. The number of retrieved nodes during CCND did not significantly differ between the groups. There was no significant difference between the OT and RT groups in stimulated thyroglobulin levels acquired during TxWBS and DxWBS. The RAI uptake ratios at TxWBS were significantly higher in the RT group compared with the OT group; however, follow-up DxWBS showed no difference in RAI uptake ratios. Also, the ablation success rate was similar between the two groups. There were no abnormal findings in follow-up neck ultrasonography in either group. Remnant thyroid tissue ablation after transaxillary RT was successfully managed by 1.1 GBq RAI. RT showed similar surgical completeness versus conventional OT, and provides a safe and feasible surgical option for PTC patients.
    Surgical Endoscopy 11/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: During the past decade, various endoscopic thyroid surgeries have been conducted, each with its own benefits. The incorporation of robotic systems to endoscopic thyroid surgery has improved the visualization and precision of endoscopic techniques. We previously reported our initial experience with robotic modified radical neck dissection (MRND) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with lateral neck node metastasis (LNM). The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes of robotic vs. conventional open MRND of PTC with LNM using propensity score matching. Methods: From January 2008 to February 2011, 515 patients with PTC with LNM were enrolled. One hundred patients underwent robotic MRND, and 415 patients underwent conventional open MRND. These two groups were retrospectively compared with respect to their clinicopathological characteristics, surgical outcomes, and surgical completeness. Furthermore, to avoid selection bias, propensity score matching analysis was used to compare surgical outcomes of each group without any compounding factors. Results: The operative time for the robotic MRND was longer than for the open MRND (297.9±60.2 min vs. 212.1±55.6 min, P=0.089). However, the mean numbers of retrieved lymph nodes and mean hospital stay after surgery were similar in the two groups (36.0±12.9 vs. 40.8±13.3, P=0.235), (6.1±1.6 days vs. 6.1±2.1 days, P=0.577). The complication rates were similar between the two groups, and there was no statistical difference in postoperative thyroglobulin levels between groups (0.51±0.83 ng/ml vs. 0.89±2.46 ng/ml, P=0.593). Conclusion: According to our study, robotic MRND shows similar surgical outcomes to conventional open MRND after case-matched analyses. We suggest that robotic MRND is an acceptable alternative as an operative method for PTC with LNM, resulting in excellent cosmesis and patient satisfaction.
    The Korean journal of endocrine surgery. 11/2013; 13:1598-1703227.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study examined whether the time required for recovery from transient hypoparathyroidism is correlated with the onset of hypocalcemic symptoms in patients with total thyroidectomy (TT). Methods: Medical records of 54 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The correlation between the onset of hypocalcemic symptoms and the recovery time were compared for all patients divided into three groups based on first appearance of hypocalcemic symptoms; group 1, onset within 24 hours; group 2, onset at 24-48 hours; and group 3, onset more than 48 hours. Results: There was a negative correlation between onset and recovery times (P < 0.001). Serum parathyroid hormone levels one year after surgery were significantly lower in group 1, than in groups 2 or 3 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Recovery time can be predicted by time of onset of hypocalcemic symptoms and signs. Earlier onset leads to longer recovery times. Head Neck, 2013.
    Head & Neck 10/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen metabolism may be associated with the pathophysiological development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To evaluate the differential estrogen metabolism between benign and malignant PTCs, estrogen profiling by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry was applied to urine samples from postmenopausal patients with 9 benign tumors and 18 malignant stage I and III/IV PTCs. The urinary concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol was significantly lower in the stage I malignant patients (3.5-fold; P < 0.025) than in the benign group. The metabolic ratios of 16alpha-OH-estrone/estrone and estriol/estradiol, which are responsible for 16alpha-hydroxylase activity, were increased more than 2.5-fold in the advanced-stage malignant PTC (P < 0.02 each). The more than 6.2-fold decrease in the urinary 2-/16alpha-hydroxylase ratio in stage III/IV malignant PTC was consistent with the ratio in postmenopausal patients with endocrine gland cancers. In addition, reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD; estradiol/estrone or estriol/16alpha-OH-estrone) was present at significantly higher levels in subjects with stage III/IV malignant PTCs than in benign subjects (>3.5-fold difference; P < 0.002). In particular, the estriol/16alpha-OH-estrone ratio differentiated between the benign and early-stage malignant patients (P < 0.01). Increased 16alpha-hydroxylation and/or a decreased 2-/16alpha-ratio, as well increased reductive 17beta-HSD, with regard to estrogen metabolism could provide potential biomarkers. The devised profiles could be useful for differentiating malignant thyroid carcinomas from benign adenomas in postmenopausal women.
    BMC Clinical Pathology 10/2013; 13(1):25.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to report on our initial experiences with robotic gasless transaxillary thyroidectomy for the management of Graves disease (GD). Among 257 patients with benign thyroid diseases who underwent thyroidectomy, 16 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for GD were analyzed from January 2009 to December 2010. These patients included 7 individuals who underwent robotic gasless transaxillary thyroidectomy (robot group; RG) and 9 who underwent conventional open thyroidectomy (open group; OG). Regardless of the type of surgery, all patients underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the 2 groups were compared. Patients in the RG were significantly younger at the time of surgery compared with those in the OG (P=0.028). The mean operative time was 171.29±18.88 minutes for the RG and 89.44±7.08 minutes for the OG (P=0.001). The mean weight of the resected glands was 77.43±12.29 g for the RG and 85.56±20.37 g for the OG (P=0.896). The RG had a significantly shorter mean hospitalization period of 3.0±0 days compared with 3.78±0.22 days of the OG. The mean number of times analgesics were used for pain control were 2.43±0.29 for the RG and 4.0±0.52 for the OG (P=0.039). No cases in the RG were converted to open thyroidectomy. During a mean follow-up period of 14.43±1.49 months for the RG, no patients continued antithyroid drugs or developed recurrent GD. Robotic gasless transaxillary thyroidectomy is a technically feasible and safe procedure for the patients with GD that results in a scarless outcome on the neck. This procedure can be a promising alternative for endoscopic or conventional open thyroidectomy for the management of GD.
    Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques 10/2013; 23(5):e173-e177. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) is well known to be over-expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the expression of CXCR4 is different by histological subtypes of PTC and to elucidate the relationship between the expression of CXCR4 and clinicopathologic factors. CXCR4 expression in 127 PTC samples was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of CXCR4 showed different patterns according to the histological subtype of PTC (p < 0.001). A strong expression of CXCR4 was observed more frequently in the poorly differentiated region of PTC (81.0 %) than in classical PTC (50.0 %). Strong CXCR4 expression was less frequently shown in follicular variant (33.9 %) and in diffuse sclerosing variant (14.3 %) of PTC. CXCR4 expression showed a distinct pattern according to the histological subtype of PTC although not associated with other clinicopathological parameters.
    Endocrine Pathology 08/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid carcinomas are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical features and clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer in the pediatric population treated in the Yonsei University Health System. From September 1982 to June 2009, 90 patients (75 females, 15 males; female:male ratio of 5:1) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were identified in our institute. The mean age at diagnosis was 15.8 yr old (range 4.8-19.9 yr). Cervical masses were most common clinical manifestations at diagnosis in 65 patients (72.2%). Forty-two patients underwent less than total thyroidectomy and 18 patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Thirty patients (33.3%) had lateral neck lymph node metastasis and seven patients (7.8%) had lung metastasis at the time of surgery. Among the 90 patients, recurrence occurred in 14 patients (15.5%). Mean follow-up period for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma was 81.6 months (13-324 months). No patients died of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who were < 20-yr-of-age were present with aggressive local disease and a high frequency of lymph node and distant metastasis. It is recommended that pediatric thyroid cancer should be managed mostly using proper surgical approach with thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection when indicated.
    Journal of Korean medical science 05/2013; 28(5):693-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare conventional open thyroidectomy with robotic thyroidectomy in terms of postoperative pain. METHODS: We compared the intensity of postoperative pain experienced by patients who received conventional open thyroidectomy (n = 45) versus those who underwent robotic thyroidectomy (n = 45). During surgery, we carefully controlled the anesthetic conditions. All the patients underwent a total thyroidectomy with ipsilateral central compartment node dissection. Postoperative pain in the 2 groups was compared using a visual analog scale and the amount of rescue analgesic at 30 min, 4 h, 1, 2, 3, and 10 days after surgery. RESULTS: The postoperative pain at 30 min and 4 h after surgery were 3.0 ± 0.9 and 2.6 ± 0.9 (p = .066) and 4.9 ± 1.3 and 4.4 ± 1.3 (p = .055) in the conventional open group and the robotic group, respectively. The mean pain scores at 1, 2, 3, and 10 days after surgery were 3.8 ± 1.3 and 3.0 ± 1.3 (p = .001), 2.6 ± 1.2 and 2.0 ± 0.9 (p = .005), 1.7 ± 0.9 and 1.3 ± 0.6 (p = .034), and 0.9 ± 0.7 and 1.2 ± 1.1 (p = .093), respectively. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of postoperative rescue analgesic use (1.1 ± 1.1 and 0.8 ± 0.9, p = .264). CONCLUSIONS: Even though robotic thyroidectomy using the transaxillary technique requires a more extensive subcutaneous dissection than conventional open thyroidectomy, robotic thyroidectomy does not result in more postoperative pain or use of analgesic when compared with open thyroidectomy.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To compare long-term outcomes after total thyroidectomy (TT) or thyroid lobectomy (LT) in a large cohort of patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), and to determine whether tumor size (≤0.5 cm versus >0.5 cm) has a significant impact on the extent of surgery. Methods: We evaluated 2014 patients with PTMC who underwent TT with CCND (n=1015) or LT with CCND (n=999) between March 1986 and December 2006 and for whom complete follow-up data were available for at least 5 years (median 11.8 years; range 5-26 years). Using propensity-score matching to reduce the impact of treatment-selection bias and potential confounding in an observational study, we compared overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the overall cohort and in patients with tumors ≤0.5 cm and >0.5 cm in size. Results: After adjustment for differences in baseline clinicopathologic risk factors, we observed no significant differences between the LT and the TT groups in the risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] for the LT group, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71 to 1.47, p=0.890) and locoregional recurrence (HR for the LT group, 3.08; 95% CI 1.99 to 8.05, p=0.194) in the overall matched cohort. Similar results were observed when we compared LT and TT in patients with tumors ≤0.5 cm and >0.5 cm. Conclusion: The long-term rates of death and locoregional recurrence were similar in patients with PTMC who underwent LT with CCND and those who underwent TT with CCND. Therefore, completion thyroidectomy may not be recommended unless recurrence after LT is definitely detected in low-risk PTMC patients, and close follow-up is adequate in these patients. Moreover, tumor size 0.5 cm was not a significant determinant of the extent of surgery in patients with PTMC.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 03/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) has several benefits compared with transperitoneal adrenalectomy in that it is safe and has a short learning curve. In addition, it provides direct short access to the target organ, prevents irritation to the intraperitoneal space, and does not require retraction of adjacent organs.1 (-) 3 We have performed several cases of robot-assisted PRA using single-port access for small adrenal tumors. This multimedia article introduces the detailed methods and preliminary results of this procedure. METHODS: Five patients underwent single-port robot-assisted PRA between March 2010 and June 2011 at our institution. During the procedure, patients were placed in a prone jackknife position with their hip joints bent at a right angle (Fig. 1). A 3 cm transverse skin incision was made just below the lowest tip of the 12th rib (Fig. 2), and the Glove port (Nelis, Kyung-gi, Korea) was placed through the skin incision while maintaining pneumoretroperitoneum (Fig. 3). CO2 was then insufflated to a pressure of 18 mm Hg to create an adequate working space. A 10 mm robotic camera with a 30-degree up view was placed at the center of the incision through the most cephalic portion of the Glove port. A Maryland dissector or Prograsp forceps (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) was placed on the medial side of the incision, and Harmonic curved shears (Intuitive Surgical) were placed on the lateral side of the incision (Fig. 4). Using the Maryland dissector and the harmonic curved shears, the Gerota fascia is opened, perinephric fat is dissected, and the kidney upper pole is mobilized to expose the adrenal gland (Fig. 5). Gland dissection starts with lower margin detachment from the upper kidney pole in a lateral to medial direction (Fig. 6). After dissecting the adrenal gland from surrounding adipose tissue and medial isolation of the adrenal central vein, the vessel is ligated with a 5 mm hemolock clip (Fig. 7). Patient clinicopathologic data were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 56.6 ± 8.7 (range, 47-69) years. Right and left side approaches were used in two and three patients, respectively. All cases were adrenal cortical adenoma. The mean tumor size was 1.48 ± 0.28 (range, 1.0-1.7) cm. The mean surgery duration (skin to skin) was 159.4 ± 57.6 (range, 103-245) minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 46.0 ± 56.8 (range, 5-120) ml. The average time to oral intake and postoperative hospital stay were 0.65 ± 0.11 (range, 0.54-0.79) days and 4.0 ± 2.23 (range, 3-8) days, respectively. There were no conversions to open surgery or postoperative compli- cations. DISCUSSION: Some trials of minimally invasive single-access surgery of the adrenal gland have recently been performed.4 (,) 5 However, these new techniques have several limitations as a result of restrictions on instrumentation movement because of the small access ports used and relatively low-quality images produced. The recent introduction of the da Vinci S surgical robot system (Intuitive Surgical) to endoscopic surgery has improved instrumental dexterity and provided the surgeon with an ergonomically designed operating system. This system is also potentially safer and more meticulous in performing operations than endoscopic procedures as a result of a 3-D, magnified, stable operative view.6 (,) 7 The advantages of the da Vinci S surgical robot system and the numerous benefits of the posterior retroperitoneal approach motivated us to utilize single-port robot-assisted PRA. The primary selection criteria were small tumor size and a minimal amount of periadrenal fatty tissue because robot-assisted PRA using single-port access provides a small operative space, which causes manipulation problems when tumors are large. To ensure the safe application of these new techniques, we recommend that novice surgeons begin using single-port robot-assisted PRA for smaller tumors < 2 cm in patients with a body mass index of < 30 kg/m(2), gradually extending the size and body mass index as they accumulate experience. Although robot-assisted PRA using single-port access could not be compared with the other robotic adrenalectomy techniques in this study, the potential advantages of this approach compared to conventional robot-assisted transperitoneal adrenalectomy include a reduction in postoperative ileus, bacterial contamination, and intestinal complications because the peritoneal cavity is not opened, in addition to a reduction in postoperative pain because of its minimally invasive nature. CONCLUSIONS: Our initial experiences with robot-assisted PRA using single-port access assured us of its safety and feasibility for the resection of small adrenal tumors. Although single-port robot-assisted PRA appears to be safe and feasible, further experience and research is required to optimize patient selection criteria and verify its advantages over the traditional three-incision PRA technique.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Robotic applications have achieved safe and precise thyroidectomy with notable cosmetic and functional benefits. This study was designed to document the influence of body habitus on robotic thyroidectomy in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. METHODS: From July 2009 to February 2010, 352 patients underwent robotic thyroidectomy using a gasless, transaxillary single-incision approach at Yonsei University Health System. Body habitus was described using body mass index category (normal weight, overweight, obese), neck length, shoulder width, and shoulder width to neck length ratios. The impact of body habitus on surgical outcomes was analyzed with respect to operation time, number of retrieved central nodes, bleeding amount, and postoperative complications. RESULTS: Of the 352 patients, 217 underwent less than total thyroidectomy and 135 underwent total thyroidectomy. Operative variables (i.e. operation times, bleeding amounts, and numbers of retrieved central nodes) showed no significant differences between three BMI groups for less than total thyroidectomy. However, total operation and working space times were longer for obese patients during total thyroidectomy. In particular, shoulder width was positively correlated with total operation time, working space time, console time, and number of retrieved central nodes. On the other hand, postoperative complications were not significantly different in the three BMI groups and showed no significant correlation with the other indices of body habitus. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized robotic thyroidectomy can be performed safely and feasibly in patients with a large body habitus despite longer operation times.
    Surgical Endoscopy 01/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine differences in ultrasonography (US) features suggesting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) between nodules larger than 10 mm (large lesions) and nodules ≤10 mm in diameter (small lesions). METHODS: We included 1,238 nodules in 1,173 patients that were confirmed through cytology or histopathology between February 2007 and June 2007 in the study. Nodules were divided into large lesions (571 lesions) and small lesions (667 lesions). Sonographic features were defined as composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, shape, and vascularity. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the odds ratios (OR) of each feature to predict PTC. RESULTS: On multivariate analysis, irregular margin (OR = 37.788, P < 0.001), microcalcifications (OR = 17.799, P < 0.001), microlobulated margin (OR = 10.385, P < 0.001), and no vascularity (OR = 5.975, P < 0.001) were independent factors for PTC in the large lesions and irregular margin (OR = 7.185, P < 0.001), microlobulated margin (OR = 5.952, P < 0.001), microcalcifications (OR = 3.722, P < 0.001), marked hypoechogenicity (OR = 2.873, P = 0.004), and taller than wide shape (OR = 2.698, P < 0.001) were independent factors for PTC in the small lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The OR of each US finding for predicting PTC is different between large and small lesions. Therefore, it would be helpful to weight certain US features according to nodule size when reporting thyroid nodules with different risks of PTC.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents a cost analysis of the standard cervical, gasless transaxillary endoscopic, and gasless transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy approaches based on medical costs in the United States. A retrospective review of 140 patients who underwent standard cervical, transaxillary endoscopic, or transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy at 2 tertiary centers was conducted. The cost model included operating room charges, anesthesia fee, consumables cost, equipment depreciation, and maintenance cost. Sensitivity analyses assessed individual cost variables. The mean operative times for the standard cervical, transaxillary endoscopic, and transaxillary robotic approaches were 121 ± 18.9, 185 ± 26.0, and 166 ± 29.4 minutes, respectively. The total cost for the standard cervical, transaxillary endoscopic, and transaxillary robotic approaches were $9,028 ± $891, $12,505 ± $1,222, and $13,670 ± $1,384, respectively. Transaxillary approaches were significantly more expensive than the standard cervical technique (standard cervical/transaxillary endoscopic, P < .0001; standard cervical/transaxillary robotic, P < .0001; and transaxillary endoscopic/transaxillary robotic, P = .001). The transaxillary and standard cervical techniques became equivalent in cost when transaxillary endoscopic operative time decreased to 111 minutes and transaxillary robotic operative time decreased to 68 minutes. Increasing the case load did not resolve the cost difference. Transaxillary endoscopic and transaxillary robotic thyroidectomies are significantly more expensive than the standard cervical approach. Decreasing operative times reduces this cost difference. The greater expense may be prohibitive in countries with a flat reimbursement schedule.
    Surgery 12/2012; 152(6):1016-24. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation can be detected peripherally in the serum of patients with thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to establish the value of detecting the peripheral BRAF(V600E) mutation as a serum tumor marker in this population. METHODS: In this study, we obtained 94 serum samples from patients with papillary thyroid cancer positive for the BRAF(V600E) mutation in the tumor itself. The serum samples were analyzed for BRAF(V600E) mutation using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (71.3%) had papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and 26 patients (27.7%) had underlying lymphocytic thyroiditis. Forty-three patients (45.7%) were found to have stage III or stage IV thyroid cancer. None of the patients had a detectable serum BRAF(V600E) mutation. CONCLUSION: We were unable to identify peripheral BRAF(V600E) mutations in patients with papillary thyroid cancer using real-time PCR. Further studies will be needed to validate our results using various diagnostic methods. © Wiley Periodicals Inc. Head Neck, 2012.
    Head & Neck 11/2012; · 2.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

764 Citations
398 Downloads
263.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2013
    • Eulji University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Istanbul Surgery Hospital
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2011–2013
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2012
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2010–2011
    • Ajou University
      • Department of Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2011
    • Hallym University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Kangbuk Samsung Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea