ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of oral decontamination with either chlorhexidine (CHX, 2%) or the combination chlorhexidine-colistin (CHX-COL, 2%-2%) on the frequency and the time to onset of ventilator-associated pneumonia in Intensive Care patients.
Double blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, randomised trial.
Consecutive ICU patients needing at least 48 h of mechanical ventilation were enrolled in a randomized trial with 3 arms: CHX, CHX-COL, and placebo (PLAC). The trial medication was administered in the oral cavity every 6 h. Oropharyngeal swabs were obtained daily and analysed quantitatively for Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Endotracheal colonisation was monitored twice weekly. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of a combination of clinical, radiological and microbiological criteria.
Of 385 patients included, 130 received PLAC, 127 CHX and 128 CHX-COL. Baseline characteristics in the three groups were comparable. The daily risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia was reduced in both treatment groups compared to PLAC: 65% (HR= 0.352; 95% CI: 0.160-0.791; p = 0.012) for CHX and 55% (HR= 0.454; 95%/ CI: 0.224-0.925; p = 0.030) for CHX-COL. CHX-COL provided a significant reduction in oropharyngeal colonisation with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms, whereas CHX significantly affected only colonisation with Gram-positive microorganisms. There were no differences in the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-stay or ICU-survival.
Oral decontamination of the oropharyngeal cavity with chlorhexidine or the combination chlorhexidine-colistin reduced the incidence and the time to onset ofventilator-associated pneumonia.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 04/2008; 152(13):752-9.
ABSTRACT: To compare an early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics with the standard intravenous therapy in patients admitted to hospital with severe community acquired pneumonia.
Multicentre randomised prospective trial with follow-up at 28 days.
Patients with severe pneumonia who were admitted to hospital were randomised for 7 days intravenous antibiotic therapy (control group) or for an early switch to oral antibiotic therapy after 3 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy (intervention group). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. The primary outcome measure was clinical cure. The length of hospital stay was a secondary outcome measure.
Out of the 302 patients included in the trial, data was analysed from 265 patients. The mortality rate in the intervention group did not differ significantly from that of the control group (mean difference: 2%; 95% CI: -3-8). After 28 days, 83% of the patients in the intervention group and 85% in the control group were clinically cured (mean difference: 2%; 95% CI: -7-10). The length of hospital stay was 1.9 days shorter in the intervention group (95% CI: 0.6-3.2 days).
An early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics in patients admitted to hospital for severe community acquired pneumonia is safe and reduces the length of hospital stay by approximately 2 days.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 03/2008; 152(5):269-74.
ABSTRACT: A 59-year-old man was hospitalised because of dyspnoea, productive cough, fever, chills and malaise. Severe community-acquired pneumonia was diagnosed. Legionella urinary antigen testing, which can only detect serogroup 1, and the first culture ofa bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample were negative for Legionella. However, L. pneumophila DNA was detected by PCR in the BAL washing sample. Eventually, L. pneumophila serogroup 3 was isolated from this specimen by repeated culture. Although, in The Netherlands, legionellosis is caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in more than 90% of all cases, this case demonstrates that a negative result of urinary antigen testing does not necessarily exclude this diagnosis. It is therefore advocated to expand the diagnostics to a Legionella PCR on respiratory material of patients with clinical signs of Legionella pneumonia in whom the urinary antigen test is negative.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 10/2005; 149(36):2009-12.