[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results testify to the fact that CO2 is a powerful inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by cells (blood phagocytes and alveolar macrophages of 96 people and cells of inner organs and tissue phagocytes (of liver, brain, myocardium, lungs, kidneys, stomach, and skeleton muscles), as well as by mitochondria of the liver of 186 white mice and human tissues. Generation of ROS was determined using various methods with CO2 directly acting on the cells and bioptates and indirectly on the organism as a whole. CO2 in the concentration of 5.1 % (P = 37.5 mmHg), 8.2 % (P = 60.0 mmHg), and 20 % (P = 146.0 mmHg) in a mixture with air (total pressure = 730 mmHg) inhibits the basal ROS generation by phagocytes on the average by 3.52, 5.69, and 10.03 times, respectively (p < 0.05), and the stimulated by corpuscular particles: (a) zymosan by 3.24, 4.43, and 7.95 times; (b)SiO2: by 2.99, 3.24, and 5.76 times (p < 0.05). This is confirmed by the feet that CO2, along with inhibiting the O2 (-) generation by cells of the various organs, including the liver, as a rule, by 2.19-4.7 times, p < 0.01 or <0.001 induces simultaneously a decrease in the O2 (-) generation by mitochondria isolated from the liver (by 1.91-3.2 times, p < 0.001). The mechanism of CO2 influence is realized, in part, by inhibition of NADPH-oxidase activity. Taken into consideration proven role of CO2 in different pathophysiological conditions, (such as endoarteritis, bronchial asthma, and infectious diseases), present findings may be of clinical interest in terms of potential implementation of CO2 donors as adjuvant therapeutics in these diseases.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11010-015-2594-9 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the past 40 years, anabolic-androgenic steroids have been used by a wide variety of athletes with the hope of improving their training, endurance, and performance. The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of nandrolone decanoate (20 mg/kg, s.c, Deca-Durabolin DECA(®)) on oxidative stress biomarkers in the hearts of sedentary and exercised rats. The male Wistar albino rats (n = 180, four groups with three subgroups, 15 per subgroup, age 10 weeks, body mass 200-220 g) were sacrificed, and in the collected samples of blood, the following markers of oxidative stress were measured spectrophotometrically: (1) index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances); (2) nitrites (NO2 (-)); (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); (4) superoxide anion radical (O2 (-)), and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. The results clearly show that the impact of ND alone, or in combination with physical training in general, is mildly pro-oxidative. The chronic physical training probably induces the protective antioxidant enzyme system , which may be of clinical interest when faced with overdosage of this drug.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11010-015-2571-3 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive experimental evidence confirms the role of oxidative stress as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, less information is available on the evolution of prooxidant-antioxidant parameters from early to end-phase renal function decline in humans. This study aimed to determine the oxidative status in dynamic throughout the evolutionary phases of the disease. The study included patients with cardiovascular pathology and AKI hospitalized in the intensive care unit (n = 69) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 30). They were followed through three phases of acute kidney injury; first phase was the phase of diagnosis, which is characterized by oliguria/anuria, second phase was established diuresis, and third phase was the polyuric phase. In these phases of the disease, blood samples were taken from the patients for biochemical analysis. From the collected whole blood, we measured spectrophotometrically prooxidants: index of lipid peroxidation, measured as Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite (NO₂⁻), superoxide anion radical (O₂⁻) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), and antioxidants: activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) from erythrocyte lysate. Comparing the results of the three measurements, a significant difference was found in the levels of NO₂⁻ and GSH, both of which increased in the second phase (P < 0.05) and then decreased in the third phase, and a significant increase in TBARS, which was elevated in the second phase (P < 0.05) and did not change significantly until the third phase. Our results showed phase-dependent modification in 3 parameters of the oxidative status (TBARS, NO₂⁻ and GSH). Whether these changes contribute to the deterioration of renal function in AKI remains to be established.
The Chinese journal of physiology 04/2015; 58(2):124-133. DOI:10.4077/CJP.2015.BAC243 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Connection between oxidative stress and clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been poorly investigated. This study was aimed to assess redox state (through measurement of oxidative stress markers) of patients with acute ischemic stroke during different stages of follow-up period, and to find association between values of mentioned markers and clinical outcome. The investigation was conducted on 60 patients (both sexes, aged 75.90 ± 7.37 years) who were recruited in intensive care units at the Special Hospital for Cerebrovascular Diseases "Sveti Sava," Belgrade. After verification of AIS, patients were followed up in four interval of time: (1) at admission, (2) within 24 h after AIS, (3) within 72 h after AIS, and (4) 7 days after AIS. At these points of time, blood samples were taken for determination of oxidative stress parameters [index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS), nitric oxide (NO) in the form of nitrite ([Formula: see text]), superoxide anion radical ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], and enzymes of antioxidant defense system [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] using spectrophotometer. Present study provides new insights into redox homeostasis during ischemic stroke which may be of interest in elucidation of molecular mechanisms involved in this life-threatening condition. Particular contribution of obtained results could be examination of connection between redox disruption and clinical outcome in these patients. In that sense, our finding have pointed out that [Formula: see text] and NO can serve as the most relevant adjuvant biomarkers to monitor disease progression and evaluate therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress (OS) parameters after testicular torsion/detorsion in adult rats.
In this experimental study, male adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of seven animals: group I-one hour right testicular torsion with subsequent orchiectomy, group II-one hour right testicular torsion followed by detorsion, group III-unilateral right-sided orchiectomy without previous torsion and group IV-control. After 30 days, bilateral orchiectomies were performed in rats with both testes and unilateral orchiectomies in rats with single testicles. Parameters of OS were determined in testicular tissue and in plasma.
Plasma concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively), whilst the plasma concentration of the total sulfhydryl (T-SH)-groups was lower (p<0.05) in group I compared to the control group. Group II had higher plasma concentrations of AOPP compared to group IV (p<0.05), as well as significantly increased TBARS and decreased T-SH-group levels compared to groups III (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and IV (p<0.01, for both parameters). There were significant differences in OS markers between the ipsilateral and contralateral testis, as well as significant correlations among levels of both plasma and tissue markers of OS.
The increase in TBARS levels seen throughout the experimental period indicated that OS development was caused by ischemia/reperfusion in the testicular tissue. The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue was altered during torsion as well as detorsion.
International journal of fertility & sterility 04/2015; 9(1):121-8. · 0.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of research was to assess exercise-induced changes in mechanics of hearts isolated from rats, as well as time-course of those changes. Wistar rats (n = 42) were divided into control, moderately trained (swimming 1 hour, 5 days a week for 9 or 12 weeks) and strenuously trained (swimming 2, 3 and 4 times a day for an hour in weeks 10, 11 and 12, respectively) groups. After sacrificing, hearts (weight: 1480.82 ± 145.38 mg) were isolated and perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was gradually increased (from 40 to 120 cm H2O) in order to establish coronary autoregulation. Parameters of cardiac contractility were recorded: maximum and minimum rate of change of pressure in the left ventricle (dp/dt max and dp/dt min), systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressure (SLVP and DLVP), heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF). Nine weeks of moderate exercise induced slight depression of coronary function (decrease of dp/dt max, dp/dt min, SLVP and DLVP), while 3 additional weeks of moderate training improved hearts function, but not to the extent that the strenuous training program did. The results of our study add evidence about beneficial effects of regular moderate exercise on heart, and furthermore, show that exercising frequently, if the intensity stays within moderate range, may not have detrimental effects on cardiodynamics.
General Physiology and Biophysics 03/2015; 34:301-310. DOI:10.4149/gpb_2015001 · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In light of the limited data concerning the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in cardiac function, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of NMDA receptors in cardiac function, as well as the possible role played by the oxidative stress induced by the overstimulation of NMDA receptors in isolated rat heart. The hearts of male, Wistar albino rats (n = 24, 12 in each experimental group, BM 180–200 g) were retrogradely perfused at a constant perfusion pressure (70 cm H2O), using the Langendorff technique, and cardiodynamic parameters were determined during the subsequent administration of DL-homocysteine thiolactone (DL-Hcy TLHC) alone, the combination of DL-Hcy TLHC and dizocilpine (MK-801), and MK-801 alone. In the second experimental group, the order of the administration of each of the substances was reversed. The oxidative stress biomarkers, including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), NO2
− and H2O2, were each determined spectrophotometrically. DL-Hcy TLHC and MK-801 depressed cardiac function. DL-Hcy TLHC decreased oxidative stress, a finding that contrasted with the results of the experiments in which MK-801 was administered first. The findings of this study were suggestive of the likely role played by NMDA receptors in the regulation of cardiac function and coronary circulation in isolated rat heart.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to compare protective effects of ischemic and potential protective effects of pharmacological preconditioning with omeprazole on isolated rat heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion.
The hearts of male Wistar albino rats were excised and perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. In control group (CG) after stabilization period, hearts were subjected to global ischemia (perfusion was totally stopped) for 20 minutes and 30 minutes of reperfusion. Hearts of group II (IPC) were submitted to ischemic preconditioning lasting 5 minutes before 20 minutes of ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion. In third group (OPC) hearts first underwent preconditioning lasting 5 minutes with 100 μM omeprazole, and then submitted 20 minutes of ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion.
Administration of omeprazole before ischemia induction had protective effect on myocardium function recovery especially regarding to values of systolic left ventricular pressure and dp/dt max. Also our findings are that values of coronary flow did not change between OPC and IPC groups in last point of reperfusion.
Based on our results it seems that ischemic preconditioning could be used as first window of protection after ischemic injury especially because all investigated parameters showed continuous trend of recovery of myocardial function. On the other hand, preconditioning with omeprazole induced sudden trend of recovery with positive myocardium protection, although less effective than results obtained with ischemic preconditioning not withstand, we must consider that omeprazole may be used in many clinical circumstances where direct coronary clamping for ischemic preconditioning is not possible.
Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular 03/2015; 30(2):266-275. DOI:10.5935/1678-9741.20150020 · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the protective effect of N-acetyl- l-cysteine (NAC) against cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity under conditions of ischemic-reperfusion injury. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=8): control, cisplatin (5mg/kg/w, i.p., 5 weeks) and cisplatin+NAC group (cisplatin - 5mg/kg/w, i.p. and NAC - 500mg/kg/w, i.p., 5 weeks). Isolated hearts were perfused according to the modified Langendorff technique at constant pressure (70cmH2O). Following cardiodynamic parameters were measured: maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, minimum rate of left ventricular pressure development, left ventricular systolic pressure (SLVP), left ventricular diastolic pressure and heart rate. The ischemic vasodilation episodes were induced by the complete interruption of coronary inflow for 30, 60 and 120s. The samples of the coronary venous effluent (CVE) were continuously collected during the reperfusion period for determination of coronary flow (CF) rate and oxidative stress markers (H2O2, O2-, NO2- and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS).Cisplatin reduced CF, heart rate and overflow (total, maximal and duration of overflow) during reperfusion, and increased SLVP (under basal conditions and after global ischemias). Cisplatin increased levels of H2O2 (under basal conditions), O2- and TBARS (under basal conditions and after ischemia), but decreased NO2- levels (during reperfusion) in CVE, and decreased superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in serum. NAC attenuated cisplatin-induced changes of cardiodynamic parameters (except CF under basal conditions) and oxidative stress parameters.Those results suggest that NAC, by decreasing oxidative stress, may be useful in cardioprotection during cisplatin therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic neuropathy. It may be provoked by metabolic and/or vascular factors, and depending on duration of disease, various layers of nerve may be affected. Our aim was to investigate influence of diabetes on the epineurial, perineurial, and endoneurial connective tissue sheaths. The study included 15 samples of sural nerve divided into three groups: diabetic group, peripheral vascular disease group, and control group. After morphological analysis, morphometric parameters were determined for each case using ImageJ software. Compared to the control group, the diabetic cases had significantly higher perineurial index (P < 0.05) and endoneurial connective tissue percentage (P < 0.01). The diabetic group showed significantly higher epineurial area (P < 0.01), as well as percentage of endoneurial connective tissue (P < 0.01), in relation to the peripheral vascular disease group. It is obvious that hyperglycemia and ischemia present in diabetes lead to substantial changes in connective tissue sheaths of nerve, particularly in peri- and endoneurium. Perineurial thickening and significant endoneurial fibrosis may impair the balance of endoneurial homeostasis and regenerative ability of the nerve fibers. Future investigations should focus on studying the components of extracellular matrix of connective tissue sheaths in diabetic nerves.
BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:870930. DOI:10.1155/2014/870930 · 1.58 Impact Factor