Vlad Zabrouskov

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (33)116.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Proteome coverage and peptide identification rates have historically advanced in line with improvements to the detection limits and spectral acquisition rate of the mass spectrometer. For a linear ion trap/Orbitrap hybrid, the acquisition rate has been limited primarily by the duration of the ion accumulation and analysis steps. It is shown here that the spectral acquisition rate can be significantly improved through extensive parallelization of the acquisition process using a novel mass spectrometer incorporating quadrupole, Orbitrap and linear trap analyzers. Further, these improvements to the spectral acquisition rate continue to enhance proteome coverage and general experimental throughput.
    Analytical Chemistry 11/2013; · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mass spectrometry-based proteomics, data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategies can acquire a single data set useful for both identification and quantification of detectable peptides in a complex mixture. However, DIA data are noisy owing to a typical five- to tenfold reduction in precursor selectivity compared to data obtained with data-dependent acquisition or selected reaction monitoring. We demonstrate a multiplexing strategy, MSX, for DIA analysis that increases precursor selectivity fivefold.
    Nature Methods 06/2013; · 23.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Top-down mass spectrometry has been used to investigate structural diversity within some abundant salivary protein families. In this study, we report the identification of two isoforms of protein II-2 which differed in mass by less than 1 Da, the determination of a sequence for protein IB8a that was best satisfied by including a mutation and a covalent modification in the C-terminal part, and the assignment of a sequence of a previously unreported protein of mass 10433 Da. The final characterization of Peptide P-J was achieved, and the discovery of a truncated form of this peptide was reported. The first sequence assignment was done at low resolution using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight instrument to quickly identify and characterize proteins, and data acquisition was switched to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) for proteins that required additional sequence coverage and certainty of assignment. High-resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry on a FTICR-mass spectrometry (MS) instrument combined with electron-capture dissociation (ECD) provided the most informative data sets, with the more frequent presence of "unique" ions that unambiguously define the primary structure. A mixture of predictable and unusual post-translational modifications in the protein sequence precluded the use of shotgun-annotated databases at this stage, requiring manual iterations of sequence refinement in many cases. This led us to propose guidelines for an iterative processing workflow of MS and MSMS data sets that allow researchers to completely assign the identity and the structure of a protein.
    Analytical Chemistry 04/2012; 84(10):4383-95. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the implementation of front-end higher energy collision-induced dissociation (fHCD) on a benchtop dual-pressure linear ion trap. Software and hardware modifications were employed, described in detail vide-infra, to allow isolated ions to undergo collisions with ambient gas molecules in an intermediate multipole (q00) of the instrument. Results comparing the performance of fHCD and resonance excitation collision-induced dissociation (RE-CID) in terms of injection time, total number of scans, efficiency, mass measurement accuracy (MMA), unique peptide identifications, and spectral quality of labile modified peptides are presented. fHCD is approximately 23% as efficient as RE-CID, and depending on the search algorithm, it identifies 6.6% more or 15% less peptides (q < 0.01) from a soluble whole-cell lysate ( Caenorhabditis elegans ) than RE-CID using Mascot or Sequest search algorithms, respectively. fHCD offers a clear advantage for the analysis of phosphorylated and glycosylated (O-GlcNAc) peptides as the average cross-correlation score (XCorr) for spectra using fHCD was statistically greater (p < 0.05) than for spectra collected using RE-CID.
    Analytical Chemistry 12/2011; 84(3):1533-9. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteomics is gradually complementing large shotgun qualitative studies with hypothesis-driven quantitative experiments. Targeted analyses performed on triple quadrupole instruments in selected reaction monitoring mode are characterized by a high degree of selectivity and low limit of detection; however, the concurrent analysis of multiple analytes occurs at the expense of sensitivity because of reduced dwell time and/or selectivity due to limitation to a few transitions. A new data acquisition paradigm is presented in which selected reaction monitoring is performed in two ways to simultaneously quantify and confirm the identity of the targeted peptides. A first set of primary transitions is continuously monitored during a predetermined elution time window to precisely quantify each peptide. In addition, a set of six to eight transitions is acquired in a data-dependent event, triggered when all the primary transitions exceed a preset threshold. These additional transitions are used to generate composite tandem mass spectra to formally confirm the identity of the targeted peptides. This technique was applied to analyze the tryptic digest of a yeast lysate to demonstrate the performance of the technique. We showed a limit of detection down to tens of attomoles injected and a throughput exceeding 6000 transitions in one 60-min experiment. The technique was integrated into a linear work flow, including experimental design, data acquisition, and data evaluation, enabling large scale proteomic studies.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 02/2011; 10(2):M110.002931. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Top-down proteomics characterizes protein primary structures with unprejudiced descriptions of expressed and processed gene products. Gene sequence polymorphisms, protein post-translational modifications, and gene sequence errors can all be identified using top-down proteomics. Saliva offers advantages for proteomic research because of availability and the noninvasiveness of collection and, for these reasons, is being used to search for disease biomarkers. The description of natural protein variants, and intra- and inter-individual polymorphisms, is necessary for a complete description of any proteome, and essential for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Here, we report a striking example of natural protein variants with the discovery by top-down proteomics of two new variants of Peptide P-C. Intact mass measurements, and collisionally activated-, infrared multiphoton-, and electron capture-dissociation, were used for characterization of the form predicted from the gene sequence with an average mass 4371 Da, a form postulated to result from a single nucleotide polymorphism of mass 4372 Da, and another form of mass 4370 Da postulated to arise from a novel protein sequence polymorphism. While the biological significance of such subtle variations in protein structure remains unclear, their importance cannot be assigned without their characterization, as is reported here for one of the major salivary proteins.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 02/2010; 21(5):868-77. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The considerable progress in high-throughput proteomics analysis via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry over the past decade has been fueled to a large degree by continuous improvements in instrumentation. High-throughput identification experiments are based on peptide sequencing and are largely accomplished through the use of tandem mass spectrometry, with ion trap and trap-based instruments having become broadly adopted analytical platforms. To satisfy increasingly demanding requirements for depth of characterization and throughput, we present a newly developed dual-pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Velos) that features increased sensitivity, afforded by a new source design, and demonstrates practical cycle times 2 times shorter than that of an LTQ XL, while improving or maintaining spectral quality for MS/MS fragmentation spectra. These improvements resulted in a substantial increase in the detection and identification of both proteins and unique peptides from the complex proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans, as compared to existing platforms. The greatly increased ion flux into the mass spectrometer in combination with improved isolation of low-abundance precursor ions resulted in increased detection of low-abundance peptides. These improvements cumulatively resulted in a substantially greater penetration into the baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) proteome compared to LTQ XL. Alternatively, faster cycle times on the new instrument allowed for higher throughput for a given depth of proteome analysis, with more peptides and proteins identified in 60 min using an LTQ Velos than in 180 min using an LTQ XL. When mass analysis was carried out with resolution in excess of 25,000 full width at half-maximum (fwhm), it became possible to isotopically resolve a small intact protein and its fragments, opening possibilities for top down experiments.
    Analytical Chemistry 09/2009; 81(18):7757-65. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro evaluation of histones and their PTMs has drawn substantial interest in the development of epigenetic therapies. The differential expression of histone isoforms may serve as a potential marker in the classification of diseases affected by chromatin abnormalities. In this study, protein profiling by LC and MS was used to explore differences in histone composition in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Extensive method validations were performed to determine the experimental variances that would impact histone relative abundance. The resulting data demonstrated that the proposed methodology was suitable for the analysis of histone profiles. In 4 normal individuals and 40 CLL patients, a significant decrease in the relative abundance of histone H2A variants (H2AFL and H2AFA/M*) was observed in primary CLL cells as compared to normal B cells. Protein identities were determined using high mass accuracy MS and shotgun proteomics.
    Proteomics 04/2009; 9(5):1197-206. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mass and top-down analyses of 150-kDa monoclonal immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) antibodies were performed on an Orbitrap analyzer. Three different sample delivery methods were tested including (1) infusion of an off-line desalted IgG sample using nano-electrospray; (2) on-line desalting followed by a step elution with a high percentage of organic solvent; and (3) reversed-phase HPLC separation and on-line mass and top-down analyses of disulfide isoforms of an IgG2 antibody. The accuracy of mass measurements of intact antibody was within +/-2 Da (15 ppm). The glycoforms of intact IgG antibodies separated by 162 Da were baseline resolved. In-source fragmentation of the intact antibodies produced mainly 115 residue fragments including N-terminal variable domains of heavy and light chains. The sequence coverage (the number of cleavages) was greatly increased after reduction of disulfide bonds and HPLC/MS/MS analysis of light and heavy chains using collision-induced dissociation in the ion trap of the LTQ-Orbitrap. This is an attractive alternative to peptide mapping for characterization and monitoring of post-translational modifications attributed to minimal sample preparation, high speed of the mass/top-down analysis, and relatively minor method-induced sample modifications.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 04/2009; 20(8):1415-24. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The modification of Ser/Thr residues in proteins by addition of single O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties play an important role in cell regulation. However, understanding the cellular mechanisms that regulate O-GlcNAc glycosylation has been challenging due to the difficulty in detection and quantification of this modification. Mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative approaches have been successfully employed to measure relative phosphorylation levels using collisionally induced dissociation (CID). However, labile modifications such as O-GlcNAc are lost prior to fragmentation of the peptide backbone in conventional CID, often preventing correct peptide identification, localization of the modified site, and as a result, relative quantification. Compared to CID, Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD) preserves labile post-translational modifications (PTMs), and allows direct mapping of peptide/protein modifications. This is the first report to assess the utility of combining multiplexed isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and ETD for relative quantification of labile PTMs. ETD analysis of both labeled and unlabeled peptides from bovine alpha-crystallins pinpointed at least one O-GlcNAc containing modification site in each of the protein subunits, in addition to a multitude of other PTMs, including glycation, phosphorylation, and acetylation. Moreover, ETD of TMT(6) labeled peptides produced four unique reporter ions that could be used for relative quantification. TMT reporter ion ratios measured by ETD had similar accuracy and precision as those obtained by conventional CID techniques. When applied to glycosylated or otherwise modified peptides, ETD was the only dissociation method which consistently provided confident sequence identification, PTM localization, and quantitative information, all in the same spectrum. This suggests that ETD-based workflows can be complementary to traditional CID approaches when used for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of modified peptides.
    Journal of proteomics 03/2009; 72(5):874-85. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we detail the modification of a quadrupole linear ion trap-orbitrap hybrid (QLT-orbitrap) mass spectrometer to accommodate a negative chemical ionization (NCI) source. The NCI source is used to produce fluoranthene radical anions for imparting electron transfer dissociation (ETD). The anion beam is stable, robust, and intense so that a sufficient amount of reagents can be injected into the QLT in only 4-8 ms. Following ion/ion reaction in the QLT, ETD product ions are mass-to-charge (m/z) analyzed in either the QLT (for speed and sensitivity) or the orbitrap (for mass resolution and accuracy). Here we describe the physical layout of this device, parametric optimization of anion transport, an evaluation of relevant ETD figures of merit, and the application of this instrument to protein sequence analysis. Described proteomic applications include complex peptide mixture analysis, post-translational modification (PTM) site identification, isotope-encoded quantitation, large peptide characterization, and intact protein analysis. From these experiments, we conclude the ETD-enabled orbitrap will provide the proteomic field with several new opportunities and represents an advance in protein sequence analysis technologies.
    Journal of Proteome Research 08/2008; 7(8):3127-36. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), the inhibitory subunit of the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin regulatory complex, is required for heart muscle relaxation during the cardiac cycle. Expressed only in cardiac muscle, cTnI is widely used in the clinic as a serum biomarker of cardiac injury. In vivo function of cTnI is influenced by phosphorylation and proteolysis; therefore analysis of post-translational modifications of the intact protein should greatly facilitate the understanding of cardiac regulatory mechanisms and may improve cTnI as a disease biomarker. cTnI (24 kDa, pI approximately 9.5) contains twelve serine, eight threonine, and three tyrosine residues, which presents a challenge for unequivocal identification of phosphorylation sites and quantification of positional isomers. In this study, we used top down electron capture dissociation and electron transfer dissociation MS to unravel the molecular complexity of cTnI purified from human heart tissue. High resolution MS spectra of human cTnI revealed a high degree of heterogeneity, corresponding to phosphorylation, acetylation, oxidation, and C-terminal proteolysis. Thirty-six molecular ions of cTnI were detected in a single ESI/FTMS spectrum despite running as a single sharp band on SDS-PAGE. Electron capture dissociation of monophosphorylated cTnI localized two major basal phosphorylation sites: a well known site at Ser(22) and a novel site at Ser(76)/Thr(77), each with partial occupancy (Ser(22): 53%; Ser(76)/Thr(77): 36%). Top down MS(3) analysis of diphosphorylated cTnI revealed occupancy of Ser(23) only in diphosphorylated species consistent with sequential (or ordered) phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the Ser(22/23) pair. Top down MS of cTnI provides unique opportunities for unraveling its molecular complexity and for quantification of phosphorylated positional isomers thus allowing establishment of the relevance of such modifications to physiological functions and disease status.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 05/2008; 7(10):1838-49. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can result in protein sequence polymorphisms (PSPs) when codon translations are altered. Both top-down and bottom-up proteomics strategies can identify PSPs, but only if databases and software are used with this in mind. A 14319 Da protein from human saliva was characterized using the top-down approach on a hybrid linear ion-trap Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped for both collisionally-activated (CAD) and electron-capture (ECD) dissociation. Sequence tags identified the protein as Cystatin SN, and defined the N-terminal signal peptide cleavage site, as well as two disulfide bonds, in agreement with previous studies. The mass of the intact protein (< 5 ppm error) deviated from that calculated from the published gene sequence by 16.031 Da, and, based on CAD and ECD fragment ion assignments, it was concluded that the isoform of the protein analyzed carried a PSP at residue 11 such that the Pro translated from the genome was in fact Leu/Ile. An independently determined SNP (rs2070856) subsequently confirmed the genetic basis of the mass spectral interpretation and defined the residue as Leu. In another example, the PRP3 protein with mass ∼10,999 Da was found to be an isomeric/isobaric mixture of the reported sequence with PSPs D4N or D50N (rs1049112). Both CAD and ECD datasets support two phosphorylation sites at residues Ser8 and Ser22, rather than Ser17. In the context of discovery proteomics, previously undefined PSPs and PTMs will only be detected if the logic of data processing strategies considers their presence in an unbiased fashion.
    International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 01/2008; 268(2-3):190-197. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    T. Zhang, R. Viner, Z. Hao, V. Zabrouskov
    Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics 01/2008;
  • Vlad Zabrouskov, Julian P Whitelegge
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    ABSTRACT: The c-subunit of ATP synthase (AtpH) is an 8 kD integral membrane protein with two transmembrane domains; we set out to demonstrate it amenable to top-down electrospray-ionization Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS) using both collision activated and electron capture dissociation (CAD/ECD). Thermal activation concomitant with electron delivery was necessary for efficient ECD (activated-ion ECD; aiECD), yielding complementary information and greater sequence coverage in the transmembrane domains in comparison with CAD.
    Journal of Proteome Research 07/2007; 6(6):2205-10. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Top-down mass spectrometry focuses on intact proteins, thereby avoiding loss of information accompanying 'shotgun' protocols that reduce the proteome to a collection of peptides. A suite of liquid-chromatography technologies has been developed for purification of intact integral membrane proteins in aqueous/organic solvent mixtures compatible with biological 'soft-ionization' mass spectrometry, preserving covalent structure into the gas phase. Multiply charged protein ions are fragmented in the gas phase, using either collision-activated or electron-capture dissociation, thus yielding complex spectra of sequence-dependent product ions that collectively define the original native covalent state of an intact protein. Top down offers a more detail-orientated approach to post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity allowing an enhanced insight beyond genomic translation, which has now extended into the bilayer proteome.
    Expert Review of Proteomics 01/2007; 3(6):585-96. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although deamidation at asparagine and glutamine has been found in numerous studies of a variety of proteins, in almost all cases the analytical methodology that was used could detect only a single site of deamidation. For the extensively studied case of reduced bovine ribonuclease A (13,689 Da), only Asn67 deamidation has been demonstrated previously, although one study found three monodeamidated fractions. Here top down tandem mass spectrometry shows that Asn67 deamidation is extensive before Asn71 and Asn94 react; these are more than half deamidated before Asn34 reacts, and its deamidation is extensive before that at Gln74 is initiated. Except for the initial Asn67 site, these large reactivity differences correlate poorly with neighboring amino acid identities and instead indicate residual conformational effects despite the strongly denaturing media that were used; deamidation at Asn67 could enhance that at Asn71, and these enhance that at Gln74. This success in the site-specific quantitation of deamidation in a 14 kDa protein mixture, despite the minimal 1 Da (-NH2 --> -OH) change in the molecular mass, is further evidence of the broad applicability of the top down MS/MS methodology for characterization of protein posttranslational modifications.
    Biochemistry 02/2006; 45(3):987-92. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteomic analysis of digested complex protein mixtures has become a useful strategy to identify proteins involved in biological processes. We have evaluated the use of a new mass spectrometer that combines a linear ion trap and an Orbitrap to create a hybrid tandem mass spectrometer. A digested submandibular/sublingual saliva sample was used for the analysis. We find the instrument is capable of mass resolution in excess of 40,000 and mass measurement accuracies of less than 2 ppm for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures. Such high mass accuracy allowed the elimination of virtually any false positive peptide identifications, suggesting that peptides that do not match the specificity of the protease used in the digestion of the sample should not automatically be considered as false positives. Tandem mass spectra from the linear ion trap and from the Orbitrap have very similar ion abundance ratios. We conclude this instrument will be well suited for shotgun proteomic types of analyses.
    Analytical Chemistry 02/2006; 78(2):493-500. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After synthesis and folding, proteins undergo many post-synthetic modifications, including cleavage, oxidation, glycosylation, methylation, racemization, phosphorylation, and deamidation. Of these modifications, non-enymatic deamidation is the most prevalent. Each asparaginyl and glutaminyl residue in a protein is a miniature molecular clock that deamidates with a genetically determined half-time. These half-times vary from a few hours to more than a century, depending on a primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure near the amide residue. It has been suggested that these clocks regulate many biological processes. A few such processes have been discovered. These discoveries have been difficult because deamidation is inconvenient to measure. While most post-synthetic changes are easily measured by mass spectrometry, deamidation increases molecular mass by only one nominal Dalton, so the deamidated isotopic envelope overlaps the undeamidated isotopic envelope. While peptide deamidation rate determination through deconvolution of these envelopes has been accomplished for several hundred peptides, deconvolution becomes more difficult as the molecular weight increases. In high-resolution mass spectrometers, this deconvolution is possible for larger molecules and an alternative method based on the 19 mDa mass defect between the deamidated envelope and the isotopic envelope of protein fragments can also be utilized. We herein report a comparison of the envelope deconvolution and the mass defect methods for measurement of deamidation in human eye lens crystallins, with special emphasis on betaB2 crystallin and gammaS crystallin. Measurement of extent of deamidation of betaB2 crystallin in a 7 Tesla ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometer is found to be accurate to a relative standard deviation in a single measurement of about 4% for each method. The envelope deconvolution method is further illustrated by detection of deamidation in intact gammaS crystallin, a 20 904 Da protein, and discovery of the principal gammaS deamidation site.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2006; 20(23):3535-41. · 2.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

646 Citations
116.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Thermo Fisher Scientific
      Waltham, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2006
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      La Jolla, CA, United States
  • 2003–2006
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Ithaca, NY, United States