Victor W Pike

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Maryland, United States

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Publications (380)1253.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter is densely expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its resultant 'spare capacity' requires substantial blockade to increase the uptake of avid substrates. This has blunted the ability of investigators to measure clinically meaningful alterations in P-gp function. This study, conducted in humans, examined two P-gp inhibitors (tariquidar, a known inhibitor, and disulfiram, a putative inhibitor) and two routes of administration (intravenous and oral) to maximally increase brain uptake of the avid and selective P-gp substrate (11)C-desmethyl-loperamide (dLop), while avoiding side effects associated with high doses of tariquidar. Forty-two (11)C-dLop positron emission tomography (PET) scans were obtained from 37 healthy volunteers. PET was performed with (11)C-dLop under five conditions: 1) injected under baseline conditions without P-gp inhibition; 2) injected one hour after IV tariquidar infusion; 3) injected during IV tariquidar infusion; 4) injected after oral tariquidar; and 5) injected after disulfiram. (11)C-dLop uptake was quantified with kinetic modeling using metabolite-corrected arterial input function or by measuring the area under the time-activity curve in brain from 10 to 30 minutes. Neither oral tariquidar nor oral disulfiram increased brain uptake of (11)C-dLop. Injecting (11)C-dLop during tariquidar infusion, when plasma tariquidar concentrations reach their peak, resulted in brain uptake of radioligand approximately five-fold greater than baseline. Brain uptake was similar with 2 and 4 mg/kg IV tariquidar; however, the lower dose was better tolerated. Injecting (11)C-dLop after tariquidar infusion also increased brain uptake, though higher doses (up to 6 mg/kg) were required. Brain uptake of (11)C-dLop increased fairly linearly with increasing plasma tariquidar concentrations, but we are uncertain whether maximal uptake was achieved. We sought to increase the dynamic range of P-gp function measured after blockade. Performing (11)C-dLop PET during peak plasma concentrations of tariquidar, achieved with concurrent administration of IV tariquidar, resulted in greater P-gp inhibition at the human BBB than delayed administration, and allowed use of a lower, more tolerable dose of tariquidar. Based on prior monkey studies, we suspect that plasma concentrations of tariquidar did not fully block P-gp; however, higher doses of tariquidar would likely be associated with unacceptable side effects. Copyright © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • Gregory R Naumiec, Lisheng Cai, Victor W Pike
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    ABSTRACT: An expansive set of N-aryl-N'-(3-(substituted)phenyl)-N'-methylguanidines was prepared in a search for new leads to prospective PET ligands for imaging of the open channel of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in vivo. The N-aryl rings and their substituents were varied, whereas the N-methyl group was maintained as a site for potential labeling with the positron-emitter, carbon-11 (t1/2=20.4min). At micromolar concentration, over half of the prepared compounds strongly inhibited the binding of [(3)H]TCP to its binding site in the open NMDA receptor in vitro. Four ligands displayed affinities that are similar or superior to those of the promising SPECT radioligand ([(123)I]CNS1261). The 3'-dimethylamino (19; Ki 36.7nM), 3'-trifluoromethyl (20; Ki 18.3nM) and 3'-methylthio (2; Ki 39.8nM) derivatives of N-1-naphthyl-N'-(phenyl)-N'-methylguanidine were identified as especially attractive leads for PET radioligand development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 11/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging of translocator 18kDa protein (TSPO) in living human brain with radioligands by positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important means for the study of neuroinflammatory conditions occurring in several neuropsychiatric disorders. The widely used prototypical PET radioligand, [(11)C](R)-PK 11195 ([(11)C](R)-1; [N-methyl-(11C)](R)-N-sec-butyl-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methylisoquinoline-3-carboxamide), gives low PET signal and is difficult to quantify, whereas later generation radioligands have binding sensitivity to a human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6971, which imposes limitations on their utility for comparative quantitative PET studies of normal and diseased subjects. Recently, azaisosteres of 1 have been developed with improved drug-like properties, including enhanced TSPO affinity accompanied by moderated lipophilicity. Here we selected three of these new ligands (7-9) for labeling with carbon-11 and for evaluation in monkey as candidate PET radioligands for imaging brain TSPO. Each radioligand was readily prepared by (11)C-methylation of an N-desmethyl precursor and was found to give a high proportion of TSPO-specific binding in monkey brain. One of these radioligands [(11)C]7, the direct 4-azaisostere of 1, presents many radioligand properties that are superior to those reported for [(11)C]1, including higher affinity, lower lipophilicity and stable quantifiable PET signal. Importantly, 7 was also found to show very low sensitivity to the human SNP rs6971 in vitro. Therefore, [(11)C]7 now warrants evaluation in human subjects with PET to assess its utility for imaging TSPO in human brain, irrespective of subject genotype.
    ACS Chemical Neuroscience 08/2014; · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT4) receptor, which is known to be involved physiologically in learning and memory, and pathologically in Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety and other neuropsychiatric disorders - has few radioligands readily available for imaging in vivo. We have previously reported two novel 5-HT4 receptor radioligands, namely [methoxy-11C](1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl 4-amino-3-methoxybenzoate; [11C]RX-1) and the [18F]3-fluoromethoxy analog ([18F]RX-2), and in this study we evaluated them by PET in rhesus monkey. Brain scans were performed at baseline, receptor preblock or displacement conditions using SB 207710, a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, on the same day for [11C]RX-1 and on different days for [18F]RX-2. Specific-to-nondisplaceable ratio (BPND) was measured with the simplified reference tissue model from all baseline scans. To determine specific binding, total distribution volume (VT) was also measured in some monkeys by radiometabolite-corrected arterial input function after ex vivo inhibition of esterases from baseline and blocked scans. Both radioligands showed moderate to high peak brain uptake of radioactivity (2–6 SUV). Regional BPND values were in the rank order of known 5-HT4 receptor distribution with a trend for higher BPND values from [18F]RX-2. One-tissue compartmental model provided good fits with well identified VT values for both radioligands. In the highest 5-HT4 receptor density region, striatum, 50–60% of total binding was specific. The VT in receptor-poor cerebellum reached stable values by about 60 min for both radioligands indicating little influence of radiometabolites on brain signal. In conclusion, both [11C]RX-1 and [18F]RX-2 showed positive attributes for PET imaging of brain 5-HT4 receptors, validating the radioligand design strategy. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Synapse 08/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction A radioligand for measuring the density of corticotrophin-releasing factor subtype-1 receptors (CRF1 receptors) in living animal and human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) would be a useful tool for neuropsychiatric investigations and the development of drugs intended to interact with this target. This study was aimed at discovery of such a radioligand from a group of CRF1 receptor ligands based on a core 3-(phenylamino)pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold. Methods CRF1 receptor ligands were selected for development as possible PET radioligands based on their binding potency at CRF1 receptors (displacement of [125I]CRF from rat cortical membranes), measured lipophilicity, autoradiographic binding profile in rat and rhesus monkey brain sections, rat biodistribution, and suitability for radiolabeling with carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Two identified candidates (BMS-721313 and BMS-732098) were labeled with fluorine-18. A third candidate (BMS-709460) was labeled with carbon-11 and all three radioligands were evaluated in PET experiments in rhesus monkey. CRF1 receptor density (Bmax) was assessed in rhesus brain cortical and cerebellum membranes with the CRF1 receptor ligand, [3H]BMS-728300. Results The three ligands selected for development showed high binding affinity (IC50 values, 0.3–8 nM) at CRF1 receptors and moderate lipophilicity (LogD, 2.8–4.4). [3H]BMS-728300 and the two 18 F-labeled ligands showed region-specific binding in rat and rhesus monkey brain autoradiography, namely higher binding density in the frontal and limbic cortex, and cerebellum than in thalamus and brainstem. CRF1 receptor Bmax in rhesus brain was found to be 50 − 120 fmol/mg protein across cortical regions and cerebellum. PET experiments in rhesus monkey showed that the radioligands [18 F]BMS-721313, [18 F]BMS-732098 and [11C]BMS-709460 gave acceptably high brain radioactivity uptake but no indication of the specific binding as seen in vitro. Conclusions Candidate CRF1 receptor PET radioligands were identified but none proved to be effective for imaging monkey brain CRF1 receptors. Higher affinity radioligands are likely required for successful PET imaging of CRF1 receptors.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 07/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Translocator protein (18kDa), known as TSPO, is a recognized biomarker of neuroinflammation. Radioligands with PET accurately quantify TSPO in neuroinflammatory conditions. However, the existence of three human TSPO genotypes that show differential affinity to almost all useful TSPO PET radioligands hampers such studies. There is an unmet need for genotype-insensitive, high-affinity and moderately lipophilic TSPO ligands that may serve as leads for PET radioligand development. To address this need, we varied the known high-affinity TSPO ligand (l)-N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-3-(2-phenylquinolin-4-yl)propanamide in its aryl scaffold, side-chain tether, and pendant substituted amido group while retaining an N-methyl group as a site for labeling with carbon-11. From this effort oxygen-tethered N-methyl-aryloxypropanamides emerged as new high-affinity TSPO ligands with attenuated lipophilicity, including one example with attractive properties for PET radioligand development, namely N-methyl-N-phenyl-2-{[2-(pyridin-2-yl)quinolin-4-yl]oxy}propanamide (22a; rat Ki = 0.10 nM; human TSPO genotypes Ki = 1.4 nM; clogD = 4.18).
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2014; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose: This study examined the long-term effects of fluoxetine administered to juvenile rhesus monkeys who, as young adults, were imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) for two serotonergic markers: serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor. Social interactions were also assessed both during and after drug administration. Main conclusion: Fluoxetine administered to juvenile monkeys upregulated SERT into young adulthood but did not significantly affect behavioral measures.
    69th Society of Biological Psychiatry Annual Meeting 2014; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Image-derived input function (IDIF) obtained by manually drawing carotid arteries (manual-IDIF) can be reliably used in [(11)C](R)-rolipram positron emission tomography (PET) scans. However, manual-IDIF is time consuming and subject to inter- and intra-operator variability. To overcome this limitation, we developed a fully automated technique for deriving IDIF with a supervised clustering algorithm (SVCA). To validate this technique, 25 healthy controls and 26 patients with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a 90-minute [(11)C](R)-rolipram PET scan. For each subject, metabolite-corrected input function was measured from the radial artery. SVCA templates were obtained from 10 additional healthy subjects who underwent the same MRI and PET procedures. Cluster-IDIF was obtained as follows: 1) template mask images were created for carotid and surrounding tissue; 2) parametric image of weights for blood were created using SVCA; 3) mask images to the individual PET image were inversely normalized; 4) carotid and surrounding tissue time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from weighted and unweighted averages of each voxel activity in each mask, respectively; 5) partial volume effects and radiometabolites were corrected using individual arterial data at four points. Logan-distribution volume (V T/f P) values obtained by cluster-IDIF were similar to reference results obtained using arterial data, as well as those obtained using manual-IDIF; 39 of 51 subjects had a V T/f P error of <5%, and only one had error >10%. With automatic voxel selection, cluster-IDIF curves were less noisy than manual-IDIF and free of operator-related variability. Cluster-IDIF showed widespread decrease of about 20% [(11)C](R)-rolipram binding in the MDD group. Taken together, the results suggest that cluster-IDIF is a good alternative to full arterial input function for estimating Logan-V T/f P in [(11)C](R)-rolipram PET clinical scans. This technique enables fully automated extraction of IDIF and can be applied to other radiotracers with similar kinetics.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89101. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study examined the long-term effects of fluoxetine administered to juvenile rhesus monkeys who, as young adults, were imaged with positron emission tomography for two serotonergic markers: serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor. An equal number of monkeys separated from their mothers at birth-an animal model of human childhood stress-were also studied. METHOD At birth, 32 male rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to either maternal separation or normal rearing conditions. At age 2, half (N=8) of each group was randomly assigned to fluoxetine (3 mg/kg) or placebo for 1 year. To eliminate the confounding effects of residual drug in the brain, monkeys were scanned at least 1.5 years after drug discontinuation. Social interactions were assessed both during and after drug administration. RESULTS Fluoxetine persistently upregulated SERT, but not 5-HT1A receptors, in both the neocortex and the hippocampus. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis revealed that fluoxetine had a significant effect in the lateral temporal and cingulate cortices. In contrast, neither maternal separation by itself nor the rearing-by-drug interaction was significant for either marker. Fluoxetine had no significant effect on the behavioral measures. CONCLUSIONS Fluoxetine administered to juvenile monkeys upregulates SERT into young adulthood. Implications regarding the efficacy or potential adverse effects of SSRIs in patients cannot be directly drawn from this study. Its purpose was to investigate effects of SSRIs on brain development in nonhuman primates using an experimental approach that randomly assigned long-term SSRI treatment or placebo.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 01/2014; · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PET radioligand (11)C-CUMI-101 was previously suggested as a putative agonist radioligand for the serotonin 1A (5-hydroxytryptamine 1A [5-HT1A]) receptor in recombinant cells expressing human 5-HT1A receptor. However, a recent study showed that CUMI-101 behaved as a potent 5-HT1A receptor antagonist in rat brain. CUMI-101 also has moderate affinity (Ki = 6.75 nM) for α1 adrenoceptors measured in vitro. The current study examined the functional properties and selectivity of CUMI-101, both in vitro and in vivo. The functional assay was performed using (35)S-GTPγS (GTP is guanosine triphosphate) in primate brains. The cross-reactivity of CUMI-101 with α1 adrenoceptors was performed using in vitro radioligand binding studies in rat, monkey, and human brains as well as in vivo PET imaging in mouse, rat, and monkey brains. CUMI-101 did not stimulate (35)S-GTPγS binding in primate brain, in contrast to 8-OH-DPAT, a potent 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Instead, CUMI-101 behaved as a potent 5-HT1A receptor antagonist by dose-dependently inhibiting 8-OH-DPAT-stimulated (35)S-GTPγS binding. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that CUMI-101 had significant α1 adrenoceptor cross-reactivity. On average, across all 3 species examined, cross-reactivity was highest in the thalamus (>45%) and lowest in the neocortex and cerebellum (<10%). PET imaging further confirmed that only preblocking with WAY-100635 plus prazosin decreased (11)C-CUMI-101 brain uptake to that of self-block. CUMI-101 behaves as a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist in primate brain, with significant, regional-dependent α1 adrenoceptor cross-reactivity, limiting its potential use as a PET radioligand in humans.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2014; 55(1):141-6. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [(11)C]NOP-1A is a novel high-affinity PET ligand for imaging nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors. Here, we report reproducibility and reliability measures of binding parameter estimates for [(11)C]NOP-1A binding in brain of healthy humans After intravenous injection of [(11)C]NOP-1A PET scans were conducted twice on eleven healthy volunteers on the same (10/11 subjects) or different (1/11 subjects) days. Subjects underwent serial sampling of radial arterial blood to measure parent radioligand concentrations. Distribution volume (VT a measure of receptor density) was determined by compartmental (one- and two- tissue) modeling in large regions and by simpler regression methods (graphical Logan and bilinear MA1) in both large regions and voxel data. Retest variability and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of VT were determined as measures of reproducibility and reliability respectively Regional [(11)C]NOP-1A uptake in brain was high, with a peak radioactivity concentration of 4 - 7 SUV (standardized uptake value) and a rank order of putamen > cingulate cortex > cerebellum. Brain time-activity curves fitted well in 10 of 11 subjects by unconstrained two-tissue compartmental model. The retest variability of VT was moderately good across brain regions except cerebellum, and was similar across different modeling methods, averaging 12% for large regions and 14% for voxel-based methods. The retest reliability of VT was also moderately good in most brain regions, except thalamus and cerebellum, and was similar across different modeling methods averaging 0.46 for large regions and 0.48 for voxels having gray matter probability > 20%. The lowest retest variability and highest retest reliability of VT was achieved by compartmental modeling for large regions, and by the parametric Logan method for voxel-based methods. Moderately good reproducibility and reliability measures of VT for [(11)C]NOP-1A make it a useful PET ligand for comparing NOP receptor binding between different subject groups or under different conditions in the same subject.
    NeuroImage 11/2013; · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to develop a PET radioligand that would be useful for imaging human brain metabotropic subtype 1 receptors (mGluR1) in neuropsychiatric disorders and in drug development. 4 Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(4-(6-(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide (FIMX, 11) was identified as having favorable properties for development as a PET radioligand. We developed a method for preparing [(18)F]11 in useful radiochemical yield and in high specific activity from [(18)F]fluoride ion and an N-Boc-protected (phenyl)aryliodonium salt precursor (15). In baseline experiments in rhesus monkey, [(18)F]11 gave high brain radioactivity uptake reflecting the expected distribution of mGluR1 with notably high uptake in cerebellum which became 47% lower by 120 min after radioligand injection. Pharmacological challenges demonstrated a very high proportion of the radioactivity in monkey brain to be bound specifically and reversibly to mGluR1. [(18)F]11 is concluded to be an effective PET radioligand for imaging mGluR1 in monkey brain and therefore merits further evaluation in human subjects.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently developed a novel cannabinoid subtype-1 (CB1) receptor radioligand (11)C-SD5024 for brain imaging. This study aimed to evaluate (11)C-SD5024 both in vitro and in vivo and compare it with the other CB1 receptor ligands previously used in humans, i.e., (11)C-MePPEP, (11)C-OMAR, (18)F-MK-9470, and (18)F-FMPEP-d2. In vitro experiments were performed to measure dissociation constant (Ki) in human brain and to measure the lipophilicity of five CB1 receptor ligands listed above. In vivo specific binding in monkeys was measured by comparing total distribution volume (VT) at baseline and after full receptor blockade. The kinetics of (11)C-SD5024 in humans were evaluated in seven healthy subjects with compartmental modeling. SD5024 showed Ki=0.47 nM, which was at an intermediate level among the five CB1 receptor ligands. Lipophilicity (LogD7.4) was 3.79, which is appropriate for brain imaging. Monkey scans showed high proportion of specific binding: ~80% of VT. In humans, (11)C-SD5024 showed peak brain uptake of 1.5-3 standardized uptake value, which was slightly higher than those of (11)C-OMAR and (18)F-MK-9470. One-compartment model showed good fitting, consistent with the vast majority of brain uptake being specific binding found in the monkey. Regional VT values were consistent with known distribution of CB1 receptors. VT calculated from 80 and 120min of scan data were strongly correlated (R(2)=0.97), indicating that 80min provided adequate information for quantitation and that the influence of radiometabolites was low. Intersubject variability for VT of (11)C-SD5024 was 22%, which was low among the five radioligands and indicated precise measurement. In conclusion, (11)C-SD5024 has appropriate affinity and lipophilicity, high specific binding, moderate brain uptake, and provides good precision to measure the binding. The results suggest that (11)C-SD5024 is slightly better than or equivalent to (11)C-OMAR and that both are suitable for clinical studies, especially those that involve two scans in one day.
    NeuroImage 09/2013; · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurocysticercosis, an infection with the larval form of the tapeworm, Taeniasolium, is the cause of 29% of epilepsy in endemic regions. Epilepsy in this population is mostly associated with calcified granulomas; at the time of seizure recurrence 50% of those with calcifications demonstrate transient surrounding perilesional edema. Whether edema is consequence of the seizure, or a result of host inflammation directed against parasite antigens or other processes is unknown. To investigate whether perilesional edema is due to inflammation, we imaged a marker of neuroinflammation, translocater protein (TSPO), using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective ligand (11)C-PBR28. In nine patients with perilesional edema, degenerating cyst or both, PET findings were compared to the corresponding magnetic resonance images. Degenerating cysts were also studied because unlike perilesional edema, degenerating cysts are known to have inflammation. In three of the nine patients, changes in (11)C-PBR28 binding were also studied over time. (11)C-PBR28 binding was compared to the contralateral un-affected region. (11)C-PBR28 binding increased by a mean of 13% in perilesional edema or degenerating cysts (P = 0·0005, n = 13 in nine patients). Among these 13 lesions, perilesional edema (n=10) showed a slightly smaller increase of 10% compared to the contralateral side (P = 0·005) than the three degenerating cysts. In five lesions with perilesional edema in which repeated measurements of (11)C-PBR28 binding were done, increased binding lasted for 2-9 months. Increased TSPO in perilesional edema indicates an inflammatory etiology. The long duration of increased TSPO binding after resolution of the original perilesional edema and the pattern of periodic episodes is consistent with intermittent exacerbation from a continued baseline presence of low level inflammation. Novel anti-inflammatory measures may be useful in the prevention or treatment of seizures in this population.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74052. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Joong-Hyun Chun, Victor W Pike
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    ABSTRACT: Radiotracers labelled with short-lived fluorine-18 (t1/2 = 109.7 min) are keenly sought for biomedical imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). The radiotracers are mostly required at high specific radioactivities, necessitating their radiosyntheses from cyclotron-produced no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoride ion. PET radiotracers encompass wide structural diversity and molecular weight. Hence, diverse (18)F-labeling methodology is needed to accomplish the required radiosyntheses in a simple and rapid manner. A useful strategy is to introduce nucleophilic [(18)F]fluoride ion first into a labeling synthon that may then be applied to label the target radiotracer. Here, we show that various functionalized [(18)F]fluoroarenes may be rapidly synthesized as labeling synthons through single-step reactions of appropriate diaryliodonium salts with [(18)F]fluoride ion. Decay-corrected radiochemical yields (RCYs) varied with position of functional group, choice of electron-rich aryl ring in the diaryliodonium salt, and choice of anion. Under best conditions, (18)F-labeled fluorobenzaldehydes, fluorobenzyl halides, fluorobenzoic acid esters and fluorophenyl ketones were obtained selectively in 40-73%, 20-55%, 46-89% and 81-98% RCYs, respectively. This versatile straightforward methodology will enhance the scope for producing structurally complex, yet useful, PET radiotracers.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 08/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,253.12 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Molecular Imaging Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Cambridge
      • Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2011
    • East China University of Science and Technology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Molecular Imaging Inc
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2006–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Laboratory of Cell Biology
      • • Division of Computational Bioscience
      • • Center for Clinical Research
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      • Klinik für Nuklearmedizin
      Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Dallas, Texas, United States
    • Jiangxi Normal University
      Nan-ch’ang-shih, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 1998–2008
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2007
    • University of Hull
      • Department of Chemistry
      Kingston upon Hull, England, United Kingdom
  • 1981–2006
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • College of Pharmacy
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 1998–2003
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Medicinal Chemistry
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1994–2001
    • MRC Clinical Sciences Centre
      London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Radiology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1992
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium