[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal spacing has important implications for population abundance, species demography and the environment. Mechanisms underlying spatial segregation have their roots in the characteristics of the animals, their mutual interaction and their response, collective as well as individual, to environmental variables. This review describes how the combination of these factors shapes the patterns we observe and presents a practical, usable framework for the analysis of movement data in confined spaces. The basis of the framework is the theory of interacting random walks and the mathematical description of out-of-equilibrium systems. Although our focus is on modelling and interpreting animal home ranges and territories in vertebrates, we believe further studies on invertebrates may also help to answer questions and resolve unanswered puzzles that are still inaccessible to experimental investigation in vertebrate species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A theory of the spread of epidemics is formulated on the basis of pairwise
interactions in a dilute system of random walkers (infected and susceptible
animals) moving in n dimensions. The motion of an animal pair is taken to obey
a Smoluchowski equation in 2n-dimensional space that combines diffusion with
confinement of each animal to its particular home range. An additional
(reaction) term that comes into play when the animals are in close proximity
describes the process of infection. Analytic solutions are obtained, confirmed
by numerical procedures, and shown to predict a surprising effect of
confinement. The effect is that infection spread has a non-monotonic dependence
on the diffusion constant and/or the extent of the attachment of the animals to
the home ranges. Optimum values of these parameters exist for any given
distance between the attractive centers. Any change from those values,
involving faster/slower diffusion or shallower/steeper confinement, hinders the
transmission of infection. A physical explanation is provided by the theory.
Reduction to the simpler case of no home ranges is demonstrated. Effective
infection rates are calculated and it is shown how to use them in complex
systems consisting of dense populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Problems involving the capture of a moving entity by a trap occur in a variety of physical situations, the moving entity being an electron, an excitation, an atom, a molecule, a biological object such as a receptor cluster, a cell, or even an animal such as a mouse carrying an epidemic. Theoretical considerations have almost always assumed that the particle motion is translationally invariant. We study here the case when that assumption is relaxed, in that the particle is additionally subjected to a harmonic potential. This tethering to a center modifies the reaction-diffusion phenomenon. Using a Smoluchowski equation to describe the system, we carry out a study which is explicit in one dimension but can be easily extended for arbitrary dimensions. Interesting features emerge depending on the relative location of the trap, the attractive center, and the initial placement of the diffusing particle.
Physical Review E 12/2013; 88(6-1):062142. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.88.062142 · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The approach to equilibrium of a nondegenerate quantum system involves the
damping of microscopic population oscillations, and, additionally, the bringing
about of detailed balance, i.e. the achievement of the correct Boltzmann
factors relating the populations. These two are separate effects of interaction
with a reservoir. One stems from the randomization of phases and the other from
phase space considerations. Even the meaning of the word `phase' differs
drastically in the two instances in which it appears in the previous statement.
In the first case it normally refers to quantum phases whereas in the second it
describes the multiplicity of reservoir states that corresponds to each system
state. The generalized master equation theory for the time evolution of such
systems is here developed in a transparent manner and both effects of reservoir
interactions are addressed in a unified fashion. The formalism is illustrated
in simple cases including in the standard spin-boson situation wherein a
quantum dimer is in interaction with a bath consisting of harmonic oscillators.
The theory has been constructed for application in energy transfer in molecular
aggregates and in photosynthetic reaction centers.
The European Physical Journal B 08/2013; 87(4). DOI:10.1140/epjb/e2014-40891-0 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wave propagation can be clearly discerned in data collected on mouse populations in the Cibola National Forest (New Mexico, USA) related to seasonal changes. During an exploration of the construction of a methodology for investigations of the spread of the Hantavirus epidemic in mice we have built a system of interacting reaction diffusion equations of the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov type. Although that approach has met with clear success recently in explaining Hantavirus refugia and other spatiotemporal correlations, we have discovered that certain observed features of the wave propagation observed in the data we mention are impossible to explain unless modifications are made. However, we have found that it is possible to provide a tentative explanation/description of the observations on the basis of an assumed Allee effect proposed to exist in the dynamics. Such incorporation of the Allee effect has been found useful in several of our recent investigations both of population dynamics and pattern formation and appears to be natural to the observed system. We report on our investigation of the observations with our extended theory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study electron tunneling between two infinte potential square wells connected via an opaque barrier and find that time evolution of the probability of the presence of a Gaussian wave packet, localized initially in one of the wells, shares the fractal behavior of tunneling in a quartic potential, discovered by Dekker (H. Dekker, Phys. Rev.A35, 1825 (1987). However, the fractal dimensions are found to be closer to those of a conventional Weierstrass function than those appropriate to the quasi-Weierstrass behavior of Dekker. It is argued that the usual exponential decay predicted by conventional relaxation processes can be recovered only as an effect of thermal fluctuations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study bifurcations in a spatially extended nonlinear system representing population dynamics with the help of analytic calculations. The result we obtain helps in the understanding of the onset of abrupt transitions leading to the extinction of biological populations. The result is expressed in terms of Airy functions and sheds light on the behavior of bacteria in a Petri dish as well as of large animals such as rodents moving over a landscape.
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 01/2011; 390(2):257-262. DOI:10.1016/j.physa.2010.09.026 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotational effects on the nonlinear sliding friction of a damped dimer moving over a substrate are studied within a largely one-dimensional model. The model consists of two masses connected rigidly, internally damped, and sliding over a sinusoidal (substrate) potential while being free to rotate in the plane containing the masses and the direction of sliding. Numerical simulations of the dynamics performed by throwing the dimer with an initial center of mass velocity along the substrate direction show a richness of phenomena including the appearance of three separate regimes of motion. The orientation of the dimer performs tiny oscillations around values that are essentially constant in each regime. The constant orientations form an intricate pattern determined by the ratio of the dimer length to the substrate wavelength as well as by the initial orientations chosen. Corresponding evolution of the center of mass velocity consists, respectively, of regular oscillations in the first and the third regimes, but a power law decay in the second regime; the center of mass motion is effectively damped in this regime because of the coupling to the rotation. Depending on the initial orientation of the dimer, there is considerable variation in the overall behavior. For small initial angles to the vertical, an interesting formal connection can be established to earlier results known in the literature for a vibrating, rather than rotating, dimer. But for large angles, on which we focus in the present paper, quite different evolution occurs. Some of the numerical observations are explained successfully on the basis of approximate analytical arguments but others pose puzzling problems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an analytic study of traveling fronts, localized colonies, and extended patterns arising from a reaction-diffusion equation which incorporates simultaneously two features: the well-known Allee effect and spatially nonlocal competition interactions. The former is an essential ingredient of most systems in population dynamics and involves extinction at low densities, growth at higher densities, and saturation at still higher densities. The latter feature is also highly relevant, particularly to biological systems, and goes beyond the unrealistic assumption of zero-range interactions. We show via exact analytic methods that the combination of the two features yields a rich diversity of phenomena and permits an understanding of a variety of issues including spontaneous appearance of colonies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quantum nonlinear dimer consisting of an electron shuttling between the
two sites and in weak interaction with vibrations, is studied numerically under
the application of a DC electric field. A field-induced resonance phenomenon
between the vibrations and the electronic oscillations is found to influence
the electronic transport greatly. For initially delocalization of the electron,
the resonance has the effect of a dramatic increase in the transport. Nonlinear
frequency mixing is identified as the main mechanism that influences transport.
A characterization of the frequency spectrum is also presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We predict an abrupt observable transition, on the basis of numerical studies, of hantavirus infection in terrain characterized by spatially dependent environmental resources. The underlying framework of the analysis is that of Fisher equations with an internal degree of freedom, the state of infection. The unexpected prediction is of the sudden disappearance of refugia of infection in spite of the existence of supercritical (favorable) food resources, brought about by reduction of their spatial extent. Numerical results are presented and a theoretical explanation is provided on analytic grounds on the basis of the competition of diffusion of rodents carrying the hantavirus and nonlinearity present in the resource interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present some models of random walks with internal degrees of freedom that have the potential to find application in the context of animal movement and stochastic search. The formalism we use is based on the generalized master equation which is particularly convenient here because of its inherent coarse-graining procedure whereby a random walker position is averaged over the internal degrees of freedom. We show some instances in which non-local jump probabilities emerge from the coupling of the motion to the internal degrees of freedom, and how the tuning of one parameter can give rise to sub-, super-and normal diffusion at long times. Remarks on the relation between the generalized master equation, continuous time random walks and fractional diffusion equations are also presented.
Journal of Physics A Mathematical and Theoretical 10/2009; 4220(43). DOI:10.1088/1751-8113/42/43/434004 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anomalous diffusion of random walks has been extensively studied for the case of non-interacting particles. Here we study the evolution of nonlinear partial differential equations by interpreting them as Fokker–Planck equations arising from interactions among random walkers. We extend the formalism of generalized Hurst exponents to the study of nonlinear evolution equations and apply it to several illustrative examples. They include an analytically solvable case of a nonlinear diffusion constant and three nonlinear equations which are not analytically solvable: the usual Fisher equation which contains a quadratic nonlinearity, a generalization of the Fisher equation with density-dependent diffusion constant, and the Nagumo equation which incorporates a cubic rather than a quadratic nonlinearity. We estimate the generalized Hurst exponents.
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 09/2009; 388(18):3687-3694. DOI:10.1016/j.physa.2009.05.015 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a comprehensive dynamical model for cooperative motion of self-propelled particles, e.g., flocking, by combining well-known elements such as velocity-alignment interactions, spatial interactions, and angular noise into a unified Lagrangian treatment. Noise enters into our model in an especially realistic way: it incorporates correlations, is highly nonlinear, and it leads to a unique collective behavior. Our results show distinct stability regions and an apparent change in the nature of one class of noise-induced phase transitions, with respect to the mean velocity of the group, as the range of the velocity-alignment interaction increases. This phase-transition change comes accompanied with drastic modifications of the microscopic dynamics, from nonintermittent to intermittent. Our results facilitate the understanding of the origin of the phase transitions present in other treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate possible effects of high-order nonlinearities on the shapes of infection refugia of the reservoir of an infectious disease. We replace Fisher-type equations that have been recently used to describe, among others, the Hantavirus spread in mouse populations by generalizations capable of describing Allee effects that are a consequence of the high-order nonlinearities. After analyzing the equations to calculate steady-state solutions, we study the stability of those solutions and compare to the earlier Fisher-type case. Finally, we consider the spatial modulation of the environment and find that unexpected results appear, including a bifurcation that has not been studied before.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effective-medium theory of transport in disordered systems, whose basis is the replacement of spatial disorder by temporal memory, is extended in several practical directions. Restricting attention to a one-dimensional system with bond disorder for specificity, a transformation procedure is developed to deduce explicit expressions for the memory functions from given distribution functions characterizing the system disorder. It is shown how to use the memory functions in the Laplace domain forms in which they first appear, and in the time domain forms which are obtained via numerical inversion algorithms, to address time evolution of the system beyond the asymptotic domain of large times normally treated. An analytic but approximate procedure is provided to obtain the memories, in addition to the inversion algorithm. Good agreement of effective-medium theory predictions with numerically computed exact results is found for all time ranges for the distributions used except near the percolation limit, as expected. The use of ensemble averages is studied for normal as well as correlation observables. The effect of size on effective-medium theory is explored and it is shown that, even in the asymptotic limit, finite-size corrections develop to the well-known harmonic mean prescription for finding the effective rate. A percolation threshold is shown to arise even in one dimension for finite (but not infinite) systems at a concentration of broken bonds related to the system size. Spatially long-range transfer rates are shown to emerge naturally as a consequence of the replacement of spatial disorder by temporal memories, in spite of the fact that the original rates possess nearest neighbor character. Pausing time distributions in continuous-time random walks corresponding to the effective-medium memories are calculated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study bifurcations in a spatially extended nonlinear system representing population dynamics with the help of analytic calculations based on the time-independent Schr\"{o}dinger equation for a quantum particle subjected to a uniform gravitational field. Despite the linear character of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation, the result we obtain helps in the understanding of the onset of abrupt transitions leading to extinction of biological populations. The result is expressed in terms of Airy functions and sheds light on the behavior of bacteria in a Petri dish as well as of large animals such as rodents moving over a landscape.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the origin of the experimentally observed multifractal scaling of vehicular traffic flows by studying a hydrodynamic model of traffic. We first extend and apply the formalism of generalized Hurst exponents H(q) to the case of random walkers that not only diffuse but rather also undergo nonlinear convection due to interactions with other walkers. We recover analytically, as expected, that H(q) equals 12 for a single random walker starting at the origin whose probability density function satisfies Burger's equation. Despite this result for a single walker, we find that for a collection of nonlinearly convecting diffusive particles, transient effects can give rise to multiscaling at given time scales for many initial conditions. In the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards hydrodynamic model of traffic, this multiscaling effect becomes more prominent for smaller diffusion constants and larger speed limits. We discuss the relevance of these findings for the realistic scenario of traffic that flows from small roads to large highways and vice versa, where transient effects can be expected to play a significant role.