Publications (3)4.05 Total impact
Article: Small proliferative adipocytes: identification of proliferative cells expressing adipocyte markers [Review].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has been thought that adipocytes lack proliferative ability and do not revert to precursor cells. However, numerous findings that challenge this notion have also been reported. The idea that adipocytes dedifferentiate to fibroblast-like cells with increasing cell number was reported in 1975. This possibility has been ignored despite knowledge gained in the 1990s regarding adipocyte differentiation. Several studies on proliferation and dedifferentiation of adipocytes have been published, most of which were conducted from the perspective of regenerative medicine. However, the concept of proliferation of adipocytes remains unclear. In this study, we postulate a new population of adipocytes, which consist of small sized cells (less than 20 μm in diameter) expressing adipocyte markers, such as adiponectin and PPARγ, but not possessing large lipid droplets. These cells show marked ability to incorporate 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), for which reason we termed them "small proliferative adipocytes (SPA)". In addition, SPA are observed in the stromal vascular fraction. Since SPA are morphologically different from mature adipocytes, we regarded them as committed progenitor cells. When proliferation of adipocytes in vivo is assessed by measuring BrdU incorporation and expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in isolated fractions of adipocytes from adipose tissues, subcutaneous SPA proliferate less actively than visceral SPA. Treatment with pioglitazone increases the number of proliferating SPA in subcutaneous, but not visceral, fat, suggesting that SPA may be important in regulating systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism.Endocrine Journal 06/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The possibility that mature adipocytes proliferate has not been fully investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that adipocytes can proliferate. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled adipocyte like cells, most of which were less than 30 μm in diameter, were observed in adipose tissue. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was simultaneously detected in BrdU-labeled nuclei. Observation of individual mature adipocytes of smeared specimens on glass slides revealed that small sized adipocytes more frequently incorporated BrdU. Cultured mature adipocytes using the ceiling-cultured method showed clustering of proliferating cells in small-sized adipocytes. These small cultured adipocytes, but not large ones, extensively incorporated BrdU. Quantified analysis of BrdU incorporation demonstrated that mature visceral adipocytes, including epididymal, mesenteric and perirenal adipocytes, proliferated more actively than subcutaneous ones. On the other hand, treatment with pioglitazone (Pio), a ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, containing food for 2w, elevated BrdU incorporation and expression of PCNA in mature adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous, but not visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, Pio induced increased BrdU-labeled small-sized subcutaneous adipocytes, which was associated with an increased number of total small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In conclusion, mature adipocytes have a subgroup representing the potential to replicate, and this proliferation is more active in visceral adipocytes. Treatment with Pio increases proliferation in subcutaneous adipocytes. These results may explain the mechanism of Pio-induced hyperplasia especially in subcutaneous adipocytes.Endocrine Journal 09/2012; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite much research, whether mature adipocytes proliferate remains controversial. Here, we examined 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelling of mature adipocytes. Although BrdU incorporation into subcutaneous adipocytes was less than that in visceral adipocytes, pioglitazone (Pio) treatment increased BrdU incorporation in subcutaneous, but not visceral, adipocytes in rats. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exhibited an increase in cell number and BrdU incorporation with time, with this increase enhanced by Pio treatment. We therefore screened for genes that encode growth factors regulated by Pio, and selected proliferin (PLF). Both gene silencing of PLF by small interfering RNA and treatment with anti-PLF antibody suppressed proliferation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In adipocytes isolated from Pio-treated rats, the tissue-specific pattern of PLF expression was similar to that of BrdU incorporation. Administration of an anti-PLF antibody to mice reduced BrdU incorporation into adipocytes. Mature adipocytes thus have the ability to replicate, and this proliferation is positively regulated by PLF.Nature Precedings.