[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the nature and sources of the decline in the level of employment of working age males in Australia in recent decades, drawing on both Australian Bureau of Statistics labour force survey data and census data. Alternative measures of the male employment rate are considered before settling on two complementary measures: the full-time employment rate and the full-time equivalent employment rate. The latter measure weights part-time jobs according to the fraction of a full-time job they represent. We then go on to estimate models of the determinants of these two employment rates using data from the population censuses conducted between 1971 and 2001. We construct a pseudo panel by ‘stacking’ the seven census data sets (Deaton 1997, Kapteyn et al 2005). This facilitates the tracing of birth cohorts over time, in turn making it possible to control for cohort unobserved heterogeneity that may bias cross-sectional estimates of effects of other characteristics, in particular age and year/time period. We produce evidence that a number of factors have contributed to the decline in male employment, including growth in educational enrolment and attainment, the decline in couple households with dependent children, growth in income taxes and welfare replacement rates, growth in labour productivity and changes in the structure of labour demand away from traditionally male-dominated industries. Significantly, we find that, all else (observable) constant, more recent birth cohorts have higher employment rates than earlier birth cohorts.
Productivity Commission, Government of Australia, Staff Working Papers. 01/2008;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Before the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations can be concluded negotiators will need to agree on a host of market access issues, including the size of tariff cuts, a methodology for opening tariff quotas in the case of products exempted from applying full tariff cuts, and the amount of flexibility to be provided under special and differential treatment for developing countries. Each of these issues harbours a number of complex problems that will have to be addressed. How these are resolved could have significant impacts on the actual level of market access created by the final agreement. This paper analyses the extensive inventory of outstanding issues yet to be resolved if an effective outcome is to be reached.
Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, 2007 Conference (51st), February 13-16, 2007, Queenstown, New Zealand. 01/2007;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the failure to launch a new round of trade negotiations at Seattle, further negotiations on agriculture are scheduled as part of the in-built agenda of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In this paper it is shown that global benefits from agricultural trade liberalisation are substantial. It is desirable that Australia continues to press for a more comprehensive round of negotia- tions, while continuing to negotiate on agriculture. This is because the likeli- hood of negotiating a successful outcome for agriculture is greater under more comprehensive negotiations.