[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) remains unexplained.
To determine the relationship between AHR, features of asthma, and clinical characteristics of SCA, we conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study of children with SCA. Dose response slope (DRS) was calculated to describe methacholine responsiveness, because 30% of participants did not achieve a 20% decrease in FEV1 after inhalation of the highest methacholine concentration, 25 mg/mL. Multiple linear regression analysis was done to identify independent predictors of DRS.
Methacholine challenge was performed in 99 children with SCA aged 5.6 to 19.9 years (median, 12.8 years). Fifty-four (55%) children had a provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decrease in FEV1<4 mg/mL. In a multivariate analysis, independent associations were found between increased methacholine responsiveness and age (P<.001), IgE (P=.009), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (P=.005). There was no association between methacholine responsiveness and a parent report of a doctor diagnosis of asthma (P=.986). Other characteristics of asthma were not associated with methacholine responsiveness, including positive skin tests to aeroallergens, exhaled nitric oxide, peripheral blood eosinophil count, and pulmonary function measures indicating airflow obstruction.
In children with SCA, AHR to methacholine is prevalent. Younger age, serum IgE concentration, and LDH level, a marker of hemolysis, are associated with AHR. With the exception of serum IgE, no signs or symptoms of an allergic diathesis are associated with AHR. Although the relationship between methacholine responsiveness and LDH suggests that factors related to SCA may contribute to AHR, these results will need to be validated in future studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although exertional dyspnea in obesity is an important and prolific clinical concern, the underlying mechanism remains unclear.
To investigate whether dyspnea on exertion in otherwise healthy obese women was associated with an increase in the oxygen cost of breathing or cardiovascular deconditioning.
Obese women with and without dyspnea on exertion participated in two independent experiments (n = 16 and n = 14). All participants underwent pulmonary function testing, hydrostatic weighing, ratings of perceived breathlessness during cycling at 60 W, and determination of the oxygen cost of breathing during eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea at 40 and 60 L/min. Cardiovascular exercise capacity, fat distribution, and respiratory mechanics were determined in 14 women in experiment 2. Data were analyzed between groups by independent t test, and the relationship between the variables was determined by regression analysis.
In both experiments, breathlessness during 60 W cycling was markedly increased in over 37% of the obese women (P < 0.01). Age, height, weight, lung function, and %body fat were not different between the groups in either experiment. In contrast, the oxygen cost of breathing was significantly (P < 0.01) and markedly (38-70%) greater in the obese women with dyspnea on exertion. The oxygen cost of breathing was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with the rating of perceived breathlessness obtained during the 60 W exercise in experiment 1 (r(2) = 0.57) and experiment 2 (r(2) = 0.72). Peak cardiovascular exercise capacity, fat distribution, and respiratory mechanics were not different between groups in experiment 2.
Dyspnea on exertion is prevalent in otherwise healthy obese women, which seems to be strongly associated with an increased oxygen cost of breathing. Exercise capacity is not reduced in obese women with dyspnea on exertion.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2008; 178(2):116-23. · 11.04 Impact Factor