Trevor C Chen

National Chiayi University, T’ai-nan-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (30)51.18 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether an acute bout of active or dynamic hamstring stretching exercises to reduce the amount of muscle damage observed after a strenuous eccentric task and to determine whether the stretching protocols elicit similar responses.
    International journal of sports physiology and performance. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared changes in indirect muscle damage markers after maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors (EF) among pre-adolescent (9-10 years), adolescent (14-15 years) and post-adolescent (20-25 years) men to test the hypothesis that the magnitude of muscle damage would increase with increase in age. Thirteen untrained men of each age group performed two bouts (ECC1, ECC2) of 30 maximal EF eccentric contractions. Several indirect muscle damage markers were measured from the exercised arm before, immediately after, and 1-5 days post-exercise. Changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque of the EF (MVC), range of motion of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference (CIR), muscle passive stiffness, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration after ECC1 and ECC2 were compared amongst groups by a mixed-design two-way ANOVA. MVC before exercise was smaller (P < 0.05) for pre-adolescent (8.9 ± 1.9 Nm) than adolescent (25.1 ± 3.9 Nm) and adult (35.3 ± 4.6 Nm), and for adolescent than adult. Changes in all variables after ECC1 were smaller (P < 0.05) for pre-adolescent and adolescent when compared with adult, and all except CIR changes were smaller (P < 0.05) for pre-adolescent than adolescent. After ECC2, changes in all variables were smaller (P < 0.05) than those after ECC1 for all groups, but the magnitude of the changes was different among groups (P < 0.05) in the same way as that after ECC1. These results indicate that the magnitude of muscle damage is increased from pre-adolescent, adolescent to post-adolescent men.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 02/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the time wise protective effect conferred by two maximal voluntary isometric contractions (2MVCs) at 20° elbow flexion on muscle damage induced by 30 maximal isokinetic (60° s(-1)) eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors (MaxECC). Sixty-five young untrained men were randomly assigned to a control group that did not perform 2MVCs, or one of four experimental groups (n = 13 per group) who performed 2MVCs either immediately (0d), 2 (2d), 4 (4d) or 7 days (7d) before MaxECC. Changes in maximal isokinetic (60° s(-1)) concentric torque (MVC-CON), optimum angle (OA), range of motion, upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, and ultrasound echo-intensity following MaxECC were compared among the groups by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. No significant changes in any variables were evident following 2MVCs. The 2d and 4d groups showed 16-62 % smaller (P < 0.05) changes in all variables following MaxECC than the control, 0d and 7d groups. The 2d group showed 14-34 % smaller (P < 0.05) changes in all variables except for OA compared with the 4d group. The changes in the variables were similar among the control, 0d and 7d groups. These results show that 2MVCs that were performed between 2 and 4 days before MaxECC attenuated the magnitude of muscle damage, but no such effect was evident if the 2MVCs were performed immediately or 7 days before MaxECC. It is concluded that the protective effect conferred by 2MVCs is relatively short-lived, and there is a window for the effect to be conferred.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors would attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise of the same muscle performed 7 days later using elderly individuals. Healthy older men (66.4 ± 4.6 years) were assigned to control or experimental (Exp) group (n = 13 per group). The control group performed six sets of ten maximal eccentric contractions (MaxECC) of the knee extensors of non-dominant leg. The Exp group performed six sets of ten low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors on a leg extension machine by lowering a weight of 10 % maximal voluntary isometric knee extension strength (10 %ECC) 7 days prior to MaxECC. Changes in maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric torque (MVC-CON), angle at peak torque, range of motion (ROM), upper thigh circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration and B-mode ultrasound echo-intensity before and for 5 days after MaxECC were compared between groups by a mixed factor ANOVA. No significant changes in any variables were observed following 10 %ECC. Following MaxECC, all variables changed significantly, and changes in all variables except for angle at peak torque were significantly different between groups. MVC-CON and ROM decreased smaller and recovered faster (P < 0.05) for Exp than control group, and changes in other variables were smaller (P < 0.05) for Exp group compared with control group. These results suggest that preconditioning knee extensor muscles with low-intensity eccentric contractions was effective for attenuating muscle damage induced by subsequent MaxECC of the knee extensors for elderly individuals.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 10/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC-ISO) would attenuate the magnitude of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Young untrained men were placed into one of the two experimental groups or one control group (n = 13 per group). Subjects in the experimental groups performed either two or 10 MVC-ISO of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (20° flexion) 2 days prior to 30 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors. Subjects in the control group performed the eccentric contractions without MVC-ISO. No significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction peak torque, peak torque angle, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and myoglobin concentration, muscle soreness, and ultrasound echo intensity were evident after MVC-ISO. Changes in the variables following eccentric contractions were smaller (P < 0.05) for the 2 MVC-ISO group (e.g., peak torque loss at 5 days after exercise, 23% ± 3%; peak CK activity, 1964 ± 452 IU·L(-1); peak muscle soreness, 46 ± 4 mm) or the 10 MVC-ISO group (13% ± 3%, 877 ± 198 IU·L(-1), 30 ± 4 mm) compared with the control (34% ± 4%, 6192 ± 1747 IU·L(-1), 66 ± 5 mm). The 10 MVC-ISO group showed smaller (P < 0.05) changes in all variables following eccentric contractions compared with the 2 MVC-ISO group. Therefore, two MVC-ISO conferred potent protective effects against muscle damage, whereas greater protective effect was induced by 10 MVC-ISO, which can be used as a strategy to minimize muscle damage.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 05/2012; 37(4):680-9. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrical stimulation (ES) induces muscle damage that is characterised by histological alterations of muscle fibres and connective tissue, increases in circulating creatine kinase (CK) activity, decreases in muscle strength and development of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle damage is induced not only by eccentric contractions with ES but also by isometric contractions evoked by ES. Muscle damage profile following 40 isometric contractions of the knee extensors is similar between pulsed current (75 Hz, 400 μs) and alternating current (2.5 kHz delivered at 75 Hz, 400 μs) ES for similar force output. When comparing maximal voluntary and ES-evoked (75 Hz, 200 μs) 50 isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, ES results in greater decreases in maximal voluntary contraction strength, increases in plasma CK activity and DOMS. It appears that the magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES-evoked isometric contractions is comparable to that induced by maximal voluntary eccentric contractions, although the volume of affected muscles in ES is not as large as that of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. It seems likely that the muscle damage in ES is associated with high mechanical stress on the activated muscle fibres due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment (i.e., non-selective, synchronous and spatially fixed manner). The magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES is significantly reduced when the second ES bout is performed 2-4 weeks later. It is possible to attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage by "pre-conditioning" muscles, so that muscle damage should not limit the use of ES in training and rehabilitation.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 08/2011; 111(10):2427-37. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the hypothesis that the protective effect conferred by a low-intensity eccentric exercise against maximal eccentric exercise would not last more than a week. Untrained men (21.3 ± 1.6 years) were allocated into either a control or one of four repeated bout groups (n = 13 per group). The repeated bout groups performed 30 low-intensity eccentric contractions (ECC) of the elbow flexors with a dumbbell set at 10% of maximal isometric strength (10%-ECC) either 2 days, 7 days (1 week), 14 days (2 weeks) or 21 days (3 weeks) before 30 maximal eccentric contractions (Max-ECC). The control group performed Max-ECC only. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction strength, optimum angle, range of motion, upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, and ultrasound echo-intensity following 10%-ECC were analysed by a one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Changes in the variables following Max-ECC were compared among the groups by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The 10%-ECC did not change any variables, showing no indication of muscle damage. The changes in all variables following Max-ECC were smaller (P < 0.05) for 2-day, 1- and 2-week groups than control group, without significant differences between 2-day and 1-week groups. The 2-week group showed greater (P < 0.05) changes in all variables compared with 2-day and 1-week groups. Changes in the variables were similar between 3-week and control groups, except for muscle soreness showing smaller (P < 0.05) changes for 3-week group. These results suggest that non-damaging eccentric exercise confers a protective effect against Max-Ecc, but the effect is attenuated between 1 and 2 weeks.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 05/2011; 112(2):555-65. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether flexibility training would attenuate muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise. Thirty untrained young men were allocated to static stretching (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), or control group (n = 10 per group). The SS consisted of 30 sets of a 30-s standard SS with a 30-s rest between sets, and the PNF included 5 sets of the 30-s standard SS followed by 3 sets of three "contract-relax-agonist-contract" procedures. These were performed three times a week for 8 wk, and all subjects performed six sets of 10 maximal isokinetic (30°·s) lengthening contractions of the knee flexors after the 8-wk training or 8 wk after the baseline measures (control). Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage before and for 5 d after the eccentric exercise were compared among the groups. The range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint increased by 25°, and the optimum angle of the knee flexors shifted (P < 0.05) to a longer muscle length by 10° after training, without significant differences between SS and PNF. No significant changes in these variables were evident for the control group. Compared with the control group, the SS and PNF groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) smaller decreases and faster recovery of knee flexor muscle strength and smaller changes in optimum angle, ROM, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration without significant differences between the groups. The preeccentric exercise ROM or optimum angle was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the changes in the muscle damage markers. These results suggest that both SS and PNF training are effective in attenuating eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and that flexible muscles are less susceptible to the damage.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 03/2011; 43(3):491-500. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise would be smaller for the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) compared with the elbow flexors (EF) and extensors (EE). A total of 17 sedentary men performed five sets of six maximal isokinetic (90° s(-1)) eccentric contractions of EF (range of motion, ROM: 90°-0°, 0 = full extension), EE (55°-145°), KF (90°-0°), and KE (30°-120°) using a different limb with a 4-5-week interval in a counterbalanced order. Changes in maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic strength, optimum angle, limb circumference, ROM, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, muscle soreness, and echo-intensity of B-mode ultrasound images before and for 5 days following exercise were compared amongst the four exercises using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. All variables changed significantly following EF, EE, and KF exercises, but KE exercise did not change the optimum angle, limb circumference, and echo-intensity. Compared with KF and KE, EF and EE showed significantly greater changes in all variables, without significant differences between EF and EE. Changes in all variables were significantly greater for KF than KE. For the same subjects, the magnitude of change in the dependent variables following exercise varied among the exercises. These results suggest that the two arm muscles are equally more susceptible to muscle damage than leg muscles, but KF is more susceptible to muscle damage than KE. The difference in the susceptibility to muscle damage seems to be associated with the use of muscles in daily activities.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 02/2011; 111(2):211-23. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether variations in gradient would affect the magnitude of physiological responses during a 30-minute run at an intensity of 70% of maximal oxygen capacity (O2max). Forty untrained collegiate men were randomly assigned into 0%, −5%, −11% and −16% groups (n = 10 per group), and then performed a 30-minute run at gradients of 0%, −5%, −11%and −16%, respectively, at the intensity of 70%of their predetermined O2max. Oxygen consumption (O2), minute ventilation (E), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes, respectively, during each run. Blood lactate (LA) concentration was assessed by fingertip blood sample at 3 minutes after each run. The results showed that elevations in O2, E, RER and HR during running for the −11% and −16% groups were greater (p < 0.05) than for the −5% and 0% groups. For the −11% group, elevations of these measures were greater (p < 0.05) than those of these measures for the −5% group. However, the changes in these measures showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the 0% and −5% groups, or between the −11% and −16% groups. As for RPE and LA, no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the groups were observed. It is concluded that the steeper the gradient, the greater the increases in O2, E, RER and HR. This may be due to the fact that at a steeper downhill gradient (−16%), the quadriceps femoris muscle lengthens to a greater extent than at lower (−5%, −11%) and level gradients.
    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2010; 42.
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that submaximal eccentric exercise does not confer as strong a protective effect as maximal eccentric exercise. This study tested the hypothesis that four bouts of submaximal eccentric exercise would confer a similar protective effect to one bout maximal eccentric exercise. Thirty untrained men were placed into 4 x 40% (40%) or control (CON) groups (n = 15 per group) by matching preexercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength (MVC). The 40% group performed 30 eccentric contractions with a load of 40% MVC (40% ECC) every 2 wk for four times followed 2 wk later by 30 maximal eccentric exercise (100% ECC) of the elbow flexors of the nondominant arm. The CON group performed two bouts of the 100% ECC separated by 2 wk. MVC at six angles, optimum angle (OA), concentric isokinetic strength (30 degrees x s(-1) and 300 degrees x s(-1)), range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, muscle soreness, and echo intensity of B-mode ultrasound images were taken before to 5 d after each exercise. No significant differences in the changes in any measures were evident between the 100% ECC of the 40% group and the second 100% ECC of the CON group. Changes in all measures except for OA and upper arm circumference after the second to the fourth 40% ECC bouts were significantly smaller than those after the first 40% ECC bout. The changes in the measures after any of the 40% ECC bouts were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than those after the first 100% ECC bout of the CON group. These results suggest that repeating submaximal eccentric exercise confers the same magnitude of protective effect as one bout of maximal eccentric exercise against the subsequent maximal eccentric exercise.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 12/2009; 42(5):1004-12. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that running economy assessed at a high intensity [e.g. 90% maximal oxygen capacity (VO2(max))] would be affected more than at a lower intensity (e.g. 70% VO2(max)) after downhill running. Fifteen untrained young men performed level running at 70, 80, and 90% VO2(max) (5 min for each intensity) before and 2 and 5 days after a 30-min downhill run (gradient of -16%) at the intensity of their pre-determined 70% VO2(max). Oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were measured during the level runs together with kinematic measures (e.g. stride length and frequency) using high-speed video analysis. Downhill running resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decreases in maximal isometric strength of the knee extensors, the development of muscle soreness, and increases in plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, which lasted for 5 days after downhill running. Significant (P < 0.05) changes in all running economy and kinematic measures from baseline were evident at 2 and 5 days after downhill running at 80% and 90% VO2(max), but not at 70% VO2(max). These results suggest that running economy assessed at high intensity is affected more than at low intensity (lower than the lactate threshold).
    Journal of Sports Sciences 09/2009; 27(11):1137-44. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since little is known about the repeated bout effect of more than two eccentric exercise bouts, this study compared muscle damage responses among four exercise bouts. Fifteen young (21.8 +/- 1.9 years) men performed four bouts of 30 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors every 4 weeks. Maximal voluntary elbow flexion isometric and concentric strength, range of motion at the elbow joint (ROM), upper arm circumference, blood markers of muscle damage, and muscle soreness were measured before and up to 120 h following each bout. Changes in all measures following the second to fourth bouts were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than those after the first bout. The decreases in strength and ROM immediately after the fourth bout were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than other bouts. It is concluded that the first bout confers the greatest adaptation, but further adaptation is induced when the exercise is repeated more than three times.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 03/2009; 106(2):267-75. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Trevor C Chen, Kazunori Nosaka, Chia-Ching Wu
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of a 30-min level running performed daily for 6 days after downhill running (DHR) on indicators of muscle damage and running economy (RE). Fifty men were placed into five groups - control (CON), 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% (10 subjects per group) - by matching the baseline maximal oxygen consumption (V O(2max)) among the groups. Subjects in the 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% groups had a treadmill (0 degrees ) run for 30min at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of the pre-determined V O(2max), respectively, at 1-6 days after a bout of 30-min DHR at -15% (-8.5 degrees ). Maximal voluntary isometric strength of the knee extensors, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured before, immediately after and every day for 7 days after DHR. RE was assessed by oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion during a 5-min level running at 85% V O(2max) performed before and at 2, 5 and 7 days after DHR. All muscle damage markers changed significantly (P<0.05) after DHR without significant differences among the groups. The RE parameters showed a significant decrease in RE for 7 days after DHR, but no significant differences in the changes were evident among the groups. These results suggest that the daily running performed after DHR did not have any beneficial or adverse effects on recovery of muscle damage and RE regardless of the intensity.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 07/2008; 11(3):271-9. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study proposed that attenuated expression of inflammatory factors is an underlying mechanism driving the repeated-bout effect (rapid adaptation to eccentric exercise). We investigated changes in mRNA levels and protein localization of inflammatory genes after two bouts of muscle-lengthening exercise. Seven male subjects performed two bouts of lower body exercise (separated by 4 wk) in which one leg performed 300 eccentric-concentric actions, and the contralateral leg performed 300 concentric actions only. Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at 6 h, and strength was assessed at baseline and at 0, 3, and 5 days after exercise. mRNA levels were measured via semiquantitative RT-PCR for the following genes: CYR61, HSP40, HSP70, IL1R1, TCF8, ZFP36, CEBPD, and MCP1. Muscle functional adaptation was demonstrated via attenuated strength loss (16% less, P = 0.04) at 5 days after bout 2 compared with bout 1 in the eccentrically exercised leg. mRNA expression of three of the eight genes tested was significantly elevated in the eccentrically exercised leg from bout 1 to bout 2 (+3.9-fold for ZFP36, +2.3-fold for CEBPD, and +2.6-fold for MCP1), while all eight mRNA levels were unaffected by bout in the concentrically exercised leg. Immunohistochemistry further localized the protein of one of the elevated factors [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1)] within the tissue. MCP1 colocalized with resident macrophage and satellite cell populations, suggesting that alterations in cytokine signaling between these cell populations may play a role in muscle adaptation to exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, several inflammatory genes were transcriptionally upregulated (rather than attenuated) after a repeated exercise bout, potentially indicating a role for these genes in the adaptation process.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 06/2008; 294(5):R1628-37. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2008; 40.
  • Trevor C Chen, Kazunori Nosaka, Paul Sacco
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the effect of four different intensities of initial eccentric exercise (ECC1) on optimum angle shift and extent of muscle damage induced by subsequent maximal eccentric exercise. Fifty-two male students were placed into 100%, 80%, 60%, or 40% groups (n = 13 per group), performing 30 eccentric actions of the elbow flexors of 100%, 80%, 60%, or 40% of maximal isometric strength [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] for ECC1, followed 2-3 wk later by a similar exercise (ECC2) that used 100% MVC load. MVC at six elbow joint angles, range of motion, upper arm circumference, serum creatine kinase activity, myoglobin concentration, and muscle soreness were measured before and for 5 days following ECC1 and ECC2. A rightward shift of optimum angle following ECC1 was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the 100% and 80% than for the 60% and 40% groups, and it decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from immediately to 5 days postexercise. By the time ECC2 was performed, only the 100% group kept a significant shift (4 degrees). Changes in most of the criterion measures following ECC1 were significantly greater for the 100% and 80% groups compared with the 60% and 40% groups. Changes in the criterion measures following ECC2 were significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the 40% group compared with other groups. Although the magnitude of repeated bout effect following ECC2 was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller for the 40% and 60% groups, all groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced changes in criterion measures following ECC2 compared with the ECC1 100% bout. We conclude that the repeated-bout effect was not dependent on the shift of optimum angle.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 03/2007; 102(3):992-9. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Trevor C Chen, Kazunori Nosaka, Jui-Hung Tu
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the time course of changes in running economy following a 30-min downhill (-15%) run at 70% peak aerobic power (VO2peak). Ten young men performed level running at 65, 75, and 85% VO2peak (5 min for each intensity) before, immediately after, and 1 - 5 days after the downhill run, at which times oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration were measured. Stride length, stride frequency, and range of motion of the ankle, knee, and hip joints during the level runs were analysed using high-speed (120-Hz) video images. Downhill running induced reductions (7 - 21%, P < 0.05) in maximal isometric strength of the knee extensors, three- to six-fold increases in plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, and muscle soreness for 4 days after the downhill run. Oxygen consumption increased (4 - 7%, P < 0.05) immediately to 3 days after downhill running. There were also increases (P < 0.05) in heart rate, minute ventilation, RER, RPE, blood lactate concentration, and stride frequency, as well as reductions in stride length and range of motion of the ankle and knee. The results suggest that changes in running form and compromised muscle function due to muscle damage contribute to the reduction in running economy for 3 days after downhill running.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 02/2007; 25(1):55-63. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2007; 39.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2007; 39.

Publication Stats

324 Citations
51.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2013
    • National Chiayi University
      T’ai-nan-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2011
    • Edith Cowan University
      • School of Exercise and Health Sciences
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2008
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Kinesiology
      Amherst Center, MA, United States
  • 2003
    • Taipei Physical Education College
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan