T M Krummel

Stanford Medicine, Stanford, California, United States

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Publications (153)360.8 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Stanford Biodesign Program began in 2001 with a mission of helping to train leaders in biomedical technology innovation. A key feature of the program is a full-time postgraduate fellowship where multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program places a priority on needs identification, a formal process of selecting, researching and characterizing needs before beginning the process of inventing. Fellows and students from the program have gone on to careers that emphasize technology innovation across industry and academia. Biodesign trainees have started 26 companies within the program that have raised over $200 million and led to the creation of over 500 new jobs. More importantly, although most of these technologies are still at a very early stage, several projects have received regulatory approval and so far more than 150,000 patients have been treated by technologies invented by our trainees. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions in terms of training priorities.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 02/2013; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: We conducted a systematic review of published literature to gain a better understanding of the impact of advanced fellowships on surgical resident training and education. BACKGROUND:: As fellowship opportunities rise, resident training may be adversely impacted. METHODS:: PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, BIOSIS, Web of Science, and a manual search of article bibliographies. Of the 139 citations identified through the initial electronic search and screened for possible inclusion, 23 articles were retained and accepted for this review. Data were extracted regarding surgical specialty, methodology, sample population, outcomes measured, and results. RESULTS:: Eight studies retrospectively compared the eras before and after the introduction of a fellowship or trended data over time. Approximately half used data from a single institution, whereas the other half used some form of national data or survey. Only 3 studies used national case data. Fourteen studies looked at general surgery, 6 at obstetrics-gynecology, 2 at urology, and 1 at otolaryngology. Only one study concluded that fellowships have a generally positive impact on resident education, whereas 9 others found a negative impact. The remaining 13 studies found mixed results (n = 6) or minimal to no impact (n = 7). CONCLUSIONS:: The overall impact of advanced surgical fellowships on surgical resident education and training remains unclear, as most studies rely on limited data of questionable generalizability. A careful study of the national database of surgery resident case logs is essential to better understand how early surgical specialization and fellowships will impact the future of general surgery education.
    Annals of surgery 09/2012; · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of applying an established innovation process to an active academic interventional radiology (IR) practice. The Stanford Biodesign Medical Technology Innovation Process was used as the innovation template. Over a 4-month period, seven IR faculty and four IR fellow physicians recorded observations. These observations were converted into need statements. One particular need relating to gastrostomy tubes was diligently screened and was the subject of a single formal brainstorming session. Investigators collected 82 observations, 34 by faculty and 48 by fellows. The categories that generated the most observations were enteral feeding (n = 9, 11%), biopsy (n = 8, 10%), chest tubes (n = 6, 7%), chemoembolization and radioembolization (n = 6, 7%), and biliary interventions (n = 5, 6%). The output from the screening on the gastrostomy tube need was a specification sheet that served as a guidance document for the subsequent brainstorming session. The brainstorming session produced 10 concepts under three separate categories. This formalized innovation process generated numerous observations and ultimately 10 concepts to potentially to solve a significant clinical need, suggesting that a structured process can help guide an IR practice interested in medical innovation.
    Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 04/2012; 23(4):488-94. · 1.81 Impact Factor
  • Kevin Z Chao, Daniel J Riskin, Thomas M Krummel
    The virtual mentor : VM. 01/2010; 12(2):91-95.
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    Pankaj Jay Pasricha, Thomas M Krummel
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    ABSTRACT: In this inaugural year of a historic presidency, gastroenterologists and gastrointestinal surgeons may well want to turn their attention to more immediate transformative events that have the potential to revolutionize their own practice in the near future. The most visible and, perhaps, controversial of these is natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), but other equally important changes are emerging as investigators around the globe vie with one another in the demonstration of increasingly audacious procedures. As is to be expected, we are also already seeing a backlash from more conservative scholars attempting to temper what they believe to be the surgical equivalent of irrational exuberance. However, by far the most common attitude among gastroenterologists toward these changes is one of indifference. In this piece, we discuss the circumstances that led to the development of NOTES and other innovative procedures, the peril that lies in ignoring them, and the true promise that they hold for our specialties.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2009; 104(10):2384-6. · 9.21 Impact Factor
  • Thomas M Krummel
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 02/2009; 44(1):21-35. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simulator-based endovascular skills training measurably improves performance in catheter-based image-guided interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether structured global performance assessment during endovascular simulation correlated well with trainee-reported procedural skill and prior experience level. Fourth-year and fifth-year general surgery residents interviewing for vascular fellowship training provided detailed information regarding prior open vascular and endovascular operative experience. The pretest questionnaire responses were used to separate subjects into low (<20 cases) and moderate (20 to 100) endovascular experience groups. Subjects were then asked to perform a renal angioplasty/stent procedure on the Procedicus Vascular Intervention System Trainer (VIST) endovascular simulator (Mentice Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden). The subjects' performance was supervised and evaluated by a blinded expert interventionalist using a structured global assessment scale based on angiography setup, target vessel catheterization, and the interventional procedure. Objective measures determined by the simulator were also collected for each subject. A postsimulation questionnaire was administered to determine the subjects' self-assessment of their performance. Seventeen surgical residents from 15 training programs completed questionnaires before and after the exercise and performed a renal angioplasty/stent procedure on the endovascular simulator. The beginner group (n = 8) reported prior experience of a median of eight endovascular cases (interquartile range [IQR], 6.5-17.8; range, 4-20), and intermediate group (n = 9) had previously completed a median of 42 cases (IQR, 31-44; range, 25-89, P = .01). The two groups had similar prior open vascular experience (79 cases vs 75, P = .60). The mean score on the structured global assessment scale for the low experience group was 2.68 of 5.0 possible compared with 3.60 for the intermediate group (P = .03). Scores for subcategories of the global assessment score for target vessel catheterization (P = .02) and the interventional procedure (P = .05) contributed more to the differentiation between the two experience groups. Total procedure time, fluoroscopy time, average contrast used, percentage of lesion covered by the stent, placement accuracy, residual stenosis rates, and number of cine loops utilized were similar between the two groups (P > .05). Structured endovascular skills assessment correlates well with prior procedural experience within a high-fidelity simulation environment. In addition to improving endovascular training, simulators may prove useful in determining procedural competency and credentialing standards for endovascular surgeons.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 05/2008; 47(5):1008-1; discussion 1014. · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Surgery 03/2008; 143(2):183-91. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Training surgical residents to manage critically injured patients in a timely fashion presents a significant challenge. Simulation may have a role in this educational process, but only if it can be demonstrated that skills learned in a simulated environment translate into enhanced performance in real-life trauma situations. : A five-part, scenario-based trauma curriculum was developed specifically for this study. Midlevel surgical residents were randomized to receiving this curriculum in didactic lecture (LEC) fashion or with the use of a human performance simulator (HPS). A written learning objectives test was administered at the completion of the training. The first four major trauma resuscitations performed by each participating resident were captured on videotape in the emergency department and graded by two experienced judges blinded to the method of training. The assessment tool used by the judges included an evaluation of both initial trauma evaluation or treatment skills (part I) and crisis management skills (part II) as well as an overall score (poor/fail, adequate, or excellent). : The two groups of residents received almost identical scores on the posttraining written test. Average SIM and LEC scores for part I were also similar between the two groups. However, SIM-trained residents received higher overall scores and higher scores for part II crisis management skills compared with the LEC group, which was most evident in the scores received for the teamwork category (p = 0.04). : A trauma curriculum incorporating simulation shows promise in developing crisis management skills that are essential for evaluation of critically injured patients.
    The Journal of trauma 03/2008; 64(2):255-63; discussion 263-4. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of fetal scarless wound repair is poorly understood but is thought to involve unique characteristics and behavior patterns of the fetal dermal fibroblast. The authors hypothesized that keratinocytes may differentially modulate expression of key growth factors expressed during wound healing in fetal and postnatal fibroblasts. Murine E17 fetal (n = 12 animals) and newborn (n = 8 animals) fibroblasts were grown in isolation and co-culture with newborn keratinocytes (n = 12 animals). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta isoform, receptor, and signaling molecule (Smad) gene expression in each group under both conditions. At baseline, fetal fibroblasts have 1.8-fold greater TGF-beta3 expression than postnatal fibroblasts (p < 0.01). Keratinocytes induce a further increase of TGF-beta3 expression (p < 0.01) but decreased TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta receptor (R)-I, and TGF-betaR-II expression in fetal fibroblasts. Keratinocytes also induce an increase in TGF-beta3 (p < 0.01) and a decrease TGF-beta2, TGF-betaR-I, and TGF-betaR-II expression in postnatal fibroblasts; however, TGF-beta1 expression is unchanged. Fetal fibroblasts have lower baseline expression of Smad3 and Smad4 than postnatal fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Keratinocytes decrease Smad3 and increase Smad7 expression in both fetal and postnatal fibroblasts (p < 0.01). In contrast, keratinocytes decrease Smad2 only in fetal fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Keratinocytes have an overall antifibrotic influence on both fetal and postnatal fibroblasts in co-culture conditions. These data further characterize intrinsic differences between fetal and postnatal fibroblasts.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 04/2007; 119(5):1440-5. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques 03/2007; 17(1):64-6. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. To better define the influence of keratinocyte-derived TGF-beta during development and repair, the authors examined the TGF-beta isoform, receptor, signal messenger Smad, and collagen type I expression in fetal and postnatal keratinocytes. Sprague-Dawley rat keratinocytes were isolated in primary culture from fetal E17 (n = 6), newborn (n = 4), and 6-week-old adults (n = 4). Under serum-free conditions, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 ligands; TGF-beta receptor 1 (RI) and TGF-beta receptor 2 (RII); Smad4 and Smad7; and collagen type I expression. Total TGF-beta isoform expression increased 1.7-fold from E17 to newborn (p < 0.05) and adult (p < 0.01) ages. TGF-beta1 expression was 25-fold greater than TGF-beta2 and 10-fold greater than TGF-beta3 in fetal keratinocytes (p < 0.01 for each). The expression of TGF-beta1 was fivefold greater compared with TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 in newborn and adult keratinocytes (p < 0.01). TGF-beta-RI expression increased more than twofold (p < 0.01), whereas TGF-beta-RII expression increased by 25 percent (p < 0.01) from E17 to adult age. Smad4 increased more than twofold (p < 0.01), whereas Smad7 did not change appreciably. Collagen type I expression increased over 100-fold from E17 to adult (p < 0.005). The TGF-beta system and collagen type I have increased expression with increasing gestational age in keratinocytes. This suggests an increased profibrotic TGF-beta response and collagen type I production in keratinocytes during skin differentiation at ages associated with scarring.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 03/2007; 119(3):852-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Thomas M Krummel, Moritz M Ziegler
    Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques 01/2007; 16(6):634-8. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current surgical care and technology has evolved over the centuries from the interplay between creative surgeons and new technologies. As both fields become more specialized, that interplay is threatened. A 2-year educational fellowship is described which teaches both the process and the discipline of medical/surgical device innovation. Multi-disciplinary teams (surgeons, engineers, business grads) are assembled to educate a generation of translators, who can bridge the gap between scientific and technologic advances and the needs of the physician and the patient.
    Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 12/2006; 15(4):309-18. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Daniel J Riskin, Michael T Longaker, Thomas M Krummel
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    ABSTRACT: Ethical issues in pediatric research have long been debated, and experimentation in pediatric surgery is under intense scrutiny. Extensive legislation and institutional systems that attempt to protect children while supporting necessary research are at times ineffective. Pediatric surgery has less funding and resources for innovation than fields with higher clinical volume. Not unlike pediatrics in general, innovation in pediatric surgery must be beyond criticism. And yet, for the sake of patients, innovation should not only be maintained, but must be encouraged.
    Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 12/2006; 15(4):319-23. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the field of surgical innovation from a historical perspective, applying new findings from research in technology innovation. While surgical innovation has a rich tradition, as a field of study it is embryonic. Only a handful of academic centers of surgical innovation exist, all of which have arisen within the last 5 years. To this point, the field has not been well defined, nor have future options to promote surgical innovation been thoroughly explored. It is clear that surgical innovation is fundamental to surgical progress and has significant health policy implications. A process of systematically evaluating and promoting innovation in surgery may be critical in the evolving practice of medicine. A review of the academic literature in technology innovation was undertaken. Articles and books were identified through technical, medical, and business sources. Luminaries in surgical innovation were interviewed to develop further relevance to surgical history. The concepts in technology innovation were then applied to innovation in surgery, using the historical example of surgical endoscopy as a representative area, which encompasses millennia of learning and spans multiple specialties of care. The history of surgery is comprised largely of individual, widely respected surgeon innovators. While respecting individual accomplishments, surgeons as a group have at times hindered critical innovation to the detriment of our profession and patients. As a clinical discipline, surgery relies on a tradition of research and attracting the brightest young minds. Innovation in surgery to date has been impressive, but inconsistently supported. A body of knowledge on technology innovation has been developed over the last decade but has largely not been applied to surgery. New surgical innovation centers are working to define the field and identify critical aspects of surgical innovation promotion. It is our responsibility as a profession to work to understand innovation in surgery, discover, translate, and commercialize advances to address major clinical problems, and to support the future of our profession consistently and rationally.
    Annals of Surgery 12/2006; 244(5):686-93. · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • Thomas M Krummel
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    ABSTRACT: Progress in surgical science has been characterized by a continuous cycle of innovation from bedside to bench to bedside. Beginning 30,000 years ago with the first bone needles to surgical lasers and robotics of today, each quantum leap has resulted from the convergence of technical advances and creative surgeons, but always defined by an attitude of care toward the sick. One of the most innovative pediatric surgeons, Dr. Mark Ravitch, elucidated some simple yet profound principles in the precise answer to the question "What is Surgery?" This section outlines some simple concepts summarized as "Ravitch's Rules," which provide a useful framework for clarity in understanding the past and illuminating the road ahead. Surgeons must be thoughtful in how they define themselves and their craft, ignoring technological advances at their own peril.
    Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 12/2006; 15(4):237-41. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysyl oxidase cross-links collagen and elastin. Because cross-linking likely influences collagen architecture, the authors compared lysyl oxidase expression during scarless and scarring fetal dermal wound repair. Excisional dermal wounds were made on E17 (gestational day 16.5) and E19 (gestational day 18.5) mouse fetuses. Skin and wound RNA was collected at 8, 12, and 24 hours. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for lysyl oxidase. The effect of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on lysyl oxidase expression in fetal fibroblasts was tested. Confluent primary fetal and postnatal fibroblast cultures were stimulated with TGF-beta1 for 24 hours, and lysyl oxidase expression was quantitated by performing real-time polymerase chain reaction. Lysyl oxidase expression was also quantitated in unwounded fetal skin to determine its expression profile during development. E17 and E19 fetal skin had approximately 2-fold greater lysyl oxidase expression than postnatal skin (p < 0.01), and fetal fibroblasts had greater baseline lysyl oxidase expression than postnatal fibroblasts. After TGF-beta1 stimulation, fetal and postnatal fibroblasts responded with increases in lysyl oxidase expression. In E17 early-gestation scarless fetal wounds, lysyl oxidase had small increases (<1.5-fold) in expression from 1 to 12 hours. In late-gestation E19 scarring fetal wounds, lysyl oxidase increased 1.8-fold at 8 hours and 2-fold at 12 hours, which was significantly greater than the changes observed in E17 scarless wounds (p < 0.01 for each). Lysyl oxidase has greater expression in E19 late-gestation wounds that heal with scar compared with E17 early-gestation scarless wounds. This suggests a role for lysyl oxidase in scar formation.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 10/2006; 118(5):1125-9; discussion 1130-1. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible murine model of fetal scarless wound healing. One-millimeter excisional wounds were made in fetal skin at gestational days 16.5 (E17) and 18.5 (E19) (term = day 21.5, or E22) and marked with India ink. Fetal mortality was less than 30 percent in E17 fetuses and 0 percent in E19 fetuses. Control postnatal 2-mm open wounds were made in 3-week-old mice. At 48 hours, E17 skin wounds had healed completely. E19 skin wounds also healed but were marked by skin irregularity at the wound site. Histologically, E17 wounds had fine reticular collagen architecture by trichrome staining and hair follicle regeneration. In contrast, E19 wounds healed with collagen deposition and scar formation and no hair follicle regeneration. The authors have developed a reliable mouse model of fetal scarless repair to help elucidate the mechanism of scarless wound healing to take advantage of genetically modified animals. The knowledge gained may be used to manipulate scarring in the adult to produce a more fetal-like wound.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 07/2006; 117(7):2292-6. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The scarless fetal skin-healing mechanism is mediated in part by the fibroblast and involves differential expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta isoforms 1 and 3. The authors hypothesized that fetal and adult fibroblasts respond differently to TGF-beta isoform-specific stimulation, which may influence whether wounds scar. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), Smad3, and Smad7 are TGF-beta target genes. Expression of these targets was quantitated after TGF-beta1 and -beta3 stimulation of fetal and adult fibroblasts. Primary mouse fibroblast cultures at gestational day 16.5 (E17), 18.5 (E19), and 6 weeks (adult) were stimulated with TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for CTGF, Smad3, and Smad7 expression. CTGF was reduced four-fold in E17 and E19 compared with adult fibroblasts (p < 0.005). After TGF-beta1 stimulation, CTGF expression increased more than 60-fold in both E17 and E19 (p < 0.01), which was three-fold greater than that in adult fibroblasts (p < 0.005). TGF-beta3 induced more than 70-fold, 50-fold, and 20-fold increases in CTGF expression in E17, E19, and adult fibroblasts, respectively (p < 0.01 for each). Both TGF-beta1 and -beta3 decreased Smad3 expression and increased Smad7 expression in each fibroblast type, suggesting that intact TGF-beta-mediated signaling pathways were present. Fetal (E17 and E19) fibroblasts have lower CTGF expression compared with adult fibroblasts. However, fetal fibroblasts have larger increases in CTGF expression after TGF-beta1 or -beta3 stimulation. Fetal and adult mouse fibroblasts have similar TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 transcriptional regulation of Smad3 and Smad7. This suggests that scarless healing is likely not mediated by different Smad-dependent transcriptional responses to TGF-beta isoforms in the fetal E17 fibroblast.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 07/2006; 117(7):2277-83. · 3.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
360.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2009
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Stanford Genome Technology Center
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2000–2009
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Stanford Genome Technology Center
      Stanford, CA, United States
    • Texas Tech University
      • Department of Computer Science
      Lubbock, TX, United States
    • Geisinger Health System
      Danville, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Surgery
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Syracuse, NY, United States
  • 1996–2000
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Surgery
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1994–2000
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • Department of Surgery
      Hershey, PA, United States
  • 1992–1999
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pathology
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 1988–1997
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Surgery
      Richmond, VA, United States