Timothy M Dore

University of Georgia, Атина, Georgia, United States

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Publications (24)106.92 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in regulating mood, appetite, memory, learning, pain, and establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development. To explore the role of 5-HT in physiology, we have created two forms of "caged" 5-HT, BHQ-O-5HT and BHQ-N-5HT. When exposed to 365 or 740 nm light, BHQ-O-5HT releases 5-HT through one- or two-photon excitation, respectively. BHQ-O-5HT mediated changes in neural activity in cultured mouse primary sensory neurons and the trigeminal ganglion and optic tectum of intact zebrafish larvae in the form of high-amplitude spiking in response to light. In Xenopus laevis embryos, light-activated 5-HT increased the occurrence of LR patterning defects. Maximal rates of LR defects were observed when 5-HT was released at stage 5 compared with stage 8. These experiments show the potential for BHQ-caged serotonins in studying 5-HT-regulated physiological processes.
    Chemistry & biology 12/2013; · 6.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) when conjugated to biological effectors forming "caged compounds" are a powerful means to regulate the action of physiologically active messengers in vivo through 1-photon excitation (1PE) and 2-photon excitation (2PE). Understanding the photodeprotection mechanism is important for their physiological use. We compared the quantum efficiencies and product outcomes in different solvent and pH conditions for the photolysis reactions of (8-chloro-7-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)methyl acetate (CHQ-OAc) and (8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)methyl acetate (BHQ-OAc), representatives of the quinoline class of phototriggers for biological use, and conducted nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopic studies using transient emission (ns-EM), transient absorption (ns-TA), transient resonance Raman (ns-TR(2)), and time-resolved resonance Raman (ns-TR(3)) spectroscopies. The results indicate differences in the photochemical mechanisms and product outcomes, and reveal that the triplet excited state is most likely on the pathway to the product and that dehalogenation competes with release of acetate from BHQ-OAc, but not CHQ-OAc. A high fluorescence quantum yield and a more efficient excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) in CHQ-OAc compared to BHQ-OAc explain the lower quantum efficiency of CHQ-OAc relative to BHQ-OAc.
    Chemistry 04/2012; 18(22):6854-65. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The creation of caged molecules involves the attachment of protecting groups to biologically active compounds such as ligands, substrates and drugs that can be removed under specific conditions. Photoremovable caging groups are the most common due to their ability to be removed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, the synthesis and photochemistry of a caged inhibitor of protein farnesyltransferase is described. The inhibitor, FTI, was caged by alkylation of a critical thiol group with a bromohydroxycoumarin (Bhc) moiety. While Bhc is well established as a protecting group for carboxylates and phosphates, it has not been extensively used to cage sulfhydryl groups. The resulting caged molecule, Bhc-FTI, can be photolyzed with UV light to release the inhibitor that prevents Ras farnesylation, Ras membrane localization and downstream signaling. Finally, it is shown that Bhc-FTI can be uncaged by two-photon excitation to produce FTI at levels sufficient to inhibit Ras localization and alter cell morphology. Given the widespread involvement of Ras proteins in signal transduction pathways, this caged inhibitor should be useful in a plethora of studies.
    ChemBioChem 04/2012; 13(7):1009-16. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) when conjugated to biological effectors forming “caged compounds” are a powerful means to regulate the action of physiologically active messengers in vivo through 1-photon excitation (1PE) and 2-photon excitation (2PE). Understanding the photodeprotection mechanism is important for their physiological use. We compared the quantum efficiencies and product outcomes in different solvent and pH conditions for the photolysis reactions of (8-chloro-7-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)methyl acetate (CHQ-OAc) and (8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)methyl acetate (BHQ-OAc), representatives of the quinoline class of phototriggers for biological use, and conducted nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopic studies using transient emission (ns-EM), transient absorption (ns-TA), transient resonance Raman (ns-TR2), and time-resolved resonance Raman (ns-TR3) spectroscopies. The results indicate differences in the photochemical mechanisms and product outcomes, and reveal that the triplet excited state is most likely on the pathway to the product and that dehalogenation competes with release of acetate from BHQ-OAc, but not CHQ-OAc. A high fluorescence quantum yield and a more efficient excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) in CHQ-OAc compared to BHQ-OAc explain the lower quantum efficiency of CHQ-OAc relative to BHQ-OAc.
    Central European Journal of Chemistry 04/2012; · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cover picture shows confocal microscope images of cells from a murine fibroblast line (ciras) that expresses an oncogenic variant of H‐ras; the cells are stained with 4′,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole (blue) and Alexa‐Fluor488‐phalloidin conjugate (green) to highlight the nuclei and actin fibers, respectively. On p. 1009 ff., M. D. Distefano et al. describe how photolysis of the cells in the presence Bhc‐FTI (left‐hand structure), a caged protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), either by irradiation at 400 or 800 nm (two‐photon excitation) results in the release of FTI (right‐hand structure) and inhibition of H‐ras prenylation, thus causing a dramatic change in cell morphology (compare cells at left to those at right). Caged FTIs such as the one described here could be particularly useful for studying developmental and differentiation processes that involve temporal regulation of Ras‐like proteins. The ability to uncage FTIs through a two‐photon process also opens up the possibility of performing such experiments in tissue samples and even whole organisms where light penetration and phototoxicity are relevant concerns.
    ChemBioChem 01/2012; 13(7). · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the deprotection reaction of the new promising phototrigger compound BHQ-OAc (8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinoline acetate), we present a detailed comparison of the UV-vis absorption, resonance Raman, and fluorescence spectra of BHQ-OAc with its parent compound 7-hydroxyquinoline in different solvents. The steady-state absorption and resonance Raman spectra provide fundamental information about the structure, properties, and population distribution of the different prototropic forms present under the different solvent conditions examined. The species present in the excited states that emit strongly were detected by fluorescence spectra. It is shown that the ground-state tautomerization process of BHQ-OAc is disfavored compared with that of 7-HQ in aqueous solutions. The observation of the tautomeric form of BHQ-OAc in neutral aqueous solutions demonstrates the occurrence of the excited-state proton-transfer process, which would be a competing process for the deprotection reaction of BHQ-OAc in aqueous solutions.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 09/2011; 115(42):11632-40. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The photochemical deprotection of compound (I) in the presence of isopropyl thioxanthone as a two-photon sensitizer is reported.
    ChemInform 12/2010; 41(49).
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    ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl (acyloxy)methyl ketones (AOMKs) have been identified as mechanism-based inhibitors of certain cysteine proteases. These compounds are also inhibitors of the integral membrane proteins Rce1p and Ste24p, which are proteases that independently mediate a cleavage step associated with the maturation of certain isoprenylated proteins. The enzymatic mechanism of Rce1p is ill-defined, whereas Ste24p is a zinc metalloprotease. Rce1p is required for the proper processing of the oncoprotein Ras and is viewed as a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, we synthesized a small library of dipeptidyl AOMKs to investigate the structural elements that contribute to the inhibitor properties of this class of molecules toward Rce1p and Ste24p. The compounds were evaluated using a fluorescence-based in vitro proteolysis assay. The most potent dipeptidyl AOMKs contained an arginine residue and the identity of the benzoate group strongly influenced potency. A 'warhead' free AOMK inhibited Rce1p and Ste24p. The data suggest that the dipeptidyl AOMKs are not mechanism-based inhibitors of Rce1p and Ste24p and corroborate the hypothesis that Rce1p is not a cysteine protease.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 09/2010; 18(17):6230-7. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The photoremovable protecting group NPPoc has little sensitivity to two-photon excitation, limiting its use in applications requiring high spatial control of its photochemistry. In the presence of a triplet sensitizer with a large two-photon absorption cross-section, however, the two-photon uncaging action cross-section is improved to levels useful in a variety of applications.
    Chemical Communications 08/2010; 46(29):5313-5. · 6.38 Impact Factor
  • AIP Conference Proceedings. 08/2010; 1267(1).
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the substituent effect on the distribution of the forms of the ground-state species of 8-substituted 7-hydroxyquinolines, ultraviolet-absorption and resonance Raman experiments were performed for 8-chloro-7-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ-OAc) and 8-cyano-7-hydroxyquinoline (CyHQ-OAc) in acetonitrile (MeCN), in NaOH-H(2)O/MeCN (60:40, v/v, pH 11-12), and in H(2)O/MeCN (60:40, v/v, pH 6-7) solutions, and these results were compared to those previously reported for the 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinoline (BHQ-OAc) compound. Swapping a bromine atom in BHQ-OAc for a chlorine atom in CHQ-OAc causes the amount of the tautomeric species to become larger, although the neutral species is still the predominant species for both systems in water-rich solutions. The absorption spectra and the resonance Raman spectra of CyHQ-OAc suggest that, because of the strong electron-withdrawing nature of the cyano substituent, a measurable amount of the anionic species is present and the tautomeric species cannot be easily detected in water-rich solutions. The results reported here reveal large substituent effects on the distribution of the different forms of the XHQ-OAc compounds in largely aqueous solutions. The steric effect of the 8-substituted group and competitive hydrogen bonding between the 8-substituted group and water molecules hinders the formation of a cyclic BHQ-OAc-water complex, and the electron-withdrawing property of the 8-substituted group enhances the deprotonation of the phenol group while disfavoring the formation of the positively charged quinoline nitrogen. We briefly discuss the implications of the substituent effects for using these compounds as phototriggers.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 02/2010; 114(7):2498-505. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinolinyl group (BHQ) is a derivative of 7-hydroxyquinoline (7-HQ) and BHQ molecules coexisting as different forms in aqueous solution. Absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopic methods were used to examine 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinoline protected acetate (BHQ-OAc) in acetonitrile (MeCN), H(2)O/MeCN (60:40, v/v, pH 6 approximately 7), and NaOH-H(2)O/MeCN (60:40, v/v, pH 11 approximately 12) to obtain a better characterization of the forms of the ground-state species of BHQ-OAc in aqueous solutions and to examine their properties. The absorption spectra of BHQ-OAc in water show no absorption bands of the tautomeric species unlike the strong band at about 400 nm observed for the tautomeric form in 7-HQ aqueous solution. The resonance Raman spectra in conjunction with Raman spectra predicted from density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the observation of a double Raman band system characteristic of the neutral form (the nominal C=C ring stretching, C-N stretching, and O-H bending modes at 1564 and 1607 cm(-1)) and a single Raman band diagnostic of the enol-deprotonated anionic form (the nominal C=C ring, C-N, and C-O(-) stretching modes in the 1593 cm(-1) region). These results suggest that the neutral form of BHQ-OAc is the major species in neutral aqueous solution. There is a modest increase in the amount of the anionic form and a big decrease in the amount of the tautomeric form of the molecules for BHQ-OAc compared to 7-HQ in neutral aqueous solution. The presence of the 8-bromo group and/or competitive hydrogen bonding that hinder the formation and transfer process of a BHQ-OAc-water cyclic complex may be responsible for this large substituent effect.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 04/2009; 113(12):2831-7. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photoremovable protecting groups that can reveal biologically important functional groups through one- and two-photon excitation (1PE and 2PE, respectively) have promise in regulating physiological function in a temporally and spatially restricted manner. Only a few chromophores have sufficient sensitivity to 2PE suitable for use as "caging groups" in physiology experiments. It would be useful to develop structure-property relationships of chromophores, so that chromophores with high two-photon uncaging action cross-sections (delta(u)) can be designed. The 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinolinyl chromophore (BHQ) releases a variety of functional groups through 1PE and 2PE. Swapping the bromine substituent for a nitro (NHQ), cyano (CyHQ), or chloro (CHQ) or exchanging the hydroxy for dimethylamino (DMAQ and DMAQ-Cl) or sulfhydryl (TQ) significantly alters the photochemical and photophysical properties of the quinoline chromophore. CyHQ-OAc demonstrated a 3-fold increase in sensitivity for acetate release, whereas NHQ-OAc was photochemically insensitive. The quantum efficiencies (Q(u)) of the amino and sulfhydryl derivatives were about an order of magnitude lower than that of BHQ-OAc. All of the chromophores showed diminished sensitivity to 2PE compared to BHQ-OAc, but the CyHQ, DMAQ, and DMAQ-Cl chromophores are sufficiently sensitive for physiological use. The high sensitivity of CyHQ to 1PE will be useful in biological applications requiring short exposure with low light intensity.
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry 02/2009; 74(4):1721-9. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Timothy M Dore
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    ABSTRACT: A photoactivatable phosphorylation sensor used in conjunction with isoform specific inhibitors of protein kinase C enables the enzyme's activity to be monitored inside cells at specific time points during mitosis. PKCbeta was found to be active before, but not after, nuclear envelope breakdown.
    Chemistry & Biology 12/2007; 14(11):1202-3. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CaaX proteases Rce1p and Ste24p can independently promote a proteolytic step required for the maturation of certain isoprenylated proteins. Although functionally related, Rce1p and Ste24p are unrelated in primary sequence. They have distinct enzymatic properties, which are reflected in part by their distinct inhibitor profiles. Moreover, Rce1p has an undefined catalytic mechanism, whereas Ste24p is an established zinc-dependent metalloprotease. This study demonstrates that both enzymes are inhibited by peptidyl (acyloxy)methyl ketones (AOMKs), making these compounds the first documented dual specificity inhibitors of the CaaX proteases. Further investigation of AOMK-mediated inhibition reveals that varying the peptidyl moiety can significantly alter the inhibitory properties of AOMKs toward Rce1p and Ste24p and that these enzymes display subtle differences in sensitivity to AOMKs. This observation suggests that this compound class could potentially be engineered to be selective for either of the CaaX proteases. We also demonstrate that the reported sensitivity of Rce1p to TPCK is substrate-dependent, which significantly alters the interpretation of certain reports having used TPCK sensitivity for mechanistic classification of Rce1p. Finally, we show that an AOMK inhibits the isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase Ste14p. In sum, our observations raise important considerations regarding the specificity of agents targeting enzymes involved in the maturation of isoprenylated proteins, some of which are being developed as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2007; 1773(6):853-62. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kinesin motor proteins are involved in cell division and intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles, and as such, they play a role in neurological disease, cancer, and developmental disorders. Inhibitors of kinesin would be valuable as probes of cell physiology and as potential therapeutics. Adociasulfate-2 (AS-2) is the only known natural product inhibitor of kinesins, but its mechanism of action is unknown. We utilized kinetic studies, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the inhibitory action of AS-2. Our data suggest that AS-2 is not a classical 1:1 inhibitor. Instead, a rodlike aggregate that mimics microtubules is complexed with kinesin and inhibits its ATPase activity. An intriguing implication of this hypothesis is that aggregates of a chiral natural product can have interesting and biologically relevant properties. This mode of action might represent one way in which a small molecule can disrupt a protein-protein interaction.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2006; 49(16):4857-60. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two-photon excitation (2PE) of "caged" biomolecules represents a powerful method to investigate the temporal and spatial relevance of physiological function in real time and on living tissue, because the excitation volume can be restricted to 1 fL. Additionally, low-energy IR light is used, which minimizes tissue destruction and enables deeper penetration into tissue preparations. Exploitation of this technology for studying cell physiology requires the further development of photoremovable protecting groups with sufficient sensitivity to 2PE for use in "caged" compounds. 8-Bromo-7-hydroxyquinoline (BHQ) is efficiently photolyzed by classic 1PE (365 nm) and 2PE (740 nm) under simulated physiological conditions (aqueous buffer of high ionic strength, pH 7.2) to release carboxylates, phosphates, and diols-functional groups commonly found on bioactive molecules such as neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, and drugs. It is stable in the dark, soluble in water, and exhibits low levels of fluorescence, which will enable use in conjunction with fluorescent indicators of biological function. BHQ-protected effectors are synthetically accessible. Stern-Volmer quenching, time-resolved infrared (TRIR), and (18)O-labeling experiments suggest that the photolysis occurs through a solvent-assisted photoheterolysis (S(N)1) reaction mechanism on the sub-microsecond time scale. BHQ has the requisite photochemical and photophysical properties as a photoremovable protecting group to regulate the action of biological effectors in cell and tissue culture with light, especially 2PE.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2006; 128(13):4267-76. · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Timothy M. Dore
    10/2005: pages 435 - 459; , ISBN: 9783527605590
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    ABSTRACT: The regulation of protein synthesis is vital for a host of cell biological processes, but investigating roles for protein synthesis have been hindered by the inability to selectively interfere with it. To inhibit protein synthesis with spatial and temporal control, we have developed a photo-releasable anisomycin compound, N-([6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl]methyloxycarbonyl)anisomycin (Bhc-Aniso), that can be removed through exposure to UV light. The area of protein synthesis inhibition can be restricted to a small light-exposed region or, potentially, the volume of two-photon excitation if a pulsed IR laser is the light source. We have tested the compound's effectiveness with an in vitro protein-translation system, CHO cells, HEK293 cells, and neurons. The photo-released anisomycin can inhibit protein synthesis in a spatially restricted manner, which will enable the specific inhibition of protein synthesis in subsets of cells with temporal and spatial precision.
    Chemistry & Biology 07/2005; 12(6):685-93. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic nucleoside monophosphates (cNMPs) play key roles in many cellular regulatory processes, such as growth, differentiation, motility, and gene expression. Caged derivatives that can be activated by irradiation could be powerful tools for studying such diverse functions of intracellular second messengers, since the spatiotemporal dynamics of these molecules can be controlled by irradiation with appropriately focused light. Here we report the synthesis, photochemistry, and biological testing of 6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyl esters of cNMP (Bhc-cNMP) and their acetyl derivatives (Bhc-cNMP/Ac) as new caged second messengers. Irradiation of Bhc-cNMPs quantitatively produced the parent cNMPs with one-photon uncaging efficiencies (Phiepsilon) of up to one order of magnitude better than those of 2-nitrophenethyl (NPE) cNMPs. In addition, two-photon induced photochemical release of cNMP from Bhc-cNMPs (7 and 8) can be observed with the two-photon uncaging action cross-sections (delta(u)) of up to 2.28 GM (1 GM=10(-50) cm(4) s photon(-1)), which is the largest value among those of the reported Bhc-caged compounds. The wavelength dependence of the delta(u) values of 7 revealed that the peak wavelength was twice that of the one-photon absorption maximum. Bhc-cNMPs showed practically useful water solubility (nearly 500 microM), whereas 7-acetylated derivatives (Bhc-cNMPs/Ac) were expected to have a certain membrane permeability. Their advantages were demonstrated in two types of biological systems: the opening of cAMP-mediated transduction channels in newt olfactory receptor cells and cAMP-mediated motility responses in epidermal melanophores in scales from medaka fish. Both examples showed that Bhc and Bhc/Ac caged compounds have great potential for use in many cell biological applications.
    ChemBioChem 09/2004; 5(8):1119-28. · 3.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

682 Citations
106.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2013
    • University of Georgia
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Center for Advanced Ultrastructural Research
      Атина, Georgia, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Chemistry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2005
    • University of Kansas
      Lawrence, Kansas, United States
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2003
    • Athens State University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Athens, Alabama, United States