Timothy H J Goodship

Newcastle University, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (161)965.76 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inherited abnormalities of complement are found in ∼60% of patients with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). Such abnormalities are not fully penetrant. In this study, we have estimated the penetrance of the disease in three families with a CFH mutation (c.3643C>G; p. Arg1215Gly) in whom a common lineage is probable. 25 individuals have been affected with aHUS with three peaks of incidence-early childhood (n=6), early adulthood (n=11) and late adulthood (n=8). Eighteen individuals who have not developed aHUS carry the mutation.
    Journal of medical genetics. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Autoantibody formation against Factor H (FH) is found in 7-10% of patients who are diagnosed with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). These autoantibodies predominately target the C-terminal cell binding recognition domain of FH and are associated with absence of FHR1. Additional autoantibodies have also been identified in association with aHUS, for example autoantibodies to Factor I. Based on this, and that there are genetic mutations in other complement regulators and activators associated with aHUS, we hypothesised that other complement regulator proteins, particularly surface bound regulators in the kidney, might be the target for autoantibody formation in aHUS. Therefore, we assayed serum derived from 89 patients in the Newcastle aHUS cohort for the presence of autoantibodies to CD46 (membrane cofactor protein, MCP), CD55 (decay accelerating factor, DAF), CD35 (complement receptor type 1, CR1; TP10) and CD59. We also assayed 100 healthy blood donors to establish the normal levels of reactivity towards these proteins in the general population. Recombinant proteins CD46 and CD55 (purified from Escherichia coli) as well as soluble CR1 (CD35) and oligomeric C4BP-CD59 (purified from eukaryotic cell media) were used in ELISA to detect high responders. False positive results were established though Western blot and flow cytometric analysis. After excluding false positive responders to bacterial proteins in the CD46 and CD55 preparations, and responses to blood group antigens in CD35, we found no significant level of patient serum IgG reactivity with CD46, CD55, CD35 or CD59 above that detected in the normal population. These results suggest that membrane anchored complement regulators are not a target for autoantibody generation in aHUS.
    Molecular immunology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) triggered by Shigella flexneri. Of the Shigella species, only S. dysenteriae type 1 is said to produce Shiga toxin and consequently cause HUS. Investigation of the complement system in this patient revealed a CD46 mutation. In individuals with mutations in complement genes incomplete penetrance of atypical HUS (aHUS) is seen, suggesting that a trigger, such as infection, is required for disease to manifest. In an era of complement modulatory therapy for aHUS it is important to be alert to unusual presentations of diarrhoeal-associated disease.
    Clinical kidney journal. 06/2014; 7(3):286-288.
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    ABSTRACT: Complement C3 activation is a characteristic finding in membranoproliferative GN (MPGN). This activation can be caused by immune complex deposition or an acquired or inherited defect in complement regulation. Deficiency of complement factor H has long been associated with MPGN. More recently, heterozygous genetic variants have been reported in sporadic cases of MPGN, although their functional significance has not been assessed. We describe a family with MPGN and acquired partial lipodystrophy. Although C3 nephritic factor was shown in family members with acquired partial lipodystrophy, it did not segregate with the renal phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in complement factor H (R83S) in addition to known risk polymorphisms carried by individuals with MPGN. Patients with MPGN had normal levels of factor H, and structural analysis of the mutant revealed only subtle alterations. However, functional analysis revealed profoundly reduced C3b binding, cofactor activity, and decay accelerating activity leading to loss of regulation of the alternative pathway. In summary, this family showed a confluence of common and rare functionally significant genetic risk factors causing disease. Data from our analysis of these factors highlight the role of the alternative pathway of complement in MPGN.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2014; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 2-year-old patient with a neuroblastoma developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) following treatment with cisplatin and carboplatin. Following treatment with eculizumab, there was a substantial improvement in renal function with the recovery of the platelet count and the cessation of haemolysis. Subsequent investigations showed a novel, heterozygous CD46 splice site mutation with reduced peripheral blood neutrophil CD46 expression. Withdrawal of eculizumab was followed by the recurrence of disease activity, which resolved with re-introduction of therapy. Abnormal regulation of complement may be associated with other cases of cisplatin-induced HUS and treatment with eculizumab may be appropriate for other affected individuals.
    Clinical kidney journal. 08/2013; 6(4):421-425.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a male infant who presented at 8 months of age with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) responsive to plasma therapy. Investigation showed him to have complement factor H (CFH) deficiency associated with a homozygous CFH mutation (c.2880delT [p.Phe960fs]). Mutation screening of the child's parents revealed that the father was heterozygous for this change but that it was not present in his mother. Chromosome 1 uniparental isodisomy of paternal origin was confirmed by genotyping chromosome 1 SNPs. CD46 SNP genotyping was undertaken in this individual and another patient with CFH deficiency associated with chromosome 1 uniparental isodisomy. This showed a homozygous aHUS risk haplotype (CD46GGAAC) in the patient with aHUS and a homozygous glomerulonephritis risk haplotype (CD46AAGGT) in the patient with endocapillary glomerulonephritis. We also showed that FHL-1 (factor H-like protein 1) was present in the patient with aHUS and absent in the patient with glomerulonephritis. This study emphasizes that modifiers such as CD46 and FHL-1 may determine the kidney phenotype of patients who present with homozygous CFH deficiency.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 07/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a genetic, life-threatening, chronic disease of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy. Plasma exchange or infusion may transiently maintain normal levels of hematologic measures but does not treat the underlying systemic disease. We conducted two prospective phase 2 trials in which patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome who were 12 years of age or older received eculizumab for 26 weeks and during long-term extension phases. Patients with low platelet counts and renal damage (in trial 1) and those with renal damage but no decrease in the platelet count of more than 25% for at least 8 weeks during plasma exchange or infusion (in trial 2) were recruited. The primary end points included a change in the platelet count (in trial 1) and thrombotic microangiopathy event-free status (no decrease in the platelet count of >25%, no plasma exchange or infusion, and no initiation of dialysis) (in trial 2). A total of 37 patients (17 in trial 1 and 20 in trial 2) received eculizumab for a median of 64 and 62 weeks, respectively. Eculizumab resulted in increases in the platelet count; in trial 1, the mean increase in the count from baseline to week 26 was 73×10(9) per liter (P<0.001). In trial 2, 80% of the patients had thrombotic microangiopathy event-free status. Eculizumab was associated with significant improvement in all secondary end points, with continuous, time-dependent increases in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In trial 1, dialysis was discontinued in 4 of 5 patients. Earlier intervention with eculizumab was associated with significantly greater improvement in the estimated GFR. Eculizumab was also associated with improvement in health-related quality of life. No cumulative toxicity of therapy or serious infection-related adverse events, including meningococcal infections, were observed through the extension period. Eculizumab inhibited complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy and was associated with significant time-dependent improvement in renal function in patients with atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. (Funded by Alexion Pharmaceuticals; C08-002 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00844545 [adults] and NCT00844844 [adolescents]; C08-003 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00838513 [adults] and NCT00844428 [adolescents]).
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; 368(23):2169-81. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by dysregulated complement activation. A humanised anti-C5 monoclonal antibody has recently become available for treatment of this condition CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We present the first description of an infant with an activating mutation of complement factor B successfully treated with eculizumab. On standard doses she had evidence of ongoing C5 cleavage despite a good clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: Eculizumab is effective therapy for aHUS associated with factor B mutations, but recommended doses may not be adequate for all patients.
    Pediatric Nephrology 04/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several abnormalities in complement genes reportedly contribute to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), but incomplete penetrance suggests that additional factors are necessary for the disease to manifest. Here, we sought to describe genotype-phenotype correlations among patients with combined mutations, defined as mutations in more than one complement gene. We screened 795 patients with aHUS and identified single mutations in 41% and combined mutations in 3%. Only 8%-10% of patients with mutations in CFH, C3, or CFB had combined mutations, whereas approximately 25% of patients with mutations in MCP or CFI had combined mutations. The concomitant presence of CFH and MCP risk haplotypes significantly increased disease penetrance in combined mutated carriers, with 73% penetrance among carriers with two risk haplotypes compared with 36% penetrance among carriers with zero or one risk haplotype. Among patients with CFH or CFI mutations, the presence of mutations in other genes did not modify prognosis; in contrast, 50% of patients with combined MCP mutation developed end stage renal failure within 3 years from onset compared with 19% of patients with an isolated MCP mutation. Patients with combined mutations achieved remission with plasma treatment similar to patients with single mutations. Kidney transplant outcomes were worse, however, for patients with combined MCP mutation compared with an isolated MCP mutation. In summary, these data suggest that genotyping for the risk haplotypes in CFH and MCP may help predict the risk of developing aHUS in unaffected carriers of mutations. Furthermore, screening patients with aHUS for all known disease-associated genes may inform decisions about kidney transplantation.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2013; 24(3):475-86. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we have used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to measure the copy number of CFHR3 and CFHR1 in DNA samples from 238 individuals from the UK and 439 individuals from the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel. We have then calculated the allele frequency and frequency of homozygosity for the copy number polymorphism represented by the CFHR3/CFHR1 deletion. There was a highly significant difference between geographical locations in both the allele frequency (X(2) = 127.7, DF = 11, P-value = 4.97x10(-22)) and frequency of homozygosity (X(2) = 142.3, DF = 22, P-value = 1.33x10(-19)). The highest frequency for the deleted allele (54.7%) was seen in DNA samples from Nigeria and the lowest (0%) in samples from South America and Japan. The observed frequencies in conjunction with the known association of the deletion with AMD, SLE and IgA nephropathy is in keeping with differences in the prevalence of these diseases in African and European Americans. This emphasises the importance of identifying copy number polymorphism in disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60352. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-five members of a family from the county of Devon in England have been affected by atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) associated with a CFH mutation (c.3643C>G; p.Arg1215Gly). A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with aHUS after losing a renal transplant to a thrombotic microangiopathy. Subsequent mutation screening revealed the same CFH mutation without him being knowingly related to the local kindred. We designed a study to investigate the prevalence of this mutation in the local area. In addition, we examined the diagnoses of pre-existing haemodialysis patients to determine whether other patients might unknowingly be at risk of carrying the same CFH mutation. The Exeter Ten Thousand (EXTEND) study aims to recruit 10,000 healthy volunteers over the age of 18 years living within 25 miles of Exeter in Devon. We genotyped DNA from 4,000 EXTEND subjects for CFH c.3643C>G; p.Arg1215Gly. We reviewed the diagnoses of 294 haemodialysis patients in the Devon area and genotyped 7 patients with either end-stage renal disease of unknown aetiology, malignant hypertension or renovascular disease. CFH c.3643C>G; p.Arg1215Gly was not detected in any of the 7 haemodialysis patients or the 4,000 individuals within the EXTEND study. We conclude that CFH c.3643C>G; p.Arg1215Gly is not endemic in Devon. This reinforces our existing practice of genotyping only patients with kidney disease and evidence of a thrombotic microangiopathy for this mutation. This is the first study looking at the prevalence of CFH mutations in the general population.
    Nephron extra. 01/2013; 3(1):86-90.
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    ABSTRACT: C3 nephritic factors are autoantibodies that prolong the half-life or prevent regulation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase, resulting in uncontrolled complement activation. They are strongly associated with renal disease but their role in pathogenesis remains controversial. Here we optimized and compared a panel of assays to identify and interrogate nephritic factor activities. Of 101 patients with histologic or clinically evident disease, 48 were positive in some or all assays. In the presence of properdin, binding of autoantibody was detected in 39 samples and convertase stabilization was detected in 36. Forty-two of 48 nephritic factors tested prevented convertase decay by factor H, and most of these by decay accelerating factor (28) and complement receptor 1 (34). Representative properdin-independent nephritic factors had no effect on C5 cleavage and terminal pathway activity, while properdin-dependent nephritic factors enhanced activity. Biacore analysis of four purified IgG samples confirmed resistance to decay and showed that properdin-independent nephritic factors increased convertase half-life over 50-fold, whereas properdin-dependent nephritic factors increased the half-life 10- to 20-fold and also increased activity of the C3 convertase up to 10-fold. Thus, our study provides a rational approach to detect and characterize nephritic factors in patients.Kidney International advance online publication, 1 August 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.250.
    Kidney International 08/2012; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Factor H autoantibodies are found in ~10% of aHUS patients. Most are associated with complete deficiency of factor H related proteins 1/3 and bind to the C terminal recognition domain. MPGN, like aHUS, is characterised by complement activation. In this study we, therefore, examined the hypothesis that factor H autoantibodies are associated with MPGN. We screened sera from 16 MPGN patients and 100 normal controls using ELISA and detected strongly positive IgG factor H autoantibodies in 2 patients. One patient had type II (DDD) MPGN (male aged 24 yrs) with C3NeF and the other type I (female aged 26 yrs) with no detectable C3NeF. We identified the binding site of the autoantibodies using small SCR domain fragments in the ELISA and showed that the autoantibodies in both patients bound predominately to the N terminal complement regulatory domain of factor H. We measured CFHR 1/3 copy number using MLPA and showed that both patients had 2 copies of CFHR1 and 3. Finally, we examined the functionality of detected factor H autoantibodies using purified patient IgG and observed increased haemolysis when purified IgG from both patients was added to normal human sera prior to incubation with rabbit red blood cells. Thus, in a cohort of MPGN patients we have found a high titre of functionally significant factor H autoantibodies in two patients with MPGN. Antibody depleting therapy may have a role in such patients and we suggest that screening for factor H autoantibodies should be undertaken in all patients with MPGN.
    Molecular Immunology 06/2012; 52(3-4):200-6. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report here a young female who underwent a successful deceased donor liver transplant for hepatic vein thrombosis. Five years after transplantation she developed postpartum atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). She did not recover renal function. Mutation screening of complement genes in her DNA did not show any abnormality. Mutation screening of DNA available from the donor showed a nonsense CFH mutation leading to factor H deficiency. Genotyping of the patient showed that she was homozygous for an aHUS CD46 at-risk haplotype. In this individual, the development of aHUS has been facilitated by the combination of a trigger (pregnancy), an acquired rare genetic variant (CFH mutation) and a common susceptibility factor (CD46 haplotype).
    American Journal of Transplantation 03/2012; 12(6):1632-6. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a disease associated with mutations in the genes encoding the complement regulators factors H and I. In addition, factor H autoantibodies have been reported in ∼10% of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study searched for the presence of factor I autoantibodies in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study screened 175 atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome patients for factor I autoantibodies using ELISA with confirmatory Western blotting. Functional studies using purified immunoglobulin from one patient were subsequently undertaken. Factor I autoantibodies were detected in three patients. In one patient with a high titer of autoantibody, the titer was tracked over time and was found to have no association with disease activity. This study found evidence of an immune complex of antibody and factor I in this patient, but purified IgG, isolated from current serum samples, had only a minor effect on fluid phase and cell surface complement regulation. Genetic analysis of the three patients with factor I autoantibodies revealed that they had two copies of the genes encoding factor H-related proteins 1 and 3 and therefore, did not have a deletion commonly associated with factor H autoantibodies in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Two patients, however, had functionally significant mutations in complement factor H. These findings reinforce the concept of multiple concurrent risk factors being associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome but question whether autoantibodies per se predispose to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2012; 7(3):417-26. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that common genetic variants in CFH, CD46 and the CFHRs are additional risk factors for the development of aHUS. To examine the hypothesis that common variants in other complement genes have a similar effect we genotyped 501 SNPs in 47 complement genes in 94 aHUS patients from Newcastle, 126 aHUS patients from Paris, 374 UK controls and 165 French controls. We replicated the associations in CFH, CD46 and the CFHRs but found no association with any other complement gene. The strongest associations replicated in both cohorts were found for four SNPs within CD46 (p-value<10(-3)) and five SNPs within CFH (p-value<5×10(-3)). Significant replicable associations with single SNPs in CFHR2, CFHR4 and an intergenic SNP (CR1-CD46) were also found. Analysis of the Paris cohort showed that the association with CD46 SNPs was only present in those patients with complement mutations. Haplotype analysis showed at-risk and protective haplotypes in both CD46 and CFH. The CD46 haplotype was only disease-associated in those patients with mutations.
    Molecular Immunology 12/2011; 49(4):640-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic disorders affecting the genes encoding factor H (fH) and the 5 factor H related proteins have been described in association with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. These include deletions of CFHR3, CFHR1, and CFHR4 in association with fH autoantibodies and the formation of a hybrid CFH/CFHR1 gene. These occur through nonallelic homologous recombination secondary to the presence of large segmental duplications (macrohomology) in this region. Using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to screen for such genomic disorders, we have identified a large atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome family where a deletion has occurred through microhomology-mediated end joining rather than nonallelic homologous recombination. In the 3 affected persons of this family, we have shown that the deletion results in formation of a CFH/CFHR3 gene. We have shown that the protein product of this is a 24 SCR protein that is secreted with normal fluid-phase activity but marked loss of complement regulation at cell surfaces despite increased heparin binding. In this study, we have therefore shown that microhomology in this area of chromosome 1 predisposes to disease associated genomic disorders and that the complement regulatory function of fH at the cell surface is critically dependent on the structural integrity of the whole molecule.
    Blood 11/2011; 119(2):591-601. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 10/2011; 92(8):e42-3. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • L Ermini, I J Wilson, T H J Goodship, N S Sheerin
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of man has been characterised by recurrent episodes of migration and settlement with infectious disease a constant threat. This long history of demographic change, together with the action of evolutionary forces such as natural selection and genetic drift, has shaped human genetic diversity. In particular, the interaction between humans, pathogens and the environment has played a crucial role in generating patterns of human genetic variation. The complement system plays a crucial role in the early protective immune response after exposure to a pathogen. Pathogens, over time, have developed mechanisms to circumvent the effects of complement which in turn has led to development of a more complex complement system. During the evolution of the complement system genes coding complement proteins have evolved polymorphisms, some of which have a functional effect, and this may reflect human-pathogen interaction and geographical origin. An example is the polymorphism Ile62Val (rs800292 (A>G)) in the complement regulator Factor H gene which alters the susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), with the Ile62 polymorphism protecting against AMD. When sub-Saharan African and European populations are compared, the frequency of this polymorphism shows a very marked geographical distribution. Polymorphisms in other complement genes such as complement factor B show similar trends. This paper describes the geographical variation present in complement genes and discusses the implications of these observations. The analysis of genetic variation in complement genes is a promising tool to unravel mechanisms of host-pathogen interaction and can provide new insights into the evolution of the human immune system.
    Immunobiology 07/2011; 217(2):265-71. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a complex polygenic autoimmune disease, is associated with increased complement activation. Variants of genes encoding complement regulator factor H (CFH) and five CFH-related proteins (CFHR1-CFHR5) within the chromosome 1q32 locus linked to SLE, have been associated with multiple human diseases and may contribute to dysregulated complement activation predisposing to SLE. We assessed 60 SNPs covering the CFH-CFHRs region for association with SLE in 15,864 case-control subjects derived from four ethnic groups. Significant allelic associations with SLE were detected in European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA), which could be attributed to an intronic CFH SNP (rs6677604, in intron 11, P(meta) = 6.6×10(-8), OR = 1.18) and an intergenic SNP between CFHR1 and CFHR4 (rs16840639, P(meta) = 2.9×10(-7), OR = 1.17) rather than to previously identified disease-associated CFH exonic SNPs, including I62V, Y402H, A474A, and D936E. In addition, allelic association of rs6677604 with SLE was subsequently confirmed in Asians (AS). Haplotype analysis revealed that the underlying causal variant, tagged by rs6677604 and rs16840639, was localized to a ~146 kb block extending from intron 9 of CFH to downstream of CFHR1. Within this block, the deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 (CFHR3-1Δ), a likely causal variant measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, was tagged by rs6677604 in EA and AS and rs16840639 in AA, respectively. Deduced from genotypic associations of tag SNPs in EA, AA, and AS, homozygous deletion of CFHR3-1Δ (P(meta) = 3.2×10(-7), OR = 1.47) conferred a higher risk of SLE than heterozygous deletion (P(meta) = 3.5×10(-4), OR = 1.14). These results suggested that the CFHR3-1Δ deletion within the SLE-associated block, but not the previously described exonic SNPs of CFH, might contribute to the development of SLE in EA, AA, and AS, providing new insights into the role of complement regulators in the pathogenesis of SLE.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2011; 7(5):e1002079. · 8.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
965.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983–2014
    • Newcastle University
      • Institute of Cellular Medicine
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Newcastle
      Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Division of Rheumatology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1993–2013
    • The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Belfast Health and Social Care Trust
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Centre for Public Health
      Belfast, NIR, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Lund University
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Rheumatology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Ouest)
      • Service d’Immunologie Biologique
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2000–2007
    • University College London
      • • Department of Structural and Molecular Biology
      • • Institute of Child Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Academic Medical Center (AMC)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology - Hans Knöll Institute
      • Department of Infection Biology
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 2004
    • Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc
      • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003
    • Institute of Human Genetics
      Amadavad, Gujarāt, India
  • 1998
    • Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia
      Bharu, Johor, Malaysia
  • 1996
    • National Research Council
      • Clinical Physiopathology Group
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1994
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Columbia, MO, United States