Tianli Liu

Peking University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (5)18.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a major cause of psychiatric disability in China. In the present study, we estimated total and age-specific prevalence of both schizophrenia disability and associated mortality among Chinese women and men. We further examined whether sex differences in prevalence were attributable to mortality differences between men and women. Data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability (2006) and the 2007–2010 follow-up studies were utilized. Possibly psychiatrically disabled individuals were administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, Version II and the ICD-10 Symptom Checklist for Mental Disorders by trained clinical psychiatrists. In total, 0.37% of men and 0.44% of women were living with schizophrenia disability in China. We did not find statistically significant differences in the 4-year cumulative mortality between men and women. Overall standardized mortality ratios for the age groups of 18–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, and 70+ years were 120.89, 29.56, 15.06, 9.16, 10.57, and 4.95, respectively. In conclusion, mortality differences between men and women were unlikely to be a major contributor to sex differences in prevalence. Premature death among younger individuals experiencing schizophrenia disability warrants urgent attention.
    Psychiatry Research 12/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Illiterate people may frequently experience social discrimination and exclusion in our modern society. It has been suggested that social adversity increases risk of schizophrenia. The current study examines the relation between illiteracy and schizophrenia. METHODS: We utilized data on 1,909,205 representative Chinese people of age 18 years or older collected by the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 (participation rate 99.8 %). Experienced clinical psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia among those who were psychiatrically disabled with the ICD-10 symptom checklist. RESULTS: Strikingly high prevalence of schizophrenia was observed among the young illiterates aged 18-29 years (prevalence 1.64 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.35, 1.93) and 30-39 years (prevalence 1.51 %, 95 % CI 1.34, 1.68), much higher than the prevalence estimates for general Chinese population of similar age reported by any of the previous studies in mainland China. Among people aged less than 40 years, we found that the illiterates were 2.08 times more likely to develop schizophrenia than the literates with no school or primary school education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.84, 2.36). The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, household income, and location of residence. Consistently, a strong association between illiteracy and schizophrenia (OR = 2.8, 95 % CI 1.28, 6.11) was found in conditional logistic regression analysis among matched sibling sets aged less than 40 years that further adjusted for genetic confounding. CONCLUSION: The risk of schizophrenia may have increased among the socially disadvantaged illiterate people.
    Social Psychiatry 07/2012; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with aggressive behaviors among offspring across the life course. We posit that anger, as a precedent of aggression, may have mediated the association. The current study examines the relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and anger proneness among the adult offspring. Participants were 611 adult offspring (ages 38-48 years) of mothers enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1966 in Boston and Providence. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected during prenatal visits. Spielberger's trait anger scale was used to measure anger proneness which has two components: anger temperament and angry reaction. Results from the full sample analyses showed that offspring whose mother smoked one pack or more per day on average scored 1.7 higher in anger temperament T scores in comparison to offspring whose mother never smoked during pregnancy (β=1.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.1, 3.2). The fixed effects analyses among siblings that accounted for more confounding found a greater effect of around one standard deviation increase in anger temperament T scores corresponding to maternal smoking of one pack or more (β=7.4, 95% CI: 0.5, 14.4). We did not observe an association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring angry reaction or other negative emotions including anxiety and depression. We concluded that prenatal exposure to heavy cigarette smoke was associated with an increased level of anger temperament, a stable personality trait that may carry the influence of prenatal smoking through the life course.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 09/2011; 45(12):1648-54. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental studies have indicated that cigarette smoke contains potential human breast toxins and that the toxic influence during the prenatal period is greater than that of later life. The study sample includes 810 women whose mothers enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1966 in Boston and Providence. These women have been followed from gestation until middle-age. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was prospectively collected during prenatal visits. We identified 146 women who had been told by a health professional that they had benign breast disease. Log-binomial regression models with Generalized Estimating Equation methods were employed to quantify the association between maternal smoking and benign breast disease among offspring. There was a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of benign breast disease among offspring. In particular, women whose mother smoked 1 pack or more per day were 1.7 times more likely to develop benign breast disease (relative risk = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.2-2.5]) in comparison with women whose mother never smoked during pregnancy. The association was independent of women's age, race, education, age at menarche, parity, obesity, birth weight, and maternal age at pregnancy. Exposure to heavy cigarette smoking during the prenatal period was associated with an increased risk of benign breast disease in adulthood.
    Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 09/2010; 21(5):736-43. · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced paternal age has been widely cited as a risk factor for schizophrenia among offspring and even claimed to account for one-quarter of all cases. We carried out a new study on 25,025 offspring from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), including 168 diagnosed with psychosis and 88 with narrowly defined schizophrenia. We also conducted a meta-analysis of this and nine other studies for which comparable age-cohort data were available. The mean paternal age for the CPP cases was slightly, but not significantly, higher than the matched controls (p=0.28). Meta-analyses including these new results were conducted to determine the relative risk associated with alternative definitions of advanced paternal age (35, 45 or 55 years and older). These yielded pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.28 (1.10, 1.48), 1.38 (0.95, 2.01) and 2.22 (1.46, 3.37), respectively. Thus, increased paternal age appears to be a risk factor for schizophrenia primarily among offspring of fathers ages 55 and over. In these 10 studies, such fathers accounted for only 0.6% of all births. Compared with other known risk factors for schizophrenia, advanced paternal age appears to be intermediate in magnitude. Advanced paternal age is also known to be a risk factor for some chromosomal and neoplastic diseases in the offspring where the cause is thought to be chromosomal aberrations and mutations of the aging germline. Similar mechanisms may account for the relationship between advanced paternal age and schizophrenia risk.
    Schizophrenia Research 09/2009; 114(1-3):1-5. · 4.59 Impact Factor