Tamas Szili-Torok

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (131)352.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The data supporting the practice of empiric slow pathway ablation (ESPA) in patients with documented supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) who are non-inducible at electrophysiology study (EPS) is limited. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of ESPA in adults.MethodsA multi-center cohort study of patients who had ESPA between January 2008 and October 2013 was performed. Patients were identified by screening sequential SVT ablation procedures.ResultsForty-three (5%) out of 859 SVT ablation procedures were identified as ESPA. The median age was 53 (IQR: 24) years; 63% were female. All patients had pre-EPS documentation of SVT (either strip or ECG). In 23 (53.5%) cases, pre-EPS ECG showed short RP tachycardia. Thirty-two (74.4%) patients had dual atrioventricular nodal physiology (DAVNP) plus echo beats. Junctional rhythm (JR) as procedural endpoint was noted in 39 (90.7%) patients. In 18 (41.9%) patients, the abolishment of DAVNP was achieved. No complications were encountered. A median follow-up of 17 months (range: 6 to 31 months) revealed 83.7% (36 of 43) success rate, defined as the absence of pre-procedural symptoms and any documented sustained arrhythmia. As compared to patients with recurrence (n = 7), patients with no recurrence (n = 36) had significantly higher prevalence of clinical short RP tachycardia (61.1% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.038), and EPS finding of DAVNP plus echo beats (80.6% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.034).ConclusionsESPA is a reasonable approach in patients with documented SVT, in particular in short RP tachycardia, who are not inducible at EPS. Larger studies are required to assess this practice.
    International Journal of Cardiology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A left atrial anterior ablation line (AnL), connecting the mitral annulus and right pulmonary veins or a roof line, has been suggested as an alternative to mitral isthmus (MI) ablation for perimitral flutter (PMF). Theoretically, the AnL can exclude the left atrial (LA) septal wall from the reentrant circle, and lead to involvement of the right atrium (RA) in a tachycardia (AT) mechanism.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 09/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients may develop interatrial activation delay, indicated by complete separation of right and left atrial activation on the ECG. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of interatrial activation delay and the relation to atrial tachycardia (AT) cycle length (CL) in HCM patients. Methods 159 HCM patients were included (mean age 52 ± 14 yrs). In group I (n = 15,9%) patients had atrial arrhythmias and progressive ATCL. In group II (n = 22, 14%) patients had a stable ATCL. In group III (n = 122, 77%) HCM patients without AT were included. P wave morphology and change in P wave duration (ΔP and Pmax) and changes in ATCL (ΔATCL) were analysed. Mean follow up was 8.7 ± 4.7 years. Results In group I 33% (n = 5) had separated P waves. In group II no P wave separation was identified (OR 1.50 [1.05-2.15], p = 0.007). In group I patients were older compared to group III (62.6 ± 15.1vs. 50.2 ± 14.0 y, p = 0.002) and had longer follow up (13.4 ± 2.2 vs. 7.8 ± 4.6 y, p < 0.001). In group III Pmax and ΔP was significantly lower (105.1 ± 22.0 ms and 8.9 ± 13.2 ms, both p < 0.0001). Group I patients had an increased LA size compared to group II (61.1 ± 11.6 vs. 53.7 ± 7.5 mm, p = 0.028) and higher E/A and E/E prime ratios (p = 0.007; p = 0.037, respectively). In group I 93.3% of the identified mutations were typical Dutch founder mutations of the MYBPC3 gene. Conclusion In HCM patients a unique combination of separated P waves and regularization of ATs is associated with larger atria, higher LA pressures and myosin binding protein mutations.
    IJC Heart & Vessels. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: It is not clear whether patients who received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention should undergo device replacement if they never experienced an appropriate ICD therapy during the first generator longevity. This study evaluated the incidence and predictors of appropriate ICD therapy after device replacement in this specific population.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 08/2014; 100(15):1188-92. · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • 07/2014; 10(3):403-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is effective in preventing sudden cardiac death. However, in elderly patients (aged 75 years or older) the role of ICDs is still not well-defined and controversial. We retrospectively analysed all clinical and survival data of all ICD patients who were ≥75 years at the date of implantation in the Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands and the University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed, and mortality predictors were identified. Mortality of the cohort was compared with a random sample of patients aged 60-70 years originating from the same database and to an age- and sex-matched cohort of Dutch persons. The study cohort consisted of 179 patients aged 75 years or older who were implanted between February 1999 and July 2008. The median follow-up time was 2.0 (IQR 2.8) years. Survival rates after 1, 2 and 3 years were 87, 82, 75 %, respectively. Survival was similar for primary and secondary prevention. Mortality in this study population could be predicted by combining four clinical risk factors: QRS duration >120 ms, NYHA class > II, renal failure and atrial fibrillation (AF). Survival was worse compared with the group of ICD patients aged 60-70 years and to the age- and sex-matched group of elderly persons. However, survival was not significantly worse when comparing elderly ICD patients without additional risk factors to the general population. Elderly patients still have an acceptable survival probability independent of prevention indication, certainly if there are no additional clinical risk factors. The presence or absence of additional clinical risk factors should be taken into account when making the decision for implantation, since they strongly correlate with survival.
    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 05/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Contact force (CF) is one of the major determinants for sufficient lesion formation. CF-guided procedures are associated with enhanced lesion formation and procedural success. We report our initial experience in epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation with a force-sensing catheter using a new approach with an angioplasty balloon. Two patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy who underwent prior unsuccessful endocardial ablation were treated with epicardial VT ablation. CF data were used to titrate force, power and ablation time.
    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 04/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After catheter ablation there is often a discrepancy between acute and chronic success rates. We aimed to evaluate major determinants for lesion quality and understand different manifestations of lesion structures. In a canine thigh muscle model radiofrequency (RF) current was delivered for 60 seconds at 30 W (n = 39) or 50 W (n = 18) with 15-g contact force. A second-generation 12-hole gold open irrigation catheter (SGIT) and a first-generation six-hole platinum-iridium catheter (FGIT; Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) were used. Electrode and tissue temperatures (at the surface and 3.5-mm and 7-mm depth) were recorded and lesion dimensions were measured. Lesions with steam pops were excluded. Histological examination was performed to evaluate homogeneity of the lesions. Inhomogeneity was defined as a visual multiband lesion pattern indicating different histological characteristics. In total 57 lesions were created. Seventeen lesions were excluded (steam pops) and 40 lesions were analyzed. A total number of 11 homogeneous and 29 inhomogeneous lesions were identified. Using the SGIT catheter 16.7% of the lesions was homogeneous and 83.3% inhomogeneous; for FGIT it was 43.8% and 56.2% (P = 0.065), respectively. Homogeneous lesions had lower volumes as compared to inhomogeneous lesions (514.0 ± 198.8 vs 914.8 ± 399.1 mm, P = 0.003). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the SGIT catheter is a significant predictor for inhomogeneous lesions (odds ratio 6.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-38.8; P = 0.040) independent from power setting and flow rate. The development of inhomogeneous lesions after acute RF ablation is associated with higher lesion volumes and the use of the second-generation irrigation gold-tip catheter.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 02/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 01/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ablation of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a highly effective procedure both with radiofrequency (RF) and cryoenergy (CE). Conventionally, it requires several diagnostic catheters and hospital admission. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a highly simplified approach using the magnetic navigation system (MNS) compared to CE and manual RF ablation (MAN). In the MNS group a single magnetic-guided quadripolar catheter was inserted through the internal jugular vein to perform ablation. In the CE group cryomapping preceded ablation and for MAN procedures conventional ablation was performed. The following parameters were analysed: success- and recurrence rate, procedure-, fluoroscopy- and total application time. In total 69 eligible patients were treated with MNS (n = 26), CE (n = 25) and MAN (n = 16). The success rates were 100%, 100% and 94%, respectively (p = ns). The mean procedural time was 83 +/- 25 min for MNS, 117 +/- 47 min for CE and 117 +/- 55 min for MAN (P < 0.01). Total radiation time was significantly lower for MNS [0.0 min (IQR 0.0-0.0)] compared to CE [15.1 min (IQR 9.1-23.8), P < 0.001] and MAN [17.5 min (IQR 7.0-31.3), P < 0.001]. The total application time was comparable for both RF groups: 357 +/- 315 s (MNS) vs 204 +/- 177 s (MAN) (P = 0.14). No major adverse events occurred. After 3 months follow-up similar PR intervals were recorded for all patients. During a follow-up of 26 +/- 5 months recurrence rates were 3.8%, 4.0% and 6.3%, respectively, for each group. The MNS-guided single-catheter approach is a feasible and safe technique for the treatment of patients with typical AVNRT.
    Acta cardiologica 12/2013; 68(6):559-67. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial tachycardias (ATs) frequently develop in patients with congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of extensive atrial scar formation on the total atrial activation time (TAAT) and its relation to the tachycardia cycle length (CL) to classify AT.METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were included and divided into two groups: patients without CHD (Group I, 35 patients) and with CHD (Group II, 36 patients). All patients underwent CARTO electroanatomical activation mapping. Two subgroups were created: centrifugal (CAT) or macroreentrant AT (MRAT). Total atrial activation time, CL, and mean bipolar signal amplitude (BiSA) were analysed. In Group I, 18 patients (51.4%) had CAT and 17 (48.6%) MRAT. The mean BiSA for Group I was 1.30 ± 0.32 mV. Total atrial activation time/CL ratios were different between CAT and MRAT (28.4 ± 16.9 vs. 66.6 ± 14.3%, P < 0.001). In Group II, 18 patients (50%) had CAT and 18 patients (50%) MRAT. The mean BiSA was 0.94 ± 0.50 mV and was not different for CAT and MRAT subgroups (1.04 ± 0.64 vs. 0.85 ± 0.29, P = 0.243). Total atrial activation time/CL ratios were comparable between CAT and MRAT patients (69.0 ± 40.4 vs. 83.6 ± 8.3%, P = 0.243). A significant lower BiSA was found for CAT with TAAT/CL ratios above 40% (0.62 ± 0.11 vs. 1.90 ± 0.18 mV, P < 0.001). A strong negative correlation was identified between the BiSA and the TAAT/CL ratio in patients with CAT in Group II (-0.742; P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Low mean BiSA values in CHD patients are associated with altered impulse propagation, making TAAT- and CL-based diagnostic tools inaccurate. Further diagnostic tests are needed to determine the correct mechanism of ATs.
    Europace 11/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the outcome and associated risks of atrial defragmentation for the treatment of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSP-AF). Thirty-seven consecutive patients (60.4 ± 7.3 years; 28 male) suffering from LSP-AF who underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and linear ablation were compared. All patients were treated with the Stereotaxis magnetic navigation system (MNS). Two groups were distinguished: patients with (n = 20) and without (n = 17) defragmentation. The primary endpoint of the study was freedom of AF after 12 months. Secondary endpoints were AF termination, procedure time, fluoroscopy time and procedural complications. Complications were divided into two groups: major (infarction, stroke, major bleeding and tamponade) and minor (fever, pericarditis and inguinal haematoma). No difference was seen in freedom of AF between the defragmentation and the non-defragmentation group (56.2 % vs. 40.0 %, P = 0.344). Procedure times in the defragmentation group were longer; no differences in fluoroscopy times were observed. No major complications occurred. A higher number of minor complications occurred in the defragmentation group (45.0 % vs. 5.9 %, P = 0.009). Mean hospital stay was comparable (4.7 ± 2.2 vs. 3.4 ± 0.8 days, P = 0.06). Our study suggests that complete defragmentation using MNS is associated with a higher number of minor complications and longer procedure times and thus compromises efficiency without improving efficacy.
    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 10/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Robotic systems are becoming increasingly common in complex ablation procedures. We conducted systematic review and meta-analysis on the procedural outcomes of Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) in comparison to conventional catheter navigation for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. An electronic search was performed using multiple databases between 2002 & 2012. Outcomes were: acute and long-term success, complications, total procedure, ablation and fluoroscopic times. Fifteen studies (11 nonrandomized controlled studies & 4 case series) involving 1647 adult patients were identified. In comparison between MNS and conventional groups, a tendency towards higher acute success was noted with conventional group but with similar long-term freedom from AF (95% vs. 97%, odds ratio (OR) 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06; 1.04, p=0.057); 73% vs. 75%, OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.69; 1.24, p=0.59), respectively). A significantly shorter fluoroscopic time was achieved with MNS (57 vs. 86min, standardized difference in means (SDM) -0.90 (95% CI -1.68; -0.12, p=0.024)). Longer total procedure and ablation times were noted with MNS (286 vs. 228min, SDM 0.7 (95% CI 0.28; 1.12, p=0.001); 67 vs. 47min, SDM 0.79 (95% CI 0.18; 1.4, p=0.012), respectively). Overall complication rate was similar (2% vs. 5%, OR 0.48 (95% CI 0.18; 1.26, p=0.135)), however rate of significant pericardial complication defined either as tamponade or effusion requiring intervention/hospitalization was significantly lower in MNS (0.3% vs. 2.5%, p=0.005). Our results suggest that MNS has similar rates of success and possibly superior safety outcomes when compared to conventional manual catheter ablation for AF.
    International journal of cardiology 09/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High irrigation rates during radiofrequency (RF) ablation may cause fluid overload and limit lesion size. This in vivo animal study assessed the safety and efficacy of RF ablation at low irrigation rates using a novel 12-hole gold catheter. A total of 103 lesions, created on the thigh of five mongrel dogs, were analyzed. Lesions were created using a 12-hole irrigated gold-tip (Au) and a six-hole irrigated platinum-iridium (PtIr) catheter (both 7F/3.5-mm electrode; BIOTRONIK SE & CO, KG, Berlin, Germany) in parallel and perpendicular orientation. RF current was delivered for 60 seconds at 30 W using 8 mL/min and 15 mL/min irrigation. Electrode temperature, steam pops, lesion dimensions, and coagulum formation were recorded. Electrode temperatures were lower for Au compared to PtIr in parallel (8 mL/min: 38.1 ± 1.7°C vs 48.0 ± 4.8°C, P < 0.0001; 15 mL/min: 36.0 ± 1.5°C vs 46.9 ± 5.4°C, P < 0.0001) and perpendicular position (15 mL/min: 35.5 ± 1.2°C vs 38.4 ± 2.5°C, P = 0.003). The number of steam pops between Au and PtIr was comparable for parallel (8 mL/min: 14% vs 27%, P = 0.65; 15 mL/min: 14% vs 43%, P = 0.21) and perpendicular orientation (8 mL/min: 25% vs 17%, P = 1.00; 15 mL/min: 18% vs 0%, P = 0.48). Au created larger volumes than PtIr at 8 mL/min irrigation (861 ± 251 mm(3) vs 504 ± 212 mm(3) , P = 0.004); however, for 15 mL/min, volumes were comparable (624 ± 269 mm(3) vs 768 ± 466 mm(3) , P = 0.46). No coagulum formation was observed for any of the catheters on the surface and catheter tip. RF ablation at low flow rate using a novel 12-hole irrigation Au catheter is safe and results in larger lesions than with a PtIr electrode.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 07/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous epicardial mapping and ablation is an emerging method to treat ventricular tachycardias (VT), premature ventricular complexes (PVC), and accessory pathways. The use of a remote magnetic navigation system (MNS) could enhance precision and maintain safety. This multiple case history demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the MNS-guided epicardial approach in mapping and ablation of ischaemic VT, outflow tract PVCs, and a left-sided accessory pathway. All patients had previously undergone endocardial mapping for the same arrhythmia. MNS could present an advantage from more precise navigation for mapping and maintaining catheter stability during energy application.
    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 05/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Cryoballoon ablation (CBA) is a well-used technique when performing pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Our aim is to describe incidence, characteristics, and clinical predictors for developing atrial tachycardias (ATs) after cryoballoon PV isolation in patients with paroxysmal AF.METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 181 consecutive patients undergoing a first CBA. All patients received an event-recorder before cryoablation and transmitted daily electrocardiogram (ECG) during 1 month before ablation and 3 months after. Further follow-up consisted of 24 h Holter monitoring and ECG registration every 3 months and also in patients presenting with symptoms. A mean follow-up period was 497.9 ± 283.9 days, and 175 patients completed follow-up. In 14 (8%) patients regular ATs were registered. In multivariate logistic regression model, the following parameters were independently associated with ATs after ablation: an additional right PV, treatment with beta-blockers, and presence of AT on event-recording strips before ablation. Seven (4%) patients with registered AT underwent a redo procedure. In two (1.1%) patients ATs were originated in reconnected PVs. In other patients no left AT was induced. No macro re-entrant left AT was documented in any patient. During follow-up, after a redo ablation, no AT was registered.CONCLUSION: The incidence of left AT after CBA is low, and no left atrial macro re-entrant tachycardia was found. The following independent predictors of AT development have been identified: an additional right PV, regular AT registered before ablation, and the use of beta-blockers.
    Europace 05/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: After initial catheter ablation, repeat procedures could be necessary. This study evaluates the efficacy of the magnetic navigation system (MNS) in repeat catheter ablation as compared with manual conventional techniques (MANs).METHODS AND RESULTS: The results of 163 repeat ablation procedures were analysed. Ablations were performed either using MNS (n = 84) or conventional manual ablation (n = 79). Procedures were divided into four groups based on the technique used during the initial and repeat ablation procedure: MAN-MAN (n = 66), MAN-MNS (n = 31), MNS-MNS (n = 53), and MNS-MAN (n = 13). Three subgroups were analysed: supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs, n = 68), atrial fibrillation (AF, n = 67), and ventricular tachycardias (VT, n = 28). Recurrences were assessed during 19 ± 11 months follow-up. Overall, repeat procedures using MNS were successful in 89.0% as compared with 96.2% in the MAN group (P = ns). The overall recurrence rate was significantly lower using MNS (25.0 vs. 41.4%, P = 0.045). Acute success and recurrence rates for the MAN-MAN, MAN-MNS, MNS-MNS, and MNS-MAN groups were comparable. For the SVT subgroup a higher acute success rate was achieved using MAN (87.9 vs. 100.0%, P = 0.049). The use of MNS for SVT is associated with longer procedure times (205 ± 82 vs. 172 ± 69 min, P = 0.040). For AF procedure and fluoroscopy times were longer (257 ± 72 vs. 185 ± 64, P = 0.001; 59.5 ± 19.3 vs. 41.1 ± 18.3 min, P < 0.001). Less fluoroscopy was used for MNS-guided VT procedures (22.8 ± 14.7 vs. 41.2 ± 10.9, P = 0.011).CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that overall MNS is comparable with MAN in acute success after repeat catheter ablation. However, MNS is related to fewer recurrences as compared with MAN.
    Europace 03/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Zsófia Szentpáli, Tamas Szili-Torok, Kadir Caliskan
    Circulation 03/2013; 127(10):1165-6. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Many patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receive amiodarone. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (AIH) may develop as a complication. We hypothesized that pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in patients with paroxysmal AF and history of AIH may yield a lower success rate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 704 patients who underwent AF ablation in our center between 2007 and 2010, we identified 20 patients (mean age 58.3 ± 5.0 years; 11 males) with paroxysmal AF and overt AIH in the past. The control group consisted of 40 patients with amiodarone-refractory AF and no thyroid dysfunction. All patients underwent circumferential PV isolation. During redo procedures all tachycardias were targeted for ablation. During a 12-month follow-up, in the AIH group 6 (30%) patients were arrhythmia free after a single procedure, in comparison to 25 (62.5%) controls (P = 0.01). Atrial tachycardia (AT) was registered in 7 (35%) AIH patients and in 1 (2.5%) control patient (P = 0.001). AF recurred in 10 (50%) AIH versus 15 (37.5%) control patients (P = 0.2). Redo ablation was performed in 7 (35%) AIH patients and in 3 (7.5%) non-AIH patients (P = 0.01). During a redo procedure a PV-unrelated tachycardia was diagnosed in 5 (25%) AIH patients (vs 0 in the controls, P = 0.003). After the last performed ablation, 12 (60%) AIH patients and 28 (70%) controls had no recurrence, P = 0.56. AIH was an independent predictor of ATs. CONCLUSION: PV isolation alone has a lower efficacy for preventing recurrence in paroxysmal AF in AIH patients. After repeat ablations, overall freedom from tachyarrhythmias is similar to patients with no history of thyroid dysfunction.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 03/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent guidelines have emphasized the importance of discussing the issue of deactivation near the end of life with patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Few studies have examined the patient perspective and patients' wishes. We examined patients' knowledge and wishes for information; and the prevalence and correlates of a favorable attitude toward deactivation. Three cohorts of ICD patients (n = 440) extracted from our institutional database were asked to complete a survey that included a vignette about deactivation near the end of life. Of the 440 patients approached, 294 (67%) completed the survey. Most patients (68%) were aware that it is possible to turn the ICD off, and 95% believed it is important to inform patients about the possibility. Of the patients completing the survey, 84% indicated a choice for or against deactivation. Psychological morbidity was not associated with a response in favor or against deactivation (p >0.05 for all). The wish for a worthy death near the end of life was an independent associate of a favorable attitude toward deactivation (odds ratio 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 3.06, p <0.0001), adjusting for the importance of avoiding shock-related pain, anxiety, and poor quality of life and other potential confounders. In conclusion, most ICD patients seemed to favor device deactivation at the end of life, primarily owing to the wish for a worthy death. This finding indicates that patients have thought about the issue of deactivation near the end of life and might welcome the chance to discuss it with their physician.
    The American journal of cardiology 03/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

778 Citations
352.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      • Institut für Klinische Chemie, Transfusions- und Laboratoriumsmedizin
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2011
    • The National Institute of Child Health, Budapest
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2010
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2009–2010
    • Almazov Federal Heart, Blood and Endocrinology Centre
      Sankt-Peterburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia
    • National Cardiology Hospital, Bulgaria
      Ulpia Serdica, Sofia-Capital, Bulgaria
  • 2008
    • Gottsegen György Országos Kardiológiai Intézet
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2006
    • Medisch Centrum Alkmaar
      • Department of Cardiology
      Alkmaar, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
      • Department of Cardiology
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands