[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work investigated the effect of gallium arsenide (GaAs) irradiation (power: 5 mW; intensity: 77.14 mW/cm(2), spot: 0.07 cm(2)) on regenerating skeletal muscles damaged by crotoxin (CTX). Male C57Bl6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 5 each): control, treated only with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J, CTX-injured and, CTX-injured and treated with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J. The injured groups received a CTX injection into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. After 3 days, TA muscles were submitted to GaAs irradiation at doses of 1.5 or 3 J (once a day, during 5 days) and were killed on the eighth day. Muscle histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) in order to determine the myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), the previously injured muscle area (PIMA) and the area density of connective tissue. The gene expression of MyoD and myogenin was detected by real-time PCR. GaAs laser at a dose of 3 J, but not 1.5 J, significantly increased the CSA of regenerating myofibers and reduced the PIMA and the area density of intramuscular connective tissue of CTX-injured muscles. MyoD gene expression increased in the injured group treated with GaAs laser at a dose of 1.5 J. The CTX-injured, 3-J GaAs laser-treated, and the CTX-injured and treated with 3-J laser groups showed an increase in myogenin gene expression when compared to the control group. Our results suggest that GaAs laser treatment at a dose of 3 J improves skeletal muscle regeneration by accelerating the recovery of myofiber mass.
Lasers in Medical Science 12/2011; 27(5):993-1000. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscles from old rats fail to completely regenerate following injury. This study investigated whether pharmacological stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors in aged muscles following injury could improve their regenerative capacity, focusing on myofiber size recovery. Young and aged rats were treated with a subcutaneous injection of β2-adrenergic agonist formoterol (2 μg/kg/d) up to 10 and 21 days after soleus muscle injury. Formoterol-treated muscles from old rats evaluated at 10 and 21 days postinjury showed reduced inflammation and connective tissue but a similar number of regenerating myofibers of greater caliber when compared with their injured controls. Formoterol minimized the decrease in tetanic force and increased protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation in old muscles at 10 days postinjury. Our results suggest that formoterol improves structural and functional regenerative capacity of regenerating skeletal muscles from aged rats by increasing protein synthesis via mammalian target of rapamycin activation. Furthermore, formoterol may have therapeutic benefits in recovery following muscle damage in senescent individuals.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 11/2011; 67(5):443-55. · 4.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work was undertaken to provide further insight into the role of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in skeletal muscle regeneration, focusing on myofiber size recovery. Rats were treated or not with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Soleus muscles were then subjected to cryolesion and analyzed 1, 10, and 21 days later. A decrease in soleus myofiber cross-section area on post-cryolesion days 10 and 21 was accentuated by rapamycin, which was also effective in reducing protein synthesis in these freeze-injured muscles. The incidence of proliferating satellite cells during regeneration was unaltered by rapamycin, although immunolabeling for neonatal myosin heavy chain (MHC) was weaker in cryolesion+rapamycin muscles than in cryolesion-only muscles. In addition, the decline in tetanic contraction of freeze-injured muscles was accentuated by rapamycin. This study indicates that mTORC1 plays a key role in the recovery of muscle mass and the differentiation of regenerating myofibers, independently of necrosis and satellite cell proliferation mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work investigates the influence of heat shock proteins (HSPs) on necrosis and subsequent skeletal muscle regeneration induced by crotoxin (CTX), the major component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Mice were treated with radicicol, a HSP inductor, followed by an intramuscular injection of CTX into the gastrocnemius muscle. Treated groups were sacrificed 1, 10 and 21 days after CTX injection. Muscle histological sections were stained with toluidine blue and assayed for acid phosphatase or immunostained with either neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) or neonatal myosin heavy chain (MHCn). Muscle samples were also submitted to Western blotting analysis. The results show that CTX alone and CTX combined with radicicol induced a similar degree of myofiber necrosis. CTX-injured muscles treated with radicicol had increased cross-sectional areas at 10 and 21 days post-lesion compared with untreated CTX-injured muscles. Additionally, radicicol significantly increased the number of NCAM-positive satellite cells in the gastrocnemius at one day post-CTX injury. CTX-injured muscles treated with radicicol contained more MHCn-positive regenerating myofibers compared with untreated CTX-injured muscles. These results suggest that HSPs contribute to the regeneration of myofibers damaged by CTX. Additionally, further studies should investigate the potential therapeutic effects of radicicol in skeletal muscles affected by Crotalus venom.