Takashi Takeuchi

Tottori University, Tottori, Tottori-ken, Japan

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Publications (13)61.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which cardiomyocytes exit their cell cycle after birth. The irreversible cell cycle exit inhibits cardiac regeneration by the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Exactly how the cell cycle exit occurs remains largely unknown. Previously, we showed that cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities are inhibited before the CDKs levels decrease in postnatal stages. This result suggests that factors such as CDK inhibitors (CKIs) inhibit CDK activities, and contribute to the cell cycle exit. In the present study, we focused on a Cip/Kip family, which can inhibit cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities. Expression of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) but not p57(Kip2) showed a peak around postnatal day 5, when cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities start to decrease. p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 at postnatal stages. Cell cycle distribution patterns of postnatal cardiomyocytes in p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) knockout mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase, and endoreplication. These results indicate that p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip) play important roles in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regeneration of a lost tissue in an animal is an important issue. Although regenerative studies have a history of research spanning more than a century, the gene functions underlying regulation of the regeneration are mostly unclear. Analysis of knockout animals is a very powerful tool with which to elucidate gene function. Recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have been developed as an effective technique for genome editing. This technique enables gene targeting in amphibians such as newts that were previously impossible. Here we show that newts microinjected with TALEN mRNAs designed for targeting the tyrosinase gene in single-cell stage embryos revealed an albino phenotype. Sequence analysis revealed that the tyrosinase genes were effectively disrupted in these albino newts. Moreover, precise genome alteration was achieved using TALENs and single strand oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Our results suggest that TALENs are powerful tools for genome editing for regenerative research in newts.
    Embryologia 12/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysine methylation of the histone tail is involved in a variety of biological events. G9a and GLP are known as major H3-K9 methyltransferases and contribute to transcriptional silencing. The functions of these genes in organogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the phenotypes of cardiomyocyte specific GLP knockout and G9a knockdown (GLP-KO/G9a-KD) mice. The H3-K9 di-methylation level decreased markedly in the nuclei of the cardiomyocytes of GLP-KO/G9a-KD mice, but not single G9a or GLP knockout mice. In addition, GLP-KO/G9a-KD mice showed neonatal lethality and severe cardiac defects (atrioventricular septal defects, AVSD). We also showed that hypoplasia in the atrioventricular cushion, which is a main part of the atrioventricular septum, caused AVSD. Expression analysis revealed downregulation of 2 AVSD related genes and upregulation of several non-cardiac specific genes in the hearts of GLP-KO/G9a-KD mice. These data indicate that G9a and GLP are required for sufficient H3-K9 di-methylation in cardiomyocytes and regulation of expression levels in multiple genes. Moreover, our findings show that G9a and GLP have an essential roles in normal morphogenesis of the atrioventricular septum through regulation of the size of the atrioventricular cushion.
    Mechanisms of development 07/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urodele newts have the remarkable capability of organ regeneration, and have been used as a unique experimental model for more than a century. However, the mechanisms underlying regulation of the regeneration are not well understood, and gene functions in particular remain largely unknown. To elucidate gene function in regeneration, molecular genetic analyses are very powerful. In particular, it is important to establish transgenic or knockout (mutant) lines, and systematically cross these lines to study the functions of the genes. In fact, such systems have been developed for other vertebrate models. However, there is currently no experimental model system using molecular genetics for newt regenerative research due to difficulties with respect to breeding newts in the laboratory. Here, we show that the Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) has outstanding properties as a laboratory newt. We developed conditions under which we can obtain a sufficient number and quality of eggs throughout the year, and shortened the period required for sexual maturation from 18 months to 6 months. In addition, P. waltl newts are known for their ability, like other newts, to regenerate various tissues. We revealed that their ability to regenerate various organs is equivalent to that of Japanese common newts. We also developed a method for efficient transgenesis. These studies demonstrate that P. waltl newts are a suitable model animal for analysis of regeneration using molecular genetics. Establishment of this experimental model will enable us to perform comparable studies using these newts and other vertebrate models.
    Embryologia 01/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation is important for heart development and function. Proliferation levels of mouse cardiomyocytes are high during early embryogenesis and start to decrease at midgestation. Many cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis without cytokinesis, resulting in binucleated cardiomyocytes during early postnatal stages, following which the cell cycle arrests irreversibly. It remains unknown how the proliferation pattern is regulated, and how the irreversible cell cycle arrest occurs. To clarify the mechanisms, fundamental information about cell cycle regulators in cardiomyocytes and cell cycle patterns during embryonic and postnatal stages is necessary. Here, we show that the expression, complex formation, and activity of main cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) changed in a synchronous manner during embryonic and postnatal stages. These levels decreased from midgestation to birth, and then showed one wave in which the peak was around postnatal day 5. Detailed analysis of the complexes suggested that CDK activities were inhibited before the protein levels decreased. Analysis of DNA content distribution patterns in mono- and binucleated cardiomyocytes after birth revealed changes in cell cycle distribution patterns and the transition from mono- to binucleated cells. These analyses indicated that the wave of cell cycle regulator expression or activities during postnatal stages mainly produced binucleated cells from mononucleated cells. The data obtained should provide a basis for the analysis of cell cycle regulation in cardiomyocytes during embryonic and postnatal stages.
    Embryologia 09/2012; 54(8):731-8. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both the DNA damage response (DDR) and epigenetic mechanisms play key roles in the implementation of senescent phenotypes, but very little is known about how these two mechanisms are integrated to establish senescence-associated gene expression. Here we show that, in senescent cells, the DDR induces proteasomal degradation of G9a and GLP, major histone H3K9 mono- and dimethyltransferases, through Cdc14B- and p21(Waf1/Cip1)-dependent activation of APC/C(Cdh1) ubiquitin ligase, thereby causing a global decrease in H3K9 dimethylation, an epigenetic mark for euchromatic gene silencing. Interestingly, induction of IL-6 and IL-8, major players of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), correlated with a decline of H3K9 dimethylation around the respective gene promoters and knockdown of Cdh1 abolished IL-6/IL-8 expression in senescent cells, suggesting that the APC/C(Cdh1)-G9a/GLP axis plays crucial roles in aspects of senescent phenotype. These findings establish a role for APC/C(Cdh1) and reveal how the DDR integrates with epigenetic processes to induce senescence-associated gene expression.
    Molecular cell 12/2011; 45(1):123-31. · 14.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In general, cell proliferation and differentiation show an inverse relationship, and are regulated in a coordinated manner during development. Embryonic cardiomyocytes must support embryonic life by functional differentiation such as beating, and proliferate actively to increase the size of the heart. Therefore, progression of both proliferation and differentiation is indispensable. It remains unknown whether proliferation and differentiation are related in these embryonic cardiomyocytes. We focused on abnormal phenotypes, such as hyperproliferation, inhibition of differentiation and enhanced expression of cyclin D1 in cardiomyocytes of mice with mutant jumonji (Jmj, Jarid2), which encodes the repressor of cyclin D1. Analysis of Jmj/cyclin D1 double mutant mice showed that Jmj was required for normal differentiation and normal expression of GATA4 protein through cyclin D1. Analysis of transgenic mice revealed that enhanced expression of cyclin D1 decreased GATA4 protein expression and inhibited the differentiation of cardiomyocytes in a CDK4/6-dependent manner, and that exogenous expression of GATA4 rescued the abnormal differentiation. Finally, CDK4 phosphorylated GATA4 directly, which promoted the degradation of GATA4 in cultured cells. These results suggest that CDK4 activated by cyclin D1 inhibits differentiation of cardiomyocytes by degradation of GATA4, and that initiation of Jmj expression unleashes the inhibition by repression of cyclin D1 expression and allows progression of differentiation, as well as repression of proliferation. Thus, a Jmj-cyclin D1 pathway coordinately regulates proliferation and differentiation of cardiomyocytes.
    Development 03/2011; 138(9):1771-82. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Covalent modifications of histone tails have critical roles in regulating gene expression. Previously, we identified the jumonji (jmj, Jarid2) gene, the jmjC domain, and a Jmj family. Recently, many Jmj family proteins have been shown to be histone demethylases, and jmjC is the catalytic domain. However, Jmj does not have histone demethylase activity because the jmjC domain lacks conserved residues for binding to cofactors. Independently of these studies, we previously showed that Jmj binds to the cyclin D1 promoter and represses the transcription of cyclin D1. Here, we show the mechanisms by which Jmj represses the transcription of cyclin D1. We found that a protein complex of Jmj had histone methyltransferase activity toward histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9). We also found that Jmj bound to the H3-K9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP. Expression of Jmj recruited G9a and GLP to the cyclin D1 promoter and increased H3-K9 methylation. Inactivation of both G9a and GLP, but not of only G9a, inhibited the methylation of H3-K9 in the cyclin D1 promoter and repression of cyclin D1 expression by Jmj. These results suggest that Jmj methylates H3-K9 and represses cyclin D1 expression through G9a and GLP, and that Jmj family proteins can regulate gene expression by not only histone demethylation but also other histone modification.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2008; 284(2):733-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During development of the mouse central nervous system (CNS), most neural progenitor cells proliferate in the ventricular zone (VZ). In many regions of the CNS, neural progenitor cells give rise to postmitotic neurons that initiate neuronal differentiation and migrate out of the VZ to the mantle zone (MZ). Thereafter, they remain in a quiescent state. Here, we found many ectopic mitotic cells and cell clusters expressing neural progenitor or proneural marker genes in the MZ of the hindbrain of jumonji (jmj) mutant embryos. When we examined the expression of cyclin D1, which is repressed by jmj in the repression of cardiac myocyte proliferation, we found many ectopic clusters expressing both cyclin D1 and Musashi 1 in the MZ of mutant embryos. jmj is mainly expressed in the cyclin D1 negative region in the hindbrain, and cyclin D1 expression in the VZ was upregulated in jmj mutant mice. In jmj and cyclin D1 double mutant mice, the ectopic mitosis and formation of the abnormal clusters in the MZ were rescued. These results suggest that a jmj-cyclin D1 pathway is required for the precise coordination of cell cycle exit and migration during neurogenesis in the mouse hindbrain.
    Developmental Biology 04/2007; 303(2):549-60. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: jumonji (jmj) mutant mice, obtained by a gene trap strategy, showed several morphological abnormalities including neural tube and cardiac defects, and died in utero around embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5). It is unknown what causes the embryonic lethality. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous expression of jmj gene in the heart of jmj mutant mice rescued the morphological phenotypes in the heart, and these embryos survived until E13.5. These results suggest that there are at least two lethal periods in jmj mutant mice, and that cardiac abnormalities may cause the earlier lethality. In addition, the rescue of the cardiac abnormalities by the jmj transgene provided solid evidence that the cardiac abnormalities resulted from mutation of the jmj gene.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2004; 324(4):1319-23. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell proliferation is an important factor in various developmental processes in tissue morphogenesis, and is strictly regulated spatiotemporally. jumonji (jmj) deficient mice with a C3H/He background show hyperproliferation of cardiac myocytes and die probably of the phenotype around embryonic day 11.5. Analyses of the abnormalities revealed that repression of cyclin D1 expression by jmj is necessary for downregulation of cardiac myocyte proliferation. On the other hand, jmj mutant mice with a BALB/c background die around E14.5, suggesting that genetic background modifies hyperproliferation in the heart and timing of lethality. Here, we demonstrated that the hyperproliferation was not observed, and that cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 were downregulated properly in the cardiac ventricles of jmj mutant mice with a BALB/c background. These results suggest the modifier(s) of the jmj mutation can downregulate cardiac cell proliferation by repressing cyclin D1 expression in the same way as jmj.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2004; 317(3):925-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygous jumonji (jmj(-)/jmj(-)) mice were previously shown to exhibit hepatic hypoplasia and defective hematopoiesis in the liver and die at around embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), suggesting that jmj is essential for liver development. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of liver development, we analyzed the expression and function of jmj in fetal hepatocytes. The number of hepatocytes in jmj(-)/jmj(-) mice was markedly reduced in comparison with control mice and the expression of jmj in hepatocytes increased along with development. As jmj(-)/jmj(-) embryos die by E15.5, we employed an in vitro culture system in which fetal hepatocytes differentiate in response to oncostatin M. The proliferation potential of jmj(-)/jmj(-) hepatocytes was comparable to that of wild type cells in vitro, however maturation of hepatocytes as evidenced by the expression of liver enzymes such as tyrosine amino transferase was severely impaired by the jmj gene inactivation. These results suggested that jmj plays a pivotal role in the development of mid-fetal hepatocytes to the neonatal stage.
    Mechanisms of Development 08/2003; 120(7):791-800. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spatiotemporal regulation of cell proliferation is necessary for normal tissue development. The molecular mechanisms, especially the signaling pathways controlling the cell cycle machinery, remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a negative relationship between the spatiotemporal patterns of jumonji (jmj) expression and cardiac myocyte proliferation. cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation are enhanced in the cardiac myocytes of jmj-deficient mutant embryos. In contrast, jmj overexpression represses cyclin D1 expression in cardiac cells, and Jmj protein binds to cyclin D1 promoter in vivo and represses its transcriptional activity. cyclin D1 overexpression causes hyperproliferation in the cardiac myocytes, but the absence of cyclin D1 in jmj mutant embryos rescues the hyperproliferation. Therefore, Jmj might control cardiac myocyte proliferation and consequently cardiac morphogenesis by repressing cyclin D1 expression.
    Developmental Cell 08/2003; 5(1):85-97. · 12.86 Impact Factor