[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a homotrimeric proinflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases and malignancies, including cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). To determine whether MIF inhibition could reduce UVB light-induced inflammation and squamous carcinogenesis, a small-molecule MIF inhibitor (CPSI-1306) was utilized that disrupts homotrimerization. To examine the effect of CPSI-1306 on acute UVB-induced skin changes, Skh-1 hairless mice were systemically treated with CPSI-1306 for 5 days before UVB exposure. In addition to decreasing skin thickness and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, CPSI-1306 pretreatment increased keratinocyte apoptosis and p53 expression, decreased proliferation and phosphohistone variant H2AX (γ-H2AX), and enhanced repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. To examine the effect of CPSI-1306 on squamous carcinogenesis, mice were exposed to UVB for 10 weeks, followed by CPSI-1306 treatment for 8 weeks. CPSI-1306 dramatically decreased the density of UVB-associated p53 foci in non-tumor-bearing skin while simultaneously decreasing the epidermal Ki67 proliferation index. In addition to slowing the rate of tumor development, CPSI-1306 decreased the average tumor burden per mouse. Although CPSI-1306-treated mice developed only papillomas, nearly a third of papillomas in vehicle-treated mice progressed to microinvasive SCC. Thus, MIF inhibition is a promising strategy for prevention of the deleterious cutaneous effects of acute and chronic UVB exposure.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a viable target for the prevention of UVB-induced cutaneous SSCs.
Molecular Cancer Research 05/2014; 12(9). DOI:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-14-0255-T · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine shown to promote tumorigenesis. Using the N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN) model of bladder cancer, we previously showed that MIF knockout mice display decreased angiogenesis and invasion compared to wild-type. This study examines the role of MIF in bladder cancer via use of oral inhibitors of MIF. In vitro, high grade bladder cancer cells were treated with rhMIF+/- inhibitor. Measurements included cell counts, proliferation by (3)H-thymidine incorporation (TdR), ERK phosphorylation by Western analysis, mRNA expression by quantitative PCR and protein secretion by ELISA. Treatment with rhMIF increased ERK phosphorylation, cell counts, TdR and mRNA expression and protein secretion of VEGF, which were blocked by specific inhibitors of ERK and MIF. In vivo, three month-old male C57Bl/6 mice were given BBN for 22 and 16 weeks in study 1 and 2, respectively. Mice (n=8-10/group) were gavaged with vehicle or doses of MIF inhibitors daily from weeks 16-22 in both studies. Average bladder weights, reflecting tumor mass, tumor stage/burden, mitotic rate and proliferation indices, and micro-vessel densities (MVD) were reduced in inhibitor groups vs controls. In summary, MIF promotes bladder cancer via increasing cell proliferation and angiogenesis and oral inhibitors of MIF may prove useful in treatment of this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Postoperative ileus (POI) is an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, mediated by a severe inflammation of the muscularis externa (ME). Previously, we demonstrated that intravenous application of the tetravalent guanylhydrazone semapimod (CNI-1493) prevents POI, but the underlying mode of action could not definitively be confirmed. Herein, we investigated the effect of a novel orally active salt of semapimod (CPSI-2364) on POI in rodents and distinguished between its inhibitory peripheral and stimulatory central nervous effects on anti-inflammatory vagus nerve signaling.
Distribution of radiolabeled orally administered CPSI-2364 was analyzed by whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. POI was induced by intestinal manipulation with or without preoperative vagotomy. CPSI-2364 was administered preoperatively via gavage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ME specimens were assessed for p38-MAP kinase activity by immunoblotting, neutrophil extravasation, and nitric oxide production. Furthermore, in vivo gastrointestinal (GIT) and colonic transit were measured.
Autoradiography demonstrated a near-exclusive detection of CPSI-2364 within the gastrointestinal wall and contents. Preoperative CPSI-2364 application significantly reduced postoperative neutrophil counts, nitric oxide release, GIT deceleration, and delay of colonic transit time, while intraoperatively administered CPSI-2364 failed to improve POI. CPSI-2364 also prevents postoperative neutrophil increase and GIT deceleration in vagotomized mice.
Orally administered CPSI-2364 shows a near-exclusive dispersal in the gastrointestinal tract and effectively reduces POI independently of central vagus nerve stimulation. Its efficacy after single oral dosage affirms CPSI-2364 treatment as a promising strategy for prophylaxis of POI.
Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 08/2012; 397(7). DOI:10.1007/s00423-012-0989-6 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and axon loss. The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients during relapses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new small-molecule inhibitor of MIF and its ability to reduce the severity of an animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We utilized 2 structurally related isoxazolines, which show in vitro inhibition of MIF tautomerase activity. We found that administration of an inhibitor of MIF to mice with established EAE immediately reduced the severity of clinical signs and expanded a population of regulatory T lymphocytes. We also noted that the inhibitor reduced relapses of disease in a relapsing/remitting model of EAE. An analysis of leukocyte migration into the brain revealed that administration of inhibitor reduced entry of these cells. No effects on inflammatory cytokine production or T-cell activation in the periphery were noted. From these studies, we conclude that a small-molecule inhibitor of MIF reduces the severity of EAE and prevents access of immune cells into the CNS, which could be of therapeutic relevance to MS.
The FASEB Journal 11/2010; 24(11):4459-66. DOI:10.1096/fj.10-162347 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the role of MIF in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) using MIF(-/-) mice and a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced NIDDM. Following single injection of STZ, MIF(+/+) BALB/c mice showed a significant increase in blood glucose levels, developed polyuria, and succumbed to disease. In contrast, no such increase in blood glucose was observed in MIF(-/-) BALB/c mice treated with STZ. These mice produced significantly less inflammatory cytokines and resistin as compared with MIF(+/+) mice and failed to develop clinical disease. Finally, oral administration of a small-molecule MIF antagonist, CPSI-1306, to outbred ICR mice following induction of NIDDM significantly lowered blood glucose levels in the majority of animals, which was also associated with a significant reduction in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the sera. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MIF is involved in the pathogenesis of NIDDM and is a therapeutic target to treat this disease.
The FASEB Journal 03/2010; 24(7):2583-90. DOI:10.1096/fj.09-147066 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative ileus, an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, is mediated by severe inflammation of the tunica muscularis. Macrophages that reside in the muscularis have important roles in initiating the inflammation. We investigated whether activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and stress-activated protein kinase is involved in the genesis of postoperative ileus, and whether p38-MAPK inhibition by the macrophage-specific inhibitor semapimod prevents intestinal dysmotility.
Postoperative ileus was induced by intestinal manipulation of the small bowel in mice. Protein kinase phosphorylation was assessed by immunoblotting of muscularis externa preparations. Proinflammatory gene expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Myeloperoxidase histochemistry for neutrophils was performed in jejunal segments. Nitric oxide production was measured by Griess reaction in smooth-muscle organ culture supernatants. Jejunal contractility was assessed within an organ bath setup. Intestinal motility was analyzed by gastrointestinal and colonic transit measurements.
High levels of p38-MAPK and stress-activated protein kinase phosphorylation were observed immediately after intestinal manipulation. Semapimod treatment led to a significant decrease of p38-MAPK phosphorylation in macrophages; proinflammatory gene expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; and neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, semapimod completely abrogated nitric oxide production within the tunica muscularis. Subsequently, semapimod prevented the suppression of smooth muscle contractility and small intestinal and colonic motility after intestinal manipulation.
A single preoperative semapimod administration prevents intestinal macrophage activation and subsequent gastrointestinal dysmotility induced by abdominal surgery. Semapimod inhibits p38-MAPK and nitric oxide production in macrophages, making it a promising strategy for prophylaxis of postoperative ileus.