[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diet, nutritional status, and certain dietary supplements are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Angiogenesis and inflammation are central to tumor growth and progression, but the effect of diet on these processes remains uncertain. We explored changes in 50 plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF) in 145 men with prostate cancer enrolled in a preoperative, randomized controlled phase II trial with four arms: control (usual diet), low-fat (LF) diet, flaxseed-supplemented (FS) diet, and FS+LS diet. The mean duration of dietary intervention was 30 to 31 days. Among the individual arms, the largest number of significant changes (baseline vs. preoperative follow-up) was observed in the LF arm, with 19 CAFs decreasing and one increasing (P < 0.05). Compared with the control arm, 6 CAFs-including proangiogenic factors (stromal-cell derived-1α) and myeloid factors (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-all decreased in the LF arm compared with controls; three and four CAFs changed in the FS and FS+LF arms, respectively. Weight loss occurred in the LF arms and significantly correlated with VEGF decreases (P < 0.001). The CAFs that changed in the LF arm are all known to be regulated by NF-κB, and a pathway analysis identified NF-κB as the most likely regulatory network associated with these changes in the LF arm but not in the FS-containing arms. These results suggest that a LF diet without flaxseed may reduce levels of specific inflammatory CAFs and suggests that the NF-κB pathway may be a mediator of these changes.
Cancer Prevention Research 07/2011; 4(10):1590-8. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-Jun coactivator, Jun activation-domain binding protein 1 (Jab1) also known as the fifth component of the COP9 signalosome complex (CSN5), is a novel candidate oncogene whose aberrant expression contributes to the progression of breast carcinoma and other human cancers. The mechanism of Jab1 gene expression and its deregulation in cancer cells remains to be identified. We therefore investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of Jab1 expression in human breast carcinoma cells.
To identify potential regulators of Jab1 transcription, we cloned the 5' upstream region of the human Jab1 gene and mapped its transcriptional start site. We identified binding sequences for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) and GATA, as well as a signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) consensus sequence overlapping the C/EBP site, using 5'- deletion analysis and a gene reporter assay. Mutational analysis of these binding sites was performed to confirm their roles in promoting Jab1 transcription in breast cancer cells. We further confirmed these binding sites using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We also analyzed whether the siRNA-mediated inactivation of Stat3 and Src could reduce Jab1-promoter activity and whether interleukine-6 (IL-6) could mediate increased Jab1 expression through Stat3 signaling.
We identified binding sequences for C/EBP, GATA, as well as a Stat3 consensus sequence overlapping the C/EBP site in the promoter region of Jab1. C/EBP-beta2 is a potential transcriptional activator of Jab1 and mutation of the C/EBP/Stat3 binding site significantly reduced Jab1-promoter activity. In addition, inhibiting Stat3 significantly reduced Jab1-promoter activation. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that C/EBP, GATA1 and Stat3 bind to Jab1 promoter in breast carcinoma cells. We also found that Src, an activator of Stat3, is involved in Jab1-promoter activation. siRNA knockdown of Src reduced the Jab1-promoter activity, similar to the results seen when Stat3 was inhibited in breast carcinoma cells. Interestingly, reactivation of Stat3 in normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A, MCF-10F) is sufficient to reactivate Jab1 expression. Treatment with the cytokine IL-6 resulted in increased Jab1 expression that was blocked by inhibition of Stat3.
These findings reveal a novel mechanism of Jab1 gene regulation and provide functional and mechanistic links between the Src/Stat3 and IL-6/Stat3 signaling axes that are involved in the activation of Jab1 transcription and regulation of this novel oncogenic protein.
Breast cancer research: BCR 06/2011; 13(3):R65. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) is a multifunctional protein that participates in the control of cell proliferation and the stability of multiple proteins. JAB1 overexpression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancer. JAB1 regulates several key proteins and thereby produces varied effects on cell cycle progression, genome stability and cell survival. However, the biological significance of JAB1 activity in these cellular signaling pathways is unclear. Therefore, we developed mice that were deficient in Jab1 and analyzed the null embryos and heterozygous cells. This disruption of Jab1 in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality due to accelerated apoptosis. Loss of Jab1 expression sensitized both mouse primary embryonic fibroblasts and osteosarcoma cells to γ-radiation-induced apoptosis, with an increase in spontaneous DNA damage and homologous recombination (HR) defects, both of which correlated with reduced levels of the DNA repair protein Rad51 and elevated levels of p53. Furthermore, the accumulated p53 directly binds to Rad51 promoter, inhibits its activity and represents a major mechanism underlying the HR repair defect in Jab1-deficient cells. These results indicate that Jab1 is essential for efficient DNA repair and mechanistically link Jab1 to the maintenance of genome integrity and to cell survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (Jab1) acts as a modulator of intracellular signaling and affects cellular proliferation and apoptosis, through its existence as a monomer or as the fifth component of the constitutive photomorphogenic-9 signalosome (CSN5). Jab1/CSN5 is involved in transcription factor specificity, deneddylation of NEDD8, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shuttling of key molecules. Jab1/CSN5 activities positively and negatively affect a number of pathways, including integrin signaling, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Also, more recent studies have demonstrated the intriguing roles of Jab1/CSN5 in regulating genomic instability and DNA repair. The effects of Jab1/CSN5's multiple protein interactions are generally oncogenic in nature, and overexpression of Jab1/CSN5 in cancer provides evidence that it is involved in the tumorigenic process. In this review, we highlight our current knowledge of Jab1/CSN5 function and the recent discoveries in dissecting the Jab1 signaling pathway. Further, we also discuss the regulation of Jab1/CSN5 in cancers and its potential as a therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Jun activation domain-binding protein (JAB1) is a c-Jun co-activator and a member of the COP9 signalosome. Additionally, it has recently been named a key negative regulator of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27. JAB1 overexpression has been observed in breast cancer and correlates with low p27 levels as well as poor prognosis, yet the mechanism of JAB1 deregulation is unknown. Data from our laboratory suggest that constitutive transcriptional activation of the jab1 gene is responsible for JAB1 protein overexpression. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of JAB1 in breast cancer can be attributed to increased transcriptional activity. To identify potential positive regulators of JAB1, we characterized the promoter and found a 128 bp region that was critical for jab1 transcriptional activation. Our studies show that two oncogenic transcription factors, C/EBPβ and STAT3, play an important role in modulating jab1 transcription. Further, we have identified jab1 as a direct target gene of the SRC/STAT3 pathway. These studies provide insight to the mechanism of JAB1 overexpression in breast cancer and open up possibilities for therapies to inhibit its expression. The development of the humanized monoclonal antibody, Herceptin (trastuzumab) targeting the HER2 (ErbB2) receptor has provided promising treatment to patients with aggressive HER2 positive breast cancer. However, many patients are resistant to Herceptin and additional therapies are needed to overcome resistance. Recent findings indicate that one mechanism of resistance involves AKT phosphorylation and subsequent mislocalization of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p27. We examined whether JAB1 facilitated degradation of p27 may be another mechanism of resistance to Herceptin. Our studies show that overexpression of JAB1 inhibited Herceptin induced G1-arrest and p27 accumulation. Interestingly, increased JAB1 levels were observed in two BT-474 Herceptin resistant clones. Targeted silencing of JAB1 increased p27 protein levels, reinstated a G1 checkpoint, and reduced cellular proliferation in the resistant clones. Our studies have demonstrated that inhibition of JAB1 sensitizes Herceptin resistant cells to treatment. Therefore, inhibition of JAB1 could provide a novel method of sensitizing resistant tumors to Herceptin-induced tumor growth arrest.
Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest).