T. P. Ray

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (145)435.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As the number of observed brown dwarf outflows is growing it is important to investigate how these outflows compare to the well studied jets from young stellar objects. A key point of comparison is the relationship between outflow and accretion activity and in particular the ratio between the mass outflow and accretion rates ($\dot{M}_{out}$/$\dot{M}_{acc}$). The brown dwarf candidate ISO-ChaI 217 was discovered by our group, as part of a spectro-astrometric study of brown dwarfs, to be driving an asymmetric outflow with the blue-shifted lobe having a position angle of $\sim$ 20$^{\circ}$. The aim here is to further investigate the properties of ISO-ChaI 217, the morphology and kinematics of its outflow, and to better constrain ($\dot{M}_{out}$/$\dot{M}_{acc}$). The outflow is spatially resolved in the $[SII]\lambda \lambda 6716,6731$ lines and is detected out to $\sim$ 1\farcs6 in the blue-shifted lobe and ~ 1" in the red-shifted lobe. The asymmetry between the two lobes is confirmed although the velocity asymmetry is less pronounced with respect to our previous study. Using thirteen different accretion tracers we measure log($\dot{M}_{acc}$) [M$_{sun}$/yr]= -10.6 $\pm$ 0.4. As it was not possible to measure the effect of extinction on the ISO-ChaI 217 outflow $\dot{M}_{out}$ was derived for a range of values of A$_{v}$, up to a value of A$_{v}$ = 2.5 mag estimated for the source extinction. The logarithm of the mass outflow ($\dot{M}_{out}$) was estimated in the range -11.7 to -11.1 for both jets combined. Thus $\dot{M}_{out}$/$\dot{M}_{acc}$ [\Msun/yr] lies below the maximum value predicted by magneto-centrifugal jet launching models. Finally, both model fitting of the Balmer decrements and spectro-astrometric analysis of the H$\alpha$ line show that the bulk of the H I emission comes from the accretion flow.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 788(2):194. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic follow-up is a pre-requisite for studies of the formation and early evolution of brown dwarfs. Here we present IRTF/SpeX near-infrared spectroscopy of 30 candidate members of the young Upper Scorpius association, selected from our previous survey work. All 24 high confidence members are confirmed as young very low mass objects with spectral types from M5 to L1, 15-20 of them are likely brown dwarfs. This high yield confirms that brown dwarfs in Upper Scorpius can be identified from photometry and proper motions alone, with negligible contamination from field objects (<4%). Out of the 6 candidates with lower confidence, 5 might still be young very low mass members of Upper Scorpius, according to our spectroscopy. We demonstrate that some very low mass class II objects exhibit radically different near infrared (0.6 - 2.5micron) spectra from class III objects, with strong excess emission increasing towards longer wavelengths and partially filled in features at wavelengths shorter than 1.25micron. These characteristics can obscure the contribution of the photosphere within such spectra. Therefore, we caution that near infrared derived spectral types for objects with discs may be unreliable. Furthermore, we show that the same characteristics can be seen to some extent in all class II and even a significant fraction of class III objects (~40%), indicating that some of them are still surrounded by traces of dust and gas. Based on our spectra, we select a sample of objects with spectral types of M5 to L1, whose near-infrared emission represents the photosphere only. We recommend the use of these objects as spectroscopic templates for young brown dwarfs in the future.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this review we focus on the role jets and outflows play in the star and planet formation process. Our essential question can be posed as follows: are jets/outflows merely an epiphenomenon associated with star formation or do they play an important role in mediating the physics of assembling stars both individually and globally? We address this question by reviewing the current state of observations and their key points of contact with theory. Our review of jet/outflow phenomena is organized into three length-scale domains: Source and Disk Scales ($0.1-10^2$ au) where the connection with protostellar and disk evolution theories is paramount; Envelope Scales ($10^2-10^5$ au) where the chemistry and propagation shed further light on the jet launching process, its variability and its impact on the infalling envelope; Parent Cloud Scales ($10^5-10^6$ au) where global momentum injection into cluster/cloud environments become relevant. Issues of feedback are of particular importance on the smallest scales where planet formation regions in a disk may be impacted by the presence of disk winds, irradiation by jet shocks or shielding by the winds. Feedback on envelope scales may determine the final stellar mass (core-to-star efficiency) and envelope dissipation. Feedback also plays an important role on the larger scales with outflows contributing to turbulent support within clusters including alteration of cluster star formation efficiencies (feedback on larger scales currently appears unlikely). A particularly novel dimension of our review is that we consider results on jet dynamics from the emerging field of High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics (HEDLA). HEDLA is now providing direct insights into the 3-D dynamics of fully magnetized, hypersonic, radiative outflows.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We derive the physical properties at the base of the jet from DG Tau both along and across the flow and as a function of velocity. We analysed seven optical spectra of the DG Tau jet, taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The spectra were obtained by placing a long-slit parallel to the jet axis and stepping it across the jet width. The resulting position-velocity diagrams in optical forbidden emission lines allowed access to plasma conditions via calculation of emission line ratios. We find at the base of the jet high electron density, $n_e \sim $ 10$^5$, and very low ionisation, $x_e \sim 0.02-0.05$, which combine to give a total density up to $n_H \sim $ 3 10$^6$. This analysis confirms previous reports of variations in plasma parameters along the jet, (i.e. decrease in density by several orders of magnitude, increase of $x_e$ from 0.05 to a plateau at 0.7 downstream at 2$''$ from the star). Furthermore, a spatial coincidence is revealed between sharp gradients in the total density and supersonic velocity jumps. This strongly suggests that the emission is caused by shock excitation. The position-velocity diagrams indicate the presence of both fast accelerating gas and slower, less collimated material. We derive the mass outflow rate, $\dot{M}_j$, in the blue-shifted lobe in different velocity channels, that contribute to a total of $\dot{M}_j \sim$ 8 $\pm$ 4 10$^{-9}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We estimate that a symmetric bipolar jet would transport at the low and intermediate velocities probed by rotation measurements, an angular momentum flux of $\dot{L}_j \sim$ 2.9 $\pm$ 1.5 10$^{-6}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ AU km s$^{-1}$. The derived properties of the DG Tau jet are demonstrated to be consistent with magneto-centrifugal theory. However, non-stationary modelling is required in order to explain all of the features revealed at high resolution.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SONYC, short for "Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters", is a survey program to provide a census of the substellar population in nearby star forming regions. We have conducted deep optical and near-infrared photometry in five young regions (NGC1333, rho Ophiuchi, Chamaeleon-I, Upper Sco, and Lupus-3), combined with proper motions, and followed by extensive spectroscopic campaigns with Subaru and VLT, in which we have obtained more than 700 spectra of candidate low-mass objects. We have identified and characterized more than 60 new substellar objects, among them a handful of objects with masses close to, or below the Deuterium burning limit. Through SONYC and surveys by other groups, the substellar IMF is now well characterized down to ~ 5 - 10 MJup, and we find that the ratio of the number of stars with respect to brown dwarfs lies between 2 and 6. A comprehensive survey of NGC 1333 reveals that, down to ~5MJup, free-floating objects with planetary masses are 20-50 times less numerous than stars, i.e. their total contribution to the mass budget of the clusters can be neglected.
    06/2013;
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; 534:A99. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The active young protostar DG Tau has an extended jet that has been well studied at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We report sensitive new VLA full-polarization observations of the core and jet between 5 GHz and 8 GHz. Our high angular resolution observation at 8 GHz clearly shows an unpolarized inner jet with a size 42 AU (0.35") extending along a position angle similar to the optical-X ray outer jet. Using our nearly coeval 2012 VLA observations, we find a spectral-index=+0.46+/-0.05, which combined with the lack of polarization, is consistent with bremsstrahlung (free-free) emission, with no evidence for a non-thermal coronal component. By identifying the end of the radio jet as the optical depth unity surface, and calculating the resulting emission measure, we find our radio results are in agreement with previous optical line studies of electron density and consequent mass-loss rate. We also detect a weak radio knot at 5 GHz located 7" from the base of the jet, coincident with the inner radio knot detected by Rodriguez et al. (2012) in 2009 but at lower surface brightness. We interpret this as due to expansion of post-shock ionized gas in the three years between observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 766(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of brown dwarf (BD) outflows provide information pertinent to questions on BD formation, as well as allowing outflow mechanisms to be investigated at the lowest masses. Here new observations of the bipolar outflow from the 24 M JUP BD 2MASS J12073347−3932540 are presented. The outflow was originally identified through the spectro-astrometric analysis of the [O i]λ6300 emission line. Follow-up observations consisting of spectra and [S ii], R-band and I-band images were obtained. The new spectra confirm the original results and are used to constrain the outflow position angle (P.A.) at ∼65 • . The [O i]λ6300 emission line region is spatially resolved and the outflow is detected in the [S ii] images. The detection is firstly in the form of an elongation of the point-spread function (PSF) along the direction of the outflow P.A. Four faint knot-like features (labeled A–D) are also observed to the southwest of 2MASS J12073347−3932540 along the same P.A. suggested by the spectra and the elongation in the PSF. Interestingly, D, the feature furthest from the source, is bow shaped with the apex pointing away from 2MASS J12073347−3932540. A color–color analysis allows us to conclude that at least feature D is part of the outflow under investigation while A is likely a star or galaxy. Follow-up observations are needed to confirm the origin of B and C. This is a first for a BD, as BD optical outflows have to date only been detected using spectro-astrometry. This result also demonstrates for the first time that BD outflows can be collimated and episodic.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a census of the disk population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the WISE database. The resulting colour-magnitude and colour-colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with disks (class II) and without disks (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disk fraction (27 out of 116 or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of disks are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 disks (19%) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6 microns and are potential transition disks (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disk fraction is comparable to low-mass stars. We estimate that the timescale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4 Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf disks mirrors the behaviour of disks around low-mass stars, with disk lifetimes on the order of 5-10 Myr and a disk clearing timescale significantly shorter than 1 Myr.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a variability study of accreting young stellar objects in the Chameleon I star-forming region which is based on ~300 high resolution optical spectra from the multi-object fibre spectrograph FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT. Twenty five objects with spectral types from G2-M5.75 were observed 12 times over the course of 15 months. Using the emission lines Ha (6562.81 A) and Ca II (8662.1 A) as accretion indicators we found 10 accreting and 15 non-accreting objects. We derived accretion rates for all accretors in the sample using the Ha equivalent width, Ha 10% width and the CaII equivalent width. The mean amplitude of variations in derived accretion rate from Ha equivalent width was ~ 0.37 dex, from Ca II equivalent width ~0.83 dex and from Ha 10% width ~1.11 dex. Based on the large amplitude of variations in accretion rates derived from the Ha 10% width with respect to the other diagnostics, we do not consider it to be a reliable accretion rate estimator. Taking the variations in Ha equivalent width and CaII equivalent width accretion rates to be closer to the true value, they suggest that the spread which has been found around the accretion rate to stellar mass relation is not due to the variability of individual objects on time-scales of weeks to ~1 year. From these variations we can also infer that the accretion rates are stable within < 0.37 dex over time-scales of less than 15 months. A major portion of the accretion variability was found to occur on less than the shortest time-scales in our observations, 8-25 days, which is comparable with the rotation periods of these young stellar objects. This could be an indication that what we are probing is spatial structure in the accretion flows, and also suggests that observations on time-scales of ~a couple of weeks are sufficient to limit the total extent of accretion rate variations in typical young stars.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2012; 427(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • P. Dawson, A. Scholz, T. P. Ray
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    ABSTRACT: The United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) is currently conducting the United Kingdom UKIDSS - the results of which are being made available in a series of releases. This work used the 8th Data Release (DR8Plus). (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 06/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present results of the second phase of our near-ultraviolet investigation into protostellar jet rotation using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We obtain long-slit spectra at the base of five T Tauri jets to determine if there is a difference in radial velocity between the jet borders which may be interpreted as a rotation signature. These observations are extremely challenging and push the limits of current instrumentation, but have the potential to provide long-awaited observational support for the magnetocentrifugal mechanism of jet launching in which jets remove angular momentum from protostellar systems. We successfully detect all five jet targets (from RW Aur, HN Tau, DP Tau, and CW Tau) in several near-ultraviolet emission lines, including the strong Mg II doublet. However, only RW Aur's bipolar jet presents a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio to allow for analysis. The approaching jet lobe shows a difference of 10 km s{sup -1} in a direction which agrees with the disk rotation sense, but is opposite to previously published optical measurements for the receding jet. The near-ultraviolet difference is not found six months later, nor is it found in the fainter receding jet. Overall, in the case of RW Aur, differences are not consistent with a simple jet rotation interpretation. Indeed, given the renowned complexity and variability of this system, it now seems likely that any rotation signature is confused by other influences, with the inevitable conclusion that RW Aur is not suited to a jet rotation study.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 749(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results of the second phase of our near-ultraviolet investigation into protostellar jet rotation using HST/STIS. We obtain long-slit spectra at the base of five T Tauri jets to determine if there is a difference in radial velocity between the jet borders which may be interpreted as a rotation signature. These observations are extremely challenging and push the limits of current instrumentation, but have the potential to provide long-awaited observational support for the magneto-centrifugal mechanism of jet launching in which jets remove angular momentum from protostellar systems. We successfully detect all five jet targets (from RW Aur, HN Tau, DP Tau and CW Tau) in several near-ultraviolet emission lines, including the strong Mg II doublet. However, only RW Aur's bipolar jet presents sufficient signal-to-noise for analysis. The approaching jet lobe shows a difference of 10 km/s in a direction which agrees with the disk rotation sense, but is opposite to previously published optical measurements for the receding jet. The near-ultraviolet difference is not found six months later, nor is it found in the fainter receding jet. Overall, in the case of RW Aur, differences are not consistent with a simple jet rotation interpretation. Indeed, given the renowned complexity and variability of this system, it now seems likely that any rotation signature is confused by other influences, with the inevitable conclusion that RW Aur is not suited to a jet rotation study.
    02/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Characterising stellar and circumstellar properties of embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) is mandatory for understanding the early stages of the stellar evolution. This task requires the combination of both spectroscopy and photometry, covering the widest possible wavelength range, to disentangle the various protostellar components and activities. As part of the POISSON project, we present a multi-wavelength spectroscopic and photometric investigation of embedded YSOs in L1641, aimed to derive the stellar parameters and evolutionary stages and to infer their accretion properties. Our database includes low-resolution optical-IR spectra from the NTT and Spitzer (0.6-40 um) and photometric data covering a spectral range from 0.4 to 1100 um, which allow us to construct the YSOs spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and to infer the main stellar parameters. The SED analysis allows us to group our 27 YSOs into nine Class I, eleven Flat, and seven Class II objects. However, on the basis of the derived stellar properties, only six Class I YSOs have an age of ~10^5 yr, while the others are older 5x10^5-10^6 yr), and, among the Flat sources, three out of eleven are more evolved objects (5x10^6-10^7 yr), indicating that geometrical effects can significantly modify the SED shapes. Inferred mass accretion rates (Macc) show a wide range of values (3.6x10^-9 to 1.2x10^-5 M_sun yr^-1), which reflects the age spread observed in our sample. Average values of mass accretion rates, extinction, and spectral indices decrease with the YSO class. The youngest YSOs have the highest Macc, whereas the oldest YSOs do not show any detectable jet activity in either images and spectra. We also observe a clear correlation among the YSO Macc, M*, and age, consistent with mass accretion evolution in viscous disc models.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new analysis of the physical conditions in three Herbig-Haro complexes (HH 54, HH 212, and the L 1157 protostellar jet) using archival data from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. As described in detail in Paper I, the emission observed using the 4.5-micron filter is enhanced in molecular shocks (T=1000-4000 K) at relatively high temperature or densities compared with that observed with the 8.0-micron filter. Using these data sets, we investigate different distributions of gas between high and low temperatures/densities. Our analysis reveals the presence of a number of warm/dense knots, most of which appear to be associated with working surfaces such as the head of bow shocks and cometary features, and reverse shocks in the ejecta. These are distributed not only along the jet axis, as expected, but also across it. While some knotty or fragmenting structures can be explained by instabilities in shocked flows, others can be more simply explained by the scenario that the mass ejection source acts as a "shot gun", periodically ejecting bullets of material along similar but not identical trajectories. Such an explanation challenges to some degree the present paradigm for jet flows associated with low-mass protostars. It also give clues to reconciling our understanding of the mass ejection mechanism in high and low mass protostars and evolved stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2011; 743(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of the analysis of LR optical-NIR spectra (0.6-2.4 um) of a sample 47 YSOs in the ChaI and II star-forming clouds. These data are part of the POISSON project (Protostellar Optical-Infrared Spectral Survey on NTT). The aim is to determine the accretion luminosity (Lacc) and mass accretion rate (Macc) of the sources through the analysis of the detected emission features. We also aim at verifying the reliability and consistency of the existing empirical relationships connecting emission line luminosity and Lacc. We employ five tracers (OI-6300A, Ha, CaII-8542A, Pab, and Brg) to derive the accretion luminosity. The tracers provide Lacc values showing different scatters when plotted as a function of L*. The Brg seems to be the most reliable, because it gives the minimum Lacc dispersion over the entire range of L*, whereas the other tracers provide much more scattered Lacc values, which are not expected for our homogeneous sample. The comparison between Lacc(Brg) and Lacc obtained from the other tracers also shows systematic differences among the empirical relationships. These may probably be ascribed to different excitation mechanisms contributing to the line emission, which may vary between our sample and those where the relationships were calibrated. Adopting the Lacc derived from Brg, we find Lacc=0.1L*-1L* for all sources, and Macc of the order of 10^-7-10^-9 Msun/yr. The Macc derived in ChaI are proportional to M*^2, as found in other low-mass star-forming regions. The discrepancies observed in the case of Lacc(Brg) and Lacc(Pab) can be related to different intrinsic Pab/Brg, ratios. The derived ratios show the existence of two different emission modalities, one that agrees with predictions of both wind and accretion models, the other suggesting optically thick emission from relatively small regions (10^21-10^22 cm^-3) with gas at low temperatures (<4000K).
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    P. Dawson, A. Scholz, T. P. Ray
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of a search for brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius Association using data from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Galactic Cluster Survey. Candidate young brown dwarfs were first chosen by their position in colour magnitude diagrams with further selection based on proper motions to ensure Upper Scorpius membership. Proper motions were derived by comparing UKIDSS and 2MASS data. Using that method we identify 19 new brown dwarfs in the southern part of the association. In addition there are up to 8 likely members with slightly higher dispersion velocity. The ratio of brown dwarfs to stars was found to be consistent with other areas in Upper Scorpius. It was also found to be similar to other results from young clusters with OB associations, and lower than those without, suggesting the brown dwarf formation rate may be a function of environment.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2011; 418. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on new X-ray observations of the classical T Tauri star DG Tau. DG Tau drives a collimated bi-polar jet known to be a source of X-ray emission perhaps driven by internal shocks. The rather modest extinction permits study of the jet system to distances very close to the star itself. Our initial results presented here show that the spatially resolved X-ray jet has been moving and fading during the past six years. In contrast, a stationary, very soft source much closer (~ 0.15-0.2") to the star but apparently also related to the jet has brightened during the same period. We report accurate temperatures and absorption column densities toward this source, which is probably associated with the jet base or the jet collimation region.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We present near-infrared spectroscopy of the forbidden emission line (FEL) and molecular hydrogen emission line (MHEL) regions at the bases of Herbig-Haro (HH) jets from seven embedded protostars: SVS 13 (the HH 7-11 progenitor), HH 26-IRS, HH 34-IRS, HH 72-IRS, HH 83-IRS, HH 300-IRS (IRAS 04239+2436) and HH 999-IRS (IRAS 06047-1117) Methods: The integral field spectrograph, SINFONI, on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to characterise jet parameters in these formative regions, where the jets are collimated and accelerated. Results: We find considerable differences in the spectra of HH 83-IRS when compared to the other six sources; CO bandhead and atomic permitted lines from Ca i, Na i, Mg i and Al i are observed in emission in all but HH 83-IRS, where they are detected in absorption. It is likely that this source is more evolved than the others (or at the very least considerably less active). Strong CO bandhead emission is also detected in emission in the other six sources, while extended H2 ro-vibrational and [Fe ii] forbidden emission lines trace the outflows (only the HH jet from HH 83-IRS is undetected). CO bandhead and Brgamma emission peaks are in most cases coincident with the jet source continuum position, consistent with excitation in an accretion disk or accretion flow. However, in the closest source, HH 300-IRS, we do find evidence for excitation in the outflow: here the emission peak is offset by 3.6(±0.7) AU along the flow axis. We also note a correlation between CO and Mg i, Na i and Ca i intensities, which supports the idea that these atomic permitted lines are associated with accretion disks. From H2 and [Fe ii] images we measure jet widths and derive upper limits to flow component opening angles. Although we do not find that the ionised [Fe ii] component is consistently narrower than the H2 flow component, we do find that narrower H2 and/or [Fe ii] flow components are associated with higher radial velocities (as reported in the literature). Flow opening angles, over the first few hundred AU in each source, are measured to be in the range 21°-42° in both H2 and [Fe ii]. Finally, from our 3-D data we are also able to map the extinction and electron density at the base of the outflows from some of our targets: within a few hundred AU, both decrease sharply with distance from the source. Conclusions: It seems clear that collimated atomic and molecular jets, which may initially exhibit a wide opening angle, are a feature of outflows from Class I protostars, Class II T Tauri stars, and possibly even Class 0 sources, and that these jets can be traced to within a few hundred AU of the driving source. A common jet collimation and acceleration mechanism seems inescapable for all stages of low mass star formation. Data obtained at the VLT under project 078.C-0390(B)Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2011; 528. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
435.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2014
    • Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2005
    • University of Hertfordshire
      • Centre for Astrophysics Research (CAR)
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2002
    • Joint Astronomy Centre
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 1988–1998
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany