[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen and insulinotropic agent for the β-cell. However, whether HGF/c-Met has a role in maternal β-cell adaptation during pregnancy is unknown. To address this issue, we characterized glucose and β-cell homeostasis in pregnant mice lacking c-Met in the pancreas (PancMet KO mice). Circulating HGF and islet c-Met and HGF expression were increased in pregnant mice. Importantly, PancMet KO mice displayed decreased β-cell replication and increased β-cell apoptosis at gestational day (GD)15. The decreased β-cell replication was associated with reductions in islet prolactin receptor levels, STAT5 nuclear localization and forkhead box M1 mRNA, and upregulation of p27. Furthermore, PancMet KO mouse β-cells were more sensitive to dexamethasone-induced cytotoxicity, whereas HGF protected human β-cells against dexamethasone in vitro. These detrimental alterations in β-cell proliferation and death led to incomplete maternal β-cell mass expansion in PancMet KO mice at GD19 and early postpartum periods. The decreased β-cell mass was accompanied by increased blood glucose, decreased plasma insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance. PancMet KO mouse islets failed to upregulate GLUT2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 mRNA, insulin content, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during gestation. These studies indicate that HGF/c-Met signaling is essential for maternal β-cell adaptation during pregnancy and that its absence/attenuation leads to gestational diabetes mellitus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PKC-ζ activation is a key signaling event for growth factor-induced β-cell replication in vitro. However, the effect of direct PKC-ζ activation in the β-cell in vivo is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of PKC-ζ activation in β-cell expansion and function in vivo in mice and the mechanisms associated with these effects.
We characterized glucose homeostasis and β-cell phenotype of transgenic (TG) mice with constitutive activation of PKC-ζ in the β-cell. We also analyzed the expression and regulation of signaling pathways, G1/S cell cycle molecules, and β-cell functional markers in TG and wild-type mouse islets.
TG mice displayed increased plasma insulin, improved glucose tolerance, and enhanced insulin secretion with concomitant upregulation of islet insulin and glucokinase expression. In addition, TG mice displayed increased β-cell proliferation, size, and mass compared with wild-type littermates. The increase in β-cell proliferation was associated with upregulation of cyclins D1, D2, D3, and A and downregulation of p21. Phosphorylation of D-cyclins, known to initiate their rapid degradation, was reduced in TG mouse islets. Phosphorylation/inactivation of GSK-3β and phosphorylation/activation of mTOR, critical regulators of D-cyclin expression and β-cell proliferation, were enhanced in TG mouse islets, without changes in Akt phosphorylation status. Rapamycin treatment in vivo eliminated the increases in β-cell proliferation, size, and mass; the upregulation of cyclins Ds and A in TG mice; and the improvement in glucose tolerance-identifying mTOR as a novel downstream mediator of PKC-ζ-induced β-cell replication and expansion in vivo. CONCLUSIONS PKC:-ζ, through mTOR activation, modifies the expression pattern of β-cell cycle molecules leading to increased β-cell replication and mass with a concomitant enhancement in β-cell function. Approaches to enhance PKC-ζ activity may be of value as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined whether hyperglycaemia stimulates human beta cell replication in vivo in an islet transplant model
Human islets were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic NOD-severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Blood glucose was measured serially during a 2 week graft revascularisation period. Engrafted mice were then catheterised in the femoral artery and vein, and infused intravenously with BrdU for 4 days to label replicating beta cells. Mice with restored normoglycaemia were co-infused with either 0.9% (wt/vol.) saline or 50% (wt/vol.) glucose to generate glycaemic differences among grafts from the same donors. During infusions, blood glucose was measured daily. After infusion, human beta cell replication and apoptosis were measured in graft sections using immunofluorescence for insulin, and BrdU or TUNEL.
Human islet grafts corrected diabetes in the majority of cases. Among grafts from the same donor, human beta cell proliferation doubled in those exposed to higher glucose relative to lower glucose. Across the entire cohort of grafts, higher blood glucose was strongly correlated with increased beta cell replication. Beta cell replication rates were unrelated to circulating human insulin levels or donor age, but tended to correlate with donor BMI. Beta cell TUNEL reactivity was not measurably increased in grafts exposed to elevated blood glucose.
Glucose is a mitogenic stimulus for transplanted human beta cells in vivo. Investigating the underlying pathways may point to mechanisms capable of expanding human beta cell mass in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met on β-cell survival in diabetogenic conditions in vivo and in response to cytokines in vitro.
We generated pancreas-specific c-Met-null (PancMet KO) mice and characterized their response to diabetes induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS) administration. We also analyzed the effect of HGF/c-Met signaling in vitro on cytokine-induced β-cell death in mouse and human islets, specifically examining the role of nuclear factor (NF)-κB.
Islets exposed in vitro to cytokines or from MLDS-treated mice displayed significantly increased HGF and c-Met levels, suggesting a potential role for HGF/c-Met in β-cell survival against diabetogenic agents. Adult PancMet KO mice displayed normal glucose and β-cell homeostasis, indicating that pancreatic c-Met loss is not detrimental for β-cell growth and function under basal conditions. However, PancMet KO mice were more susceptible to MLDS-induced diabetes. They displayed higher blood glucose levels, marked hypoinsulinemia, and reduced β-cell mass compared with wild-type littermates. PancMet KO mice showed enhanced intraislet infiltration, islet nitric oxide (NO) and chemokine production, and β-cell apoptosis. c-Met-null β-cells were more sensitive to cytokine-induced cell death in vitro, an effect mediated by NF-κB activation and NO production. Conversely, HGF treatment decreased p65/NF-κB activation and fully protected mouse and, more important, human β-cells against cytokines.
These results show that HGF/c-Met is critical for β-cell survival by attenuating NF-κB signaling and suggest that activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway represents a novel strategy for enhancing β-cell protection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that elevation of plasma fatty acids that often accompanies insulin resistance contributes to beta-cell insufficiency in obesity-related type 2 diabetes. Circulating levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are increased in humans with metabolic syndrome and obesity. HGF is known to protect beta-cells against streptozotocin and during islet engraftment. However, whether HGF is a beta-cell prosurvival factor in situations of excessive lipid supply has not been deciphered. Mice overexpressing HGF in the beta-cell [rat insulin type II promoter (RIP)-HGF transgenic mice] fed with standard chow display improved glucose homeostasis and increased beta-cell mass and proliferation compared with normal littermates. However, after 15 wk of high-fat feeding, glucose homeostasis and beta-cell expansion and proliferation are indistinguishable between normal and transgenic mice. Interestingly, RIP-HGF transgenic mouse beta-cells and normal beta-cells treated with HGF display increased sensitivity to palmitate-mediated apoptosis in vitro. Palmitate completely eliminates Akt and Bad phosphorylation in RIP-HGF transgenic mouse islets. HGF-overexpressing islets also show significantly decreased AMP-activated protein kinase-alpha and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation, diminished fatty acid oxidation, increased serine palmitoyltransferase expression, and enhanced ceramide formation compared with normal islets. Importantly, human islets overexpressing HGF also display increased beta-cell apoptosis in the presence of palmitate. Treatment of both mouse and human islet cells with the de novo ceramide synthesis inhibitors myriocin and fumonisin B1 abrogates beta-cell apoptosis induced by HGF and palmitate. Collectively, these studies indicate that HGF can be detrimental for beta-cell survival in an environment with excessive fatty acid supply.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : The mechanisms by which correcting hyperglycemia with exogenous insulin improves mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients remain unclear. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that relative endogenous insulin deficiency is associated with adverse outcomes in critical illness related to hyperglycemia.
: Prospective controlled animal study.
: University research laboratory.
: Male C57BL/6J mice, 8-12 wks old.
: Spontaneously breathing mice were instrumented with chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters. After a postoperative recovery period, endotoxemia was initiated with intra-arterial lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg) in the presence of dextrose infusion (100 microL/hr). Insulin secretion was blocked with diazoxide (2.5-30 mg/kg/day). Mice were monitored continuously for 48 hrs with blood sampled serially for blood glucose and plasma insulin determinations.
: In both saline- and glucose-infused mice, lipopolysaccharide administration induced transient hemodynamic instability without significant impact on mortality. In the saline-infused group, lipopolysaccharide administration caused a transient reduction in blood glucose and in circulating insulin. However, in glucose-infused mice, lipopolysaccharide induced a large and unexpected increase in circulating insulin without significant alteration in blood glucose. Blockade of insulin secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide in the presence of exogenous glucose precipitated marked hyperglycemia and resulted in >90% mortality. In a subanalysis of animals matched for the degree of hyperglycemia, nonsurvivors had markedly lower insulin levels compared with survivors (3.5 +/- 0.8 ng/dL vs. 9.3 +/- 1.4 ng/dL; p < .004).
: Endogenous insulin deficiency in the face of hyperglycemia is associated with mortality in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced critical illness.
Critical care medicine 08/2009; 37(9):2596-603. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes frequently co-exist and potentially interact haemodynamically and metabolically. However, the confounding effects of obesity have obscured the examination of any independent or interactive effects of the hypoxic stress of OSA and the hyperglycaemia of type 2 diabetes on haemodynamic and metabolic outcomes. We have developed a chronically catheterized, unhandled, lean murine model to examine the effects of intermittent hypoxic (IH) exposure and exogenous glucose infusion on the diurnal pattern of arterial blood pressure and blood glucose, as well as pancreatic beta-cell growth and function. Four experimental groups of adult male C57BL/J mice were exposed to 80 h of (1) either IH (nadir of inspired oxygen 5-6% at 60 cycles h(-1) for 12 h during light period) or intermittent air (IA; control) and (2) continuous infusion of either 50% dextrose or saline (control). IH exposure during saline infusion caused a sustained increase in arterial blood pressure of 10 mmHg (P < 0.0001), reversed the normal diurnal rhythm of blood glucose (P < 0.03), doubled corticosterone levels (P < 0.0001), and increased replication of pancreatic beta-cells from 1.5 +/- 0.3 to 4.0 +/- 0.8% bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive) beta-cells. The combined stimulus of IH exposure and glucose infusion attenuated the hypertension, exacerbated the reversed diurnal glucose rhythm, and produced the highest rates of apoptosis in beta-cells, without any additive effects on beta-cell replication. We conclude that, in contrast to the development of sustained hypertension, IH impaired glucose homeostasis only during periods of hypoxic exposure. IH acted as a stimulus to pancreatic beta-cell replication, but the presence of hyperglycaemia may increase the hypoxic susceptibility of beta-cells. This model will provide a basis for future mechanistic studies as well as assessing the metabolic impact of common comorbities in OSA, including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
The Journal of Physiology 02/2008; 586(3):899-911. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes results from a deficiency of functional beta-cells. Previous studies have identified hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) as two potent beta-cell mitogens. The objective of this study is to determine 1) whether HGF and PTHrP have additive/synergistic effects on beta-cell growth and proliferation; 2) the signaling pathways through which these growth factors mediate beta-cell mitogenesis; and 3) whether activation of this/these signaling pathway(s) enhances human beta-cell replication.
We generated and phenotypically analyzed doubly transgenic mice overexpressing PTHrP and HGF in the beta-cell. INS-1 and primary mouse and human islet cells were used to identify mitogenic signaling pathways activated by HGF and/or PTHrP.
Combined overexpression of HGF and PTHrP in the beta-cell of doubly transgenic mice did not result in additive/synergistic effects on beta-cell growth and proliferation, suggesting potential cross-talk between signaling pathways activated by both growth factors. Examination of these signaling pathways in INS-1 cells revealed atypical protein kinase C (PKC) as a novel intracellular target activated by both HGF and PTHrP in beta-cells. Knockdown of PKC zeta, but not PKC iota/lambda, expression using specific small-interfering RNAs blocked growth factor-induced INS-1 cell proliferation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated delivery of kinase-dead PKC zeta completely inhibited beta-cell proliferation in primary islet cells overexpressing PTHrP and/or HGF. Finally, adenovirus-mediated delivery of constitutively active PKC zeta in mouse and human primary islet cells significantly enhanced beta-cell proliferation.
PKC zeta is essential for PTHrP- and HGF-induced beta-cell proliferation. PKC zeta activation could be useful in therapeutic strategies for expanding beta-cell mass in vitro and in vivo.