[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is thought to negatively affect multiple cellular processes including the ability to maintain chromosome stability. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a common property of cancer cells and may be a contributing factor to cellular transformation. The types of DNA aberrations that arise during aging before tumor development and that contribute to tumorigenesis are currently unclear. Mdm2, a key regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor and modulator of DNA break repair, is frequently overexpressed in malignancies and contributes to CIN. To determine the relationship between aging and CIN and the role of Mdm2, precancerous wild-type C57Bl/6 and littermate-matched Mdm2 transgenic mice at various ages were evaluated. Metaphase analyses of wild-type cells showed a direct correlation between age and increased chromosome and chromatid breaks, chromosome fusions and aneuploidy, but the frequency of polyploidy remained stable over time. Elevated levels of Mdm2 in precancerous mice increased both the numerical and the structural chromosomal abnormalities observed. Chromosome and chromatid breaks, chromosome fusions, aneuploidy and polyploidy were increased in older Mdm2 transgenic mice compared with wild-type littermates. Unexpectedly, chromosome fusions, aneuploidy and polyploidy rates in Mdm2 transgenic mice, but not chromosome and chromatid breaks, showed cooperation between Mdm2 overexpression and age. Notably, Mdm2 overexpression promoted gains in one or more chromosomes with age, while it did not affect the rate of chromosome loss. Therefore, aging increased specific forms of genomic instability, and elevated Mdm2 expression cooperated with aging to increase the likelihood of gaining certain chromosomal abnormalities of the kind thought to lead to cancer development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mdm2, a regulator of the tumor suppressor p53, is frequently overexpressed in human malignancies. Mdm2 also has unresolved, p53-independent functions that contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we show that increased Mdm2 expression induced chromosome/chromatid breaks and delayed DNA double-strand break repair in cells lacking p53 but not in cells with a mutant form of Nbs1, a component of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 DNA repair complex. A 31-amino-acid region of Mdm2 was necessary for binding to Nbs1. Mutation of conserved amino acids in the Nbs1 binding domain of Mdm2 inhibited Mdm2-Nbs1 association and prevented Mdm2 from delaying phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM-S/TQ sites, repair of DNA breaks, and resolution of DNA damage foci. Similarly, the mutation of eight amino acids in the Mdm2 binding domain of Nbs1 inhibited Mdm2-Nbs1 interaction and blocked the ability of Mdm2 to delay DNA break repair. Both Nbs1 and ATM, but not the ubiquitin ligase activity of Mdm2, were necessary to inhibit DNA break repair. Only Mdm2 with an intact Nbs1 binding domain was able to increase the frequency of chromosome/chromatid breaks and the transformation efficiency of cells lacking p53. Therefore, the interaction of Mdm2 with Nbs1 inhibited DNA break repair, leading to chromosome instability and subsequent transformation that was independent of p53.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 09/2008; 28(15):4862-74. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mdm2, a regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor, is frequently overexpressed in lymphomas, including lymphomas that have inactivated p53. However, the biological consequences of Mdm2 overexpression in lymphocytes are not fully resolved. Here, we report that increased expression of Mdm2 in B cells augmented proliferation and reduced susceptibility to p53-dependent apoptosis, which was due to inhibition of p53 and suppression of p21 expression. Notably, developing and mature B cells from Mdm2 transgenic mice had an increased frequency of chromosomal/chromatid breaks and/or aneuploidy. This Mdm2-mediated genome instability occurred at a similar frequency as that in B cells overexpressing the oncogene c-Myc, but the chromosomal instability was not further enhanced when Mdm2 and c-Myc were overexpressed together. Elevated Mdm2 expression alone increased the occurrence of B-cell transformation in vivo and cooperated with c-Myc overexpression, resulting in an acceleration of B-cell lymphomagenesis. In addition, the frequency of p53 mutations was reduced, but not eliminated, in lymphomas arising in Mdm2/Emu-myc double transgenic mice. Therefore, increased Mdm2 expression facilitated B-cell lymphomagenesis, in part, through regulation of p53 by altering B-cell proliferation and susceptibility to apoptosis, and by inducing chromosomal instability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ARF tumor suppressor signals through p53 and other poorly defined anti-proliferative pathways to block carcinogenesis. In a search for new regulators of ARF signaling, we discovered a novel nuclear protein that we named NIAM (nuclear interactor of ARF and MDM2) for its ability to bind both ARF and the p53 antagonist MDM2. NIAM protein is normally expressed at low to undetectable levels in cells because of, at least in part, MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. When reintroduced into cells, NIAM activated p53, caused a G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and collaborated with ARF in an additive fashion to suppress proliferation. Notably, NIAM retains growth inhibitory activity in cells lacking ARF and/or p53, and knockdown experiments revealed that it is not essential for ARF-mediated growth inhibition. Thus, NIAM and ARF act in separate anti-proliferative pathways that intersect mechanistically and suppress growth more effectively when jointly activated. Intriguingly, silencing of NIAM accelerated chromosomal instability, and microarray analyses showed reduced NIAM mRNA expression in numerous primary human tumors. This study identifies a novel protein with tumor suppressor-like behaviors and functional links to ARF-MDM2-p53 signaling.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2007; 282(2):1322-33. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p14/p19(ARF) regulates Mdm2, which is known for controlling the p53 tumor suppressor. Here we report that loss of one allele of Mdm2 in cells that lack ARF resulted in a decreased rate of proliferation, fewer chromosomal aberrations, and suppression of Ras-induced transformation. Moreover, a haploinsufficiency of Mdm2 inhibited spontaneous tumor development in ARF-null mice. Remarkably, Mdm2(+/-)ARF(-/-) mice survived an average of 6 months longer than Mdm2(+/+)ARF(-/-) mice. The spectrum of tumors that arose in Mdm2(+/-)ARF(-/-) mice did not significantly differ from those that developed in mice lacking only ARF. However, the extended tumor latency allowed for the emergence of multiple primary tumors in a third of the Mdm2(+/-)ARF(-/-) mice, as compared to the single tumor type that arose in ARF-null only mice. Therefore, a decrease in Mdm2 levels restored regulation of critical cellular processes that are altered during transformation and that occur in the absence of ARF. Our findings also indicate that Mdm2 can function independently from ARF and imply that targeting Mdm2 in tumors that lack ARF expression should be an effective therapeutic approach.