Susan H Eshleman

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (161)1022.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: HPTN 061 enrolled Black men who have sex with men in the United States. Some men with low/undetectable HIV RNA had unusual patterns of antiretroviral (ARV) drug use or had drugs detected in the absence of viral suppression. This report includes a comprehensive analysis of ARV drug use and drug resistance among men in HPTN 061 who were not virally suppressed. The analysis included 169 men who had viral loads >400 copies/mL at enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection. By self-report, 88 were previously diagnosed, including 31 in care; 137 men reported no ARV drug use. Samples from these 169 men and 23 seroconverters were analyzed with HIV genotyping and ARV drug assays. Forty-eight (28%) of the 169 men had ≥1 drug resistance mutation (DRM); 19 (11%) had multi-class resistance. Sixty men (36%) had ≥1 ARV drug detected, 42 (70%) of whom reported no ARV drug use. Nine (23%) of 39 newly-infected men had ≥1 DRM; 10 had ≥1 ARV drug detected. Unusual patterns of ARV drugs were detected more frequently in newly-diagnosed men than previously-diagnosed men. The rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was 23% based on HIV genotyping and self-reported ARV drug use, but was 12% after adjusting for ARV drug detection. Many men in HPTN 061 had drug-resistant HIV and many were at risk of acquiring additional DRMs. ARV drug testing revealed unusual patterns of ARV drug use and provided a more accurate estimate of TDR.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000633 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study sequences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions-a proxy for recent infection-yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs-K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A-accounted for >80% of NNRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. Sixteen nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs accounted for >69% of NRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. In SSA and SSEA, 89% of NNRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to nevirapine or efavirenz, whereas only 27% of NRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to zidovudine, lamivudine, tenofovir, or abacavir. Of 763 viruses with TDR in SSA and SSEA, 725 (95%) were genetically dissimilar; 38 (5%) formed 19 sequence pairs. Inherent limitations of this study are that some cohorts may not represent the broader regional population and that studies were heterogeneous with respect to duration of infection prior to sampling. CONCLUSIONS: Most TDR strains in SSA and SSEA arose independently, suggesting that ARV regimens with a high genetic barrier to resistance combined with improved patient adherence may mitigate TDR increases by reducing the generation of new ARV-resistant strains. A small number of NNRTI-resistance mutations were responsible for most cases of high-level resistance, suggesting that inexpensive point-mutation assays to detect these mutations may be useful for pre-therapy screening in regions with high levels of TDR. In the context of a public health approach to ARV therapy, a reliable point-of-care genotypic resistance test could identify which patients should receive standard first-line therapy and which should receive a protease-inhibitor-containing regimen.
    PLoS Medicine 04/2015; 12(4):e1001810. · 14.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In resource-limited settings, HIV infection is often diagnosed using two rapid tests. If the results are discordant, a third tie-breaker test is often used to determine HIV status. This study characterized samples with discordant rapid tests and compared different testing strategies for determining HIV status in these cases. Samples were previously collected from 173 African adults in a population-based survey who had discordant rapid test results. Samples were classified as HIV positive or HIV negative using a rigorous testing algorithm that included two fourth-generation tests, a discriminatory test, and two HIV RNA tests. Tie-breaker tests were evaluated, including: rapid tests (one performed in-country), a third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and two fourth-generation tests. Selected samples were further characterized using additional assays. Twenty-nine (16.8%) samples were classified as HIV positive; 24 (82.8%) of those samples had undetectable HIV RNA. Antiretroviral drugs were detected in one sample. Sensitivity was 8.3%-43% for the rapid tests; 24.1% for the third-generation EIA; 95.8% and 96.6% for the fourth-generation tests. Specificity was lower for the fourth-generation tests than the other tests. Accuracy ranged from 79.5-91.3%. In this population-based survey, most HIV-infected adults with discordant rapid tests were virally suppressed without antiretroviral drugs. Use of individual assays as tie-breaker tests was not a reliable method for determining HIV status in these individuals. More extensive testing algorithms that use a fourth-generation screening test with a discriminatory test and HIV RNA test are preferable for determining HIV status in these cases.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000610 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CAPRISA 004 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) randomized trial demonstrated that women who used a vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV), had a 39% lower risk of acquiring HIV. It is not known whether topical TFV alters the antibody response to breakthrough HIV infection. In this study, antibody maturation was evaluated using three serologic assays: the BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA), the Bio-Plex (Luminex) assay, and the BioRad-Avidity assay. Tests were performed using serum samples collected at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, and >48 months after seroconversion from 95 women in the CAPRISA 004 trial (35 in the TFV gel arm, 60 in the placebo arm). For the BED-CEIA and Luminex assay, linear mixed effects models were used to examine test results by study arm. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to examine time to avidity cutoff. Anti-HIV antibody titers did not differ between study arms. Women assigned to tenofovir gel demonstrated slower antibody avidity maturation as determined by the Bio-Rad (p=0.04) and gp120 Bio-Plex (p=0.028) assays. Women assigned to topical TFV but who became infected had slower antibody avidity maturation, with potential implications for diagnosis and antibody-based incidence assays as access to ART-based PrEP is increased. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv110 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Evaluation of pre-treatment HIV genotyping is needed globally to guide treatment programs. We examined the association of pre-treatment (baseline) drug resistance and subtype with virologic failure in a multi-national, randomized clinical trial that evaluated three antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens and included resource-limited settings sites. Methods. Pol genotyping was performed in a nested case-cohort study including 270 randomly-sampled participants (Sub-Cohort), and 218 additional participants failing ART (Case Group). Failure was defined as confirmed viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL. Cox proportional hazard models estimated resistance-failure association. Results. In the representative Sub-Cohort (261/270 participants with genotypes; 44% women; median age 35 years; median CD4 cell count 151 cells/µL; median VL 5.0 log10copies/mL; 58% non-B subtypes), baseline resistance occurred in 4.2%, evenly distributed among treatment arms and subtypes. In the Sub-Cohort and Case Groups combined (466/488 participants with genotypes), used to examine resistance-treatment failure association, baseline resistance occurred in 7.1% (9.4% with, 4.3% without failure). Baseline resistance was significantly associated with shorter time to virologic failure (hazard ratio (HR)=2.03, P=0.035), and after adjusting for sex, treatment arm, sex-treatment arm interaction, pre-treatment CD4 cell count, baseline VL, and subtype, was still independently associated (HR=2.1, P=0.05). Compared to subtype B, subtype C infection was associated with higher failure risk (HR=1.57, 95% confidence intervals: 1.04, 2.35), whereas non-B/C subtype infection was associated with longer time to failure (HR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.98). Conclusions. In this global clinical trial, pre-treatment resistance and HIV-1 subtype were independently associated with virologic failure. Pre-treatment genotyping should be considered whenever feasible.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/cid/civ102 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fourth-generation HIV assays detect both antigen and antibody, facilitating detection of acute/early HIV infection. The Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab assay (Bio-Rad Combo) is an enzyme immunoassay that simultaneously detects HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in serum or plasma.Objective To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Combo assay for detection of HIV infection in adults from Southern Africa.Study designSamples were obtained from adults in Soweto and Vulindlela, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (300 HIV-positive samples; 300 HIV-negative samples; 12 samples from individuals previously classified as having acute/early HIV infection). The samples were tested with the Bio-Rad Combo assay. Additional testing was performed to characterize the 12 acute/early samples.ResultsAll 300 HIV-positive samples were reactive using the Bio-Rad Combo assay; false positive test results were obtained for 10 (3.3%) of the HIV-negative samples (sensitivity: 100%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 98.8–100%); specificity: 96.7%, 95% CI: 94.0–98.4%). The assay detected 10 of the 12 infections classified as acute/early. The two infections that were not detected had viral loads < 400 copies/mL; one of those samples contained antiretroviral drugs consistent with antiretroviral therapy.Conclusions The Bio-Rad Combo assay correctly classified the majority of study specimens. The specificity reported here may be higher than that seen in other settings, since HIV-negative samples were pre-screened using a different fourth-generation test. The assay also had high sensitivity for detection of acute/early infection. False-negative test results may be obtained in individuals who are virally suppressed.
    Journal of Clinical Virology 11/2014; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.11.023 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the serologic response to HIV infection in Ugandan women with HIV subtype A (n=82) and D (n=32) infection using a limiting antigen avidity assay (LAg-Avidity assay); 2,614 samples were analyzed. Study participants were followed a median of 6.6 years after HIV seroconversion. Samples were classified as assay positive if they had a LAg-Avidity assay result <1.5 normalized optical density units (OD-n). Women with subtype D infection were more likely to have delayed antibody maturation. During the first two years after seroconversion, the mean time that women had an assay positive result (mean duration of recent infection, MDRI) was longer for women with subtype D infection than women with subtype A infection (267.9 days, 95% CI: 231.2-308.2 vs. 167.3 days, 95% CI: 151.8-185.9 days, p<0.01). The MDRI was also longer for women with subtype D infection after excluding low viral load samples and samples from women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Women infected for >2 years were also more likely to be misclassified as recently infected in they had subtype D infection. Women with subtype D infection were also more likely to have antibody waning compared to women with subtype A infection. These findings may be related to the higher pathogenicity of subtype D HIV infection and are relevant to use of the LAg-Avidity assay for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation in populations where subtype D infection is prevalent.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 31(4). DOI:10.1089/AID.2014.0081 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: US guidelines recommend at least annual HIV testing for those at risk. This analysis assessed frequency and correlates of infrequent HIV testing and late diagnosis among black men who have sex with men (BMSM).
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 09/2014; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000334 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV RNA levels are usually high early in HIV infection. In the HPTN 061 study, men were tested for HIV infection every six months; six (21.4%) of 28 men who acquired HIV infection during the study had low or undetectable HIV RNA at the time of HIV diagnosis. Antiretroviral drugs were not detected at the time of HIV diagnosis. False-negative HIV test results were obtained for two men using multiple assays. Antiretroviral drug resistance mutations were detected in HIV from one man. Additional studies are needed to identify factors associated with low HIV RNA levels during early HIV infection.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2014; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000298 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In a randomized trial comparing nevirapine (NVP)-based versus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children [primary endpoint discontinuation of study treatment for any reason or virologic failure by week 24] aged 2 months to 3 years, we assessed whether clinical, virologic, immunologic and safety outcomes varied by prior single-dose NVP exposure (PrNVP) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and other covariates. Methods: Efficacy was assessed by time to ART discontinuation or virologic failure, virologic failure/death and death; safety by time to ART discontinuation because of a protocol-defined toxicity and first >= grade 3 adverse event; immunology and growth by changes in CD4%, weight/height World Health Organization z-scores from entry to week 48. Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models were used to test whether treatment differences depended on PrNVP exposure and other covariates. Results: Over a median follow up of 48 (PrNVP) and 72 (no PrNVP) weeks, there was no evidence of differential treatment effects by PrNVP exposure or any other covariates. LPV/r-based ART was superior to NVP-based ART for efficacy and safety outcomes; however, those on NVP had larger improvements in CD4%, weight and height z-scores. Lower pretreatment CD4% and higher HIV-1 RNA levels were associated with reduced efficacy, lower pretreatment CD4% with shorter time to ART discontinuation because of a protocol-defined toxicity, and no PrNVP with shorter time to first grade >= 3 adverse event. Conclusions: Differences between LPV/r and NVP ART in efficacy, safety, immunologic and growth outcomes did not depend on PrNVP exposure, prior breast-feeding, sex, HIV-1 subtype, age, pretreatment CD4%, HIV-1 RNA or World Health Organization disease stage. This finding should be considered when selecting an ART regimen for young children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/2014; 33(8):846-854. DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000337 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-assay algorithms (MAAs) can be used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional surveys. We compared the performance of two MAAs that use HIV diversity as one of four biomarkers for analysis of HIV incidence.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e101043. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101043 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although several interventions have shown reduced HIV incidence in clinical trials, the community-level effect of effective interventions on the epidemic when scaled up is unknown. We investigated whether a multicomponent, multilevel social and behavioural prevention strategy could reduce HIV incidence, increase HIV testing, reduce HIV risk behaviour, and change social and behavioural norms. Methods For this phase 3 cluster-randomised controlled trial, 34 communities in four sites in Africa and 14 communities in Thailand were randomly allocated in matched pairs to receive 36 months of community-based voluntary counselling and testing for HIV (intervention group) or standard counselling and testing alone (control group) between January, 2001, and December, 2011. The intervention was designed to make testing more accessible in communities, engage communities through outreach, and provide support services after testing. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated code and was not masked. Data were collected at baseline (n=14 567) and after intervention (n=56 683) by cross-sectional random surveys of community residents aged 18–32 years. The primary outcome was HIV incidence and was estimated with a cross-sectional multi-assay algorithm and antiretroviral drug screening assay. Thailand was excluded from incidence analyses because of low HIV prevalence. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00203749. Findings The estimated incidence of HIV in the intervention group was 1·52% versus 1·81% in the control group with an estimated reduction in HIV incidence of 13·9% (relative risk [RR] 0·86, 95% CI 0·73–1·02; p=0·082). HIV incidence was significantly reduced in women older than 24 years (RR=0·70, 0·54–0·90; p=0·0085), but not in other age or sex subgroups. Community-based voluntary counselling and testing increased testing rates by 25% overall (12–39; p=0·0003), by 45% (25–69; p<0·0001) in men and 15% (3–28; p=0·013) in women. No overall effect on sexual risk behaviour was recorded. Social norms regarding HIV testing were improved by 6% (95% CI 3–9) in communities in the intervention group. Interpretation These results are sufficiently robust, especially when taking into consideration the combined results of modest reductions in HIV incidence combined with increases in HIV testing and reductions in HIV risk behaviour, to recommend the Project Accept approach as an integral part of all interventions (including treatment as prevention) to reduce HIV transmission at the community level. Funding US National Institute of Mental Health, the Division of AIDS of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the Office of AIDS Research of the US National Institutes of Health.
    The Lancet Global Health 05/2014; 2(5):e267–e277. DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70032-4 · 10.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of samples from Uganda using serologic HIV incidence assays reveal that individuals with subtype D infection often have weak humoral immune responses to HIV infection. It is unclear whether this reflects a poor initial response to infection or a waning antibody response later in infection. Samples (N = 2614) were obtained from 114 women aged 18-45 years in the Ugandan Genital Shedding and Disease Progression Study cohort (2001-2009; 82 subtype A, 32 subtype D; median 23 samples/women, range 3-41 samples, median follow-up of 6.6 years). Samples were analyzed using the BED capture immunoassay (cutoff, 0.8 OD-n) and the avidity assay (cutoff, 90% Avidity Index). Antibody maturation was assessed by having the BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) or avidity value exceed the assay cutoff 1 or 2 years after infection. The waning antibody response was measured by having the BED-CEIA or avidity value fall >20% below the maximum value. For the BED-CEIA, 8 women with subtype A infection and 3 women with subtype D infection never progressed previously the cutoff value (median, 5.9 years follow-up after infection). Six women with subtype D infection never achieved an avidity index >90%. Subtype did not impact the proportion of women whose assay values regressed by >20% of the maximal value (for BED-CEIA: 33% for A, 41% for D, P = 0.51; for avidity: 1% for A, 6% for D, P = 0.19). The higher frequency of misclassification of individuals with long-term subtype D infection as recently infected using serologic incidence assays reflects a weak initial antibody response to HIV infection that is sustained over time.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2014; 65(4):390-6. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000006 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral drugs are used for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. Non-adherence to antiretroviral drug regimens can compromise their clinical efficacy and lead to emergence of drug-resistant HIV. Clinical trials evaluating antiretroviral regimens for HIV treatment and prevention can also be compromised by poor adherence and non-disclosed off-study antiretroviral drug use. This report describes the development and validation of a high throughput, qualitative method for the identification of antiretroviral drugs using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the retrospective assessment of off-study antiretroviral drug use and the determination of potential antiretroviral therapy (ART) non-compliance.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 03/2014; 433. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.03.016 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has decreased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and prevents sexual transmission of HIV-1. However, the best time to initiate antiretroviral treatment to reduce progression of HIV-1 infection or non-AIDS clinical events is unknown. We reported previously that early antiretroviral treatment reduced HIV-1 transmission by 96%. We aimed to compare the effects of early and delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes. The HPTN 052 trial is a randomised controlled trial done at 13 sites in nine countries. We enrolled HIV-1-serodiscordant couples to the study and randomly allocated them to either early or delayed antiretroviral treatment by use of permuted block randomisation, stratified by site. Random assignment was unblinded. The HIV-1-infected member of every couple initiated antiretroviral treatment either on entry into the study (early treatment group) or after a decline in CD4 count or with onset of an AIDS-related illness (delayed treatment group). Primary events were AIDS clinical events (WHO stage 4 HIV-1 disease, tuberculosis, and severe bacterial infections) and the following serious medical conditions unrelated to AIDS: serious cardiovascular or vascular disease, serious liver disease, end-stage renal disease, new-onset diabetes mellitus, and non-AIDS malignant disease. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074581. 1763 people with HIV-1 infection and a serodiscordant partner were enrolled in the study; 886 were assigned early antiretroviral treatment and 877 to the delayed treatment group (two individuals were excluded from this group after randomisation). Median CD4 counts at randomisation were 442 (IQR 373-522) cells per μL in patients assigned to the early treatment group and 428 (357-522) cells per μL in those allocated delayed antiretroviral treatment. In the delayed group, antiretroviral treatment was initiated at a median CD4 count of 230 (IQR 197-249) cells per μL. Primary clinical events were reported in 57 individuals assigned to early treatment initiation versus 77 people allocated to delayed antiretroviral treatment (hazard ratio 0·73, 95% CI 0·52-1·03; p=0·074). New-onset AIDS events were recorded in 40 participants assigned to early antiretroviral treatment versus 61 allocated delayed initiation (0·64, 0·43-0·96; p=0·031), tuberculosis developed in 17 versus 34 patients, respectively (0·49, 0·28-0·89, p=0·018), and primary non-AIDS events were rare (12 in the early group vs nine with delayed treatment). In total, 498 primary and secondary outcomes occurred in the early treatment group (incidence 24·9 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 22·5-27·5) versus 585 in the delayed treatment group (29·2 per 100 person-years, 26·5-32·1; p=0·025). 26 people died, 11 who were allocated to early antiretroviral treatment and 15 who were assigned to the delayed treatment group. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment delayed the time to AIDS events and decreased the incidence of primary and secondary outcomes. The clinical benefits recorded, combined with the striking reduction in HIV-1 transmission risk previously reported, provides strong support for earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment. US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 03/2014; 14(4). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70692-3 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 study, 8 (2.3%) of 348 HIV-infected participants identified as HIV uninfected at study enrollment using a single HIV rapid test for screening were found to be HIV infected after additional testing. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of different HIV assays for detection of HIV infection in HPTN 061 participants with missed infection and individuals with viral suppression. Methods: Plasma samples from 8 HPTN 061 participants, 17 elite controllers, and 101 individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) were tested for HIV with 3 rapid tests, 2 laboratory-based immunoassays, and a Western blot assay. The HPTN 061 samples were also tested with 2 HIV RNA assays and an antiretroviral drug assay. Results: Of the 8 HPTN 061 participants with missed infection, 1 was an elite controller, 1 was taking ART, 2 were missed because of testing or clerical errors, 1 had recent HIV infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and 3 had acute HIV infection. Two (1.7%) of 118 individuals with viral suppression (both taking ART) had at least 1 false-negative test. Conclusions: In clinical trials, HIV infections can be missed for a variety of reasons. Using more than one assay to screen for HIV infection may reduce the number of missed infections.
    HIV Clinical Trials 03/2014; 15(2):62-8. DOI:10.1310/hct1502-62 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: HPTN 046 compared the efficacy and safety of infant nevirapine (NVP) among HIV-exposed breastfed infants randomized at 6 weeks to 6 months to t NVP or placebo to prevent postnatal infection: we report final 18-month outcomes. Methods: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 4 African countries. Infant diagnostic HIV testing was performed regularly from birth through 18 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to assess 18-month cumulative infant HIV infection, HIV infection/or death, and mortality rates. Results: Between 6 weeks and 6 months, postnatal HIV infection rates were significantly lower among infants receiving daily NVP from 6 weeks to 6 months 1.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2% to 1.8%], compared with placebo 2.4% (95% CI: 1.3% to 2.6%), P = 0.049, but not significantly lower thereafter. Eighteen-month postnatal infection rates were low: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.1% to 3.3%) versus 3.1% (95% CI: 1.9% to 4.4%), respectively, P = 0.28. Mortality and HIV infection/death did not differ between arms at any age. Infants of women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for their own health had the lowest 18-month postnatal infection rates (0.5%, 95% CI: 0.0% to 1.1%). However, HIV infection/death rates at 18 months were not significantly different for infants of mothers on ART (3.7%, 95% CI: 1.9% to 5.5%), and infants of mothers with CD4 counts of ≥350 cells per cubic millimeter not receiving ART (4.8%, 95% CI: 2.7% to 6.8%; P = 0.46). There were no differences in adverse events between study arms. Conclusions: This trial demonstrated early but not late differences in postnatal HIV transmission among infants randomized at age 6 weeks to extended NVP or placebo, underscoring the importance of continued prophylaxis throughout breastfeeding.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2014; 65(3):366-374. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000052 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HPTN 046 compared the efficacy and safety of infant nevirapine (NVP) among HIV-exposed breastfed infants randomized at 6 weeks to 6 months to t NVP or placebo to prevent postnatal infection: we report final 18-month outcomes. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 4 African countries. Infant diagnostic HIV testing was performed regularly from birth through 18 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess 18-month cumulative infant HIV infection, HIV infection/or death, and mortality rates. RESULTS: Between 6 weeks and 6 months, postnatal HIV infection rates were significantly lower among infants receiving daily NVP from 6 weeks to 6 months 1.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2% to 1.8%], compared with placebo 2.4% (95% CI: 1.3% to 2.6%), P = 0.049, but not significantly lower thereafter. Eighteen-month postnatal infection rates were low: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.1% to 3.3%) versus 3.1% (95% CI: 1.9% to 4.4%), respectively, P = 0.28. Mortality and HIV infection/death did not differ between arms at any age. Infants of women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for their own health had the lowest 18-month postnatal infection rates (0.5%, 95% CI: 0.0% to 1.1%). However, HIV infection/death rates at 18 months were not significantly different for infants of mothers on ART (3.7%, 95% CI: 1.9% to 5.5%), and infants of mothers with CD4 counts of ≥ 350 cells per cubic millimeter not receiving ART (4.8%, 95% CI: 2.7% to 6.8%; P = 0.46). There were no differences in adverse events between study arms. CONCLUSIONS: This trial demonstrated early but not late differences in postnatal HIV transmission among infants randomized at age 6 weeks to extended NVP or placebo, underscoring the importance of continued prophylaxis throughout breastfeeding.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate factors associated with misclassification by the limiting-antigen avidity (LAg-avidity) assay among individuals with long-standing HIV infection. Samples were obtained from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience cohort (1089 samples from 667 individuals, 595 samples collected 2-4 years and 494 samples collected 4-8 years after HIV seroconversion). Paired samples from both time points were available for 422 (63.3%) of the 667 individuals. Samples were considered to be misclassified if the LAg-avidity assay result was 1.5 or less normalized optical density (OD-n) units. Overall, 4.8% (52/1089) of the samples were misclassified, including 1.8% [16/884, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-3.06%] of samples from individuals with viral loads above 400 copies/ml and 1.4% (10/705) of samples from individuals with viral loads above 400 copies/ml and CD4 cell counts above 200 cells/μl (95% CI 0.68-2.60%). Age, race, sex, and mode of HIV acquisition were not associated with misclassification. In an adjusted analysis, viral load below 400 copies/ml [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.72, 95% CI 1.61-8.57], CD4 cell count below 50 cells/μl (aOR 5.41, 95% CI 1.86-15.74), and low LAg-avidity result (≤1.5 OD-n) from the earlier time point (aOR 5.60, 95% CI 1.55-20.25) were significantly associated with misclassification. The manufacturer of the LAg-avidity assay recommends excluding individuals from incidence surveys who are receiving antiretroviral therapy, are elite suppressors, or have AIDS (CD4 cell count <200 cells/μl). The results of this study indicate that those exclusions do not remove all sources of assay misclassification among individuals with long-standing HIV infection.
    AIDS (London, England) 02/2014; 28(8). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000221 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, but the factors associated with this concentrated epidemic are not fully understood. Black MSM were enrolled in 6 US cities to evaluate a multi-component prevention intervention, with the current analysis focusing on the correlates of being newly diagnosed with HIV compared to being HIV-uninfected or previously diagnosed with HIV. HPTN 061 enrolled 1553 Black MSM whose median age was 40; 30% self-identified exclusively as gay or homosexual, 29% exclusively as bisexual, and 3% as transgender. About 1/6(th) (16.2%) were previously diagnosed with HIV (PD); of 1263 participants without a prior HIV diagnosis 7.6% were newly diagnosed (ND). Compared to PD, ND Black MSM were younger (p<0.001); less likely to be living with a primary partner (p<0.001); more likely to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.011) or chlamydia (p = 0.020). Compared to HIV-uninfected Black MSM, ND were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with a male partner in the last 6 months (p<0.001); and to be diagnosed with syphilis (p<0.001), rectal gonorrhea (p = 0.004), and urethral (p = 0.025) or rectal chlamydia (p<0.001). They were less likely to report female (p = 0.002) or transgender partners (p = 0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that ND Black MSM were significantly more likely than HIV-uninfected peers to be unemployed; have STIs, and engage in URAI. Almost half the men in each group were poor, had depressive symptoms, and expressed internalized homophobia. ND HIV-infected Black MSM were more likely to be unemployed, have bacterial STIs and engage in URAI than other Black MSM. Culturally-tailored programs that address economic disenfranchisement, increase engagement in care, screen for STIs, in conjunction with safer sex prevention interventions, may help to decrease further transmission in this heavily affected community.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87298. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087298 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,022.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • Perinatal HIV Research Unit
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 1998–2013
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      Miami, FL, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • Boston University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States