Surinder K Sharma

University College London, London, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (13)41.68 Total impact

  • Carima Andrady, Surinder K Sharma, Kerry A Chester
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in biomolecular technology have allowed the development of genetically fused antibody-enzymes. Antibody-enzyme fusion proteins have been used to target tumors for cancer therapy in two ways. In one system, an antibody-enzyme is pretargeted to the tumor followed by administration of an inactive prodrug that is converted to its active form by the pretargeted enzyme. This system has been described as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. The other system uses antibody-enzyme fusion proteins as direct therapeutics, where the enzyme is toxic in its own right. The key feature in this approach is that the antibody is used to internalize the toxic enzyme into the tumor cell, which activates cell-death processes. This antibody-enzyme system has been largely applied to deliver ribonucleases. This article addresses these two antibody-enzyme targeting strategies for cancer therapy from concept to (pre)clinical trials.
    Immunotherapy 02/2011; 3(2):193-211. · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Surinder K. Sharma, R Barbara Pedley
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies against tumour-associated antigens have been widely used for targetted therapy of cancer. Most of the pre-clinical assessment of efficacy and toxicity of these agents is carried out in immunodeficient mice xenografted with human tumours. Quantitative biodistribution is routinely assessed by administration of radiolabelled antibodies, followed by counting of radioactivity in tumour and normal tissues. However, in order to optimise the therapy design and synergistic combination of agents, it is desirable to understand the complex antibody-tumour interactions in-vivo and determine which regions of tumours are being targetted. This is achieved by quantitative, high resolution fluorescence microscopy, which can be employed to demonstrate the distribution and therapeutic efficacy of the targetting antibody in relation to the tumour microenvironment.
    12/2009: pages 477-490;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There is a need for new treatments for Hodgkin and T-cell lymphoma due to the development of drug resistance in a proportion of patients. This phase I study of radioimmunotherapy used CHT-25, a chimeric antibody to the alpha-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor, CD25, conjugated to iodine-131 ((131)I) in patients with refractory CD25-positive lymphomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifteen patients were treated (Hodgkin lymphoma, 12; angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, 1; adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, 2). Tumor was monitored by computed tomography and in all but two patients by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. RESULTS: There were no grade 3 or 4 infusion reactions. At the maximum tolerated dose of 1,200 MBq/m(2), the major side effect was delayed myelotoxicity with the nadir for platelets at 38 days and for neutrophils at 53 days. One patient treated with 2,960 MBq/m(2) developed prolonged grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and died of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Nonhematologic toxicity was mild. Single photon emission computer tomography imaging showed tumor-specific uptake and retention of (131)I and no excessive retention in normal organs. Of nine patients receiving >/=1,200 MBq/m(2), six responded (three complete response and three partial response); one of six patients with administered radioactivity of </=740 MBq/m(2) had a complete response. CONCLUSIONS: CHT-25 is well tolerated with 1,200 MBq/m(2) administered radioactivity and shows clinical activity in patients who are refractory to conventional therapies. Phase II studies are justified to determine efficacy and toxicity in a broader range of clinical scenarios. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7701-10).
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2009; 15(24):7701-7710. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In preclinical models, radioimmunotherapy with (131)I-A5B7 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody ((131)I-A5B7) combined with the vascular disruptive agent combretastatin-A4-phosphate (CA4P) produced cures unlike either agent alone. We conducted a phase I trial determining the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose, efficacy, and mechanism of this combination in patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Patients had CEA of 10 to 1,000 microg/L, QTc < or =450 ms, no cardiac arrhythmia/ischaemia, and adequate hematology/biochemistry. Tumor was suitable for blood flow analysis by dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The starting dose was 1,800 MBq/m(2) of (131)I-A5B7 on day 1 and 45 mg/m(2) CA4P given 48 and 72 hours post-(131)I-A5B7, then weekly for up to seven weeks. Twelve patients were treated, with mean age of 63 years (range, 32-77). Two of six patients at the first dose level had DLTs (grade 4 neutropenia). The dose was reduced to 1,600 MBq/m(2), and CA4P escalated to 54 mg/m(2). Again, two of six patients had DLTs (neutropenia). Of ten assessable patients, three had stable disease and seven had progressive disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography confirmed tumor antibody uptake in all 10 patients. DCE-MRI confirmed falls in kinetic parameters (K(trans)/IAUGC(60)) in 9 of 12 patients. The change of both pharmacokinetic parameters reached a level expected to produce efficacy in one patient who had a minor response on computed tomography and a reduced serum tumor marker level. This is believed to be the first trial reporting the combination of radioimmunotherapy and vascular disruptive agent; each component was shown to function, and myelosuppression was dose-limiting. Optimal dose and timing of CA4P, and moderate improvements in the performance of radioimmunotherapy seem necessary for efficacy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2009; 15(13):4484-92. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • Surinder K. Sharma, Kerry A. Chester, Kenneth D. Bagshawe
    01/2008: pages 501 - 513; , ISBN: 9783527619740
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    ABSTRACT: MFECP1 is a mannosylated antibody-enzyme fusion protein used in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The antibody selectively targets tumor cells and the targeted enzyme converts a prodrug into a toxic drug. MFECP1 is obtained from expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris and produced to clinical grade. The P. pastoris-derived mannosylation of the fusion protein aids rapid normal tissue clearance required for successful ADEPT. The work presented provides evidence that MFECP1 is cleared by the endocytic and phagocytic mannose receptor (MR), which is known to bind to mannose-terminating glycans. MR-transfected fibroblast cells internalize MFECP1 as revealed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that in vivo clearance in mice occurs predominantly by MR on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, although MR is also expressed on adjacent Kupffer cells. In the spleen, MFECP1 is taken up by MR-expressing macrophages residing in the red pulp and not by dendritic cells which are found in the marginal zone and white pulp. Clearance can be inhibited in vivo by the MR inhibitor mannan as shown by increased enzyme activities in blood. The work improves understanding of interactions of MFECP1 with normal tissue, shows that glycosylation can be exploited in the design of recombinant anticancer therapeutics and opens the ways for optimizing pharmacokinetics of mannosylated recombinant therapeutics.
    Glycobiology 02/2007; 17(1):36-45. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) has been studied as a two- and three-phase system in which an antibody to a tumor-associated antigen has been used to deliver an enzyme to tumor sites where it can convert a relatively nontoxic prodrug to a cytotoxic agent. In such a system, it is necessary to allow the enzyme activity to clear from the blood before prodrug injection to avoid toxicity caused by prodrug activation in plasma. To accelerate plasma clearance of enzyme activity, two approaches have been studied. The studies have been performed with a monoclonal anticarcinoembryonic-antigen antibody fragment A5B7-F(ab′)2 conjugated to a bacterial enzyme, carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2), in LS174T xenografted mice. In the first approach, a monoclonal antibody (SB43), directed at CPG2, was used, which inactivates CPG2 in vitro and in vivo. SB43 was galactosylated so that it had sufficient time to form a complex with plasma CPG2, resulting in the inactivation and clearance of the complex from plasma via the carbohydrate-specific receptors in the liver. Injection of SB43gal 19 hours after administration of the radiolabeled conjugate reduced the percentage of injected dose per gram in blood without affecting levels in the tumor.The second approach involved galactosylation of the conjugate so that it cleared rapidly from blood via the asialoglycoprotein receptors in the liver. Localization of the radiolabeled conjugate was achieved by blocking this receptor for about 8 hours with a single injection (8 mg/mouse) of an inhibitor that binds competitively to the receptor. This allowed tumor localization of the conjugate followed by a rapid clearance of the galactosylated conjugate from blood as the inhibitor was consumed. A tumor-to-blood ratio of 45:1 was obtained at 24 hours, which increased to 100:1 at 72 hours after the conjugate injection. These accelerated clearance mechanisms have been applied in antitumor studies in ADEPT. Cancer 1994; 73:1114–20.
    Cancer 06/2006; 73(S3):1114 - 1120. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy has demonstrated feasibility as a treatment for cancer. Numerous prodrug/drug systems have been developed for activation by a variety of enzymes and although many have shown potential in preclinical studies, so far only one system has progressed to the clinic. Clinical studies have identified issues that were not readily apparent in xenograft models, however, these have not been addressed in the development and testing of new prodrugs. The issue of immunogenicity arising from the use of non-human enzymes has also been a major hurdle. The development of recombinant fusion proteins provides reproducible and effective antibody-enzyme products that retain the necessary specificity for prodrug activation. Advances in molecular, structural and systems biology, in combination with bioinformatics, have allowed these molecules to be readily manipulated to provide the desired characteristics.
    Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England: 2000) 07/2005; 6(6):611-5. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) aims to restrict the cytotoxic action to tumour sites. The obstacles to achieve this were recognised at the outset, but time and experience have given these better definition. The development of fusion proteins has provided the means of making consistent antibody-enzyme constructs on an adequate scale, and glycosylation has provided the means to control the clearance of enzyme from non-tumour sites. Human enzymes have yet to be tested in a clinical setting, and there are pointers indicating that the immunological response to foreign enzymes can be overcome. The relatively small number of purpose-designed prodrugs tested so far leaves this an area ripe for further development. The ongoing iterative process between preclinical and clinical studies is critical to achieving the objective.
    Expert opinion on biological therapy 12/2004; 4(11):1777-89. · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • Methods in molecular medicine 02/2004; 90:491-514.
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) targets an enzyme selectively to a tumor where it converts a relatively non-toxic prodrug to a potent cytotoxic drug. Previous clinical work using antibody-enzyme chemical conjugates has been limited by the moderate efficiency of tumor targeting of these molecules. To address this a recombinant fusion protein composed of MFE-23, an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) single chain Fv (scFv) antibody, fused to the amino-terminus of the enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) has been constructed to achieve ADEPT in CEA-producing tumors. MFE-23::CPG2 fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using CEA affinity chromatography. Efficacy of MFE-23::CPG2 delivery to tumors in vivo was assessed by measuring catalytic activity after intravenous injection of purified MFE-23::CPG2 into nude mice bearing CEA-positive LS174T human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts. Recombinant MFE-23::CPG2 cleared rapidly from circulation and catalytic activity in extracted tissues showed tumor to plasma ratios of 1.5:1 (6 hr), 10:1 (24 hr), 19:1 (48 hr) and 12:1 (72 hr). 125I-MFE-23::CPG2 was retained in kidney, liver and spleen but MFE-23::CPG2 catalytic activity was not, resulting in excellent tumor to normal tissue enzyme ratios 48 hr after injection. These were 371:1 (tumor to liver), 450:1 (tumor to lung), 562:1 (tumor to kidney), 1,477:1 (tumor to colon) and 1,618:1 (tumor to spleen). Favorable tumor : normal tissue ratios occurred at early time points when there was still 21% (24 hr) and 9.5% (48 hr) of the injected activity present per gram of tumor tissue. The high tumor concentrations and selective tumor retention of active enzyme delivered by MFE-23::CPG2 establish that this recombinant fusion protein has potential to give improved clinical efficiency for ADEPT. Int. J. Cancer 85:571–577, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/2000; 85(4):571 - 577. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) has been studied in a human ovarian carcinoma xenograft grown subcutaneously in nude mice. Radioimmunoassay of supernatants obtained from tumor homogenates showed these to contain carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Biodistribution studies with125I-labeled monoclonal anti-CEA antibody, A5B7, and its F(ab′)2 fragment showed localization in these xenografts. The AB57-F(ab′)2 fragment conjugated to a bacterial enzyme, carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2), and, radiolabeled with125iodine, also localized in the xenografts. The radiolabeled conjugate cleared from blood faster than the antibody alone. The percentage of injected dose per gram in tumor at 24 h postinjection was about fivefold lower than antibody alone. Tumor-to-blood ratio at 72 h after injection of the radiolabeled conjugate was 7 and the tumor-to-normal tissue ratios at this time point ranged from 20 (liver) to 75 (colon). A three-phase ADEPT antitumor study was carried out in which A5B7-F(ab′)2-CPG2 was allowed to localize and was followed by accelerated inactivation/clearance of blood CPG2 by a galactosylated anti-CPG2 antibody (SB43gal). A benzoic acid mustard-derived prodrug was injected 24 h after the conjugate, which led to growth delay in this tumor compared to the control untreated group. Further antitumor studies in this model are in progress.
    Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 24-25(1):219-228. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Natalie L. Griffin, Hassan Shahbakhti, Surinder K. Sharma
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies are emerging as a new drug class with many of these approved and marketed. Antibodies may be non-human, chimeric, humanized or fully human. All these have the potential to elicit an immune response in the host which may impact on safety and efficacy. Therefore, assessment of immunogenicity of the therapeutic protein is an essential part of its clinical development. This involves testing strategies which provide relevant information on antibody responses. This chapter describes a simple ELISA method to detect human anti-antibody response.