Surinder K. Sharma

University College London, London, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (23)80.06 Total impact

  • Carima Andrady, Surinder K Sharma, Kerry A Chester
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in biomolecular technology have allowed the development of genetically fused antibody-enzymes. Antibody-enzyme fusion proteins have been used to target tumors for cancer therapy in two ways. In one system, an antibody-enzyme is pretargeted to the tumor followed by administration of an inactive prodrug that is converted to its active form by the pretargeted enzyme. This system has been described as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. The other system uses antibody-enzyme fusion proteins as direct therapeutics, where the enzyme is toxic in its own right. The key feature in this approach is that the antibody is used to internalize the toxic enzyme into the tumor cell, which activates cell-death processes. This antibody-enzyme system has been largely applied to deliver ribonucleases. This article addresses these two antibody-enzyme targeting strategies for cancer therapy from concept to (pre)clinical trials.
    Immunotherapy 02/2011; 3(2):193-211. DOI:10.2217/imt.10.90 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Surinder K. Sharma, R Barbara Pedley
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies against tumour-associated antigens have been widely used for targetted therapy of cancer. Most of the pre-clinical assessment of efficacy and toxicity of these agents is carried out in immunodeficient mice xenografted with human tumours. Quantitative biodistribution is routinely assessed by administration of radiolabelled antibodies, followed by counting of radioactivity in tumour and normal tissues. However, in order to optimise the therapy design and synergistic combination of agents, it is desirable to understand the complex antibody-tumour interactions in-vivo and determine which regions of tumours are being targetted. This is achieved by quantitative, high resolution fluorescence microscopy, which can be employed to demonstrate the distribution and therapeutic efficacy of the targetting antibody in relation to the tumour microenvironment.
    12/2009: pages 477-490;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There is a need for new treatments for Hodgkin and T-cell lymphoma due to the development of drug resistance in a proportion of patients. This phase I study of radioimmunotherapy used CHT-25, a chimeric antibody to the alpha-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor, CD25, conjugated to iodine-131 ((131)I) in patients with refractory CD25-positive lymphomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifteen patients were treated (Hodgkin lymphoma, 12; angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, 1; adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, 2). Tumor was monitored by computed tomography and in all but two patients by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. RESULTS: There were no grade 3 or 4 infusion reactions. At the maximum tolerated dose of 1,200 MBq/m(2), the major side effect was delayed myelotoxicity with the nadir for platelets at 38 days and for neutrophils at 53 days. One patient treated with 2,960 MBq/m(2) developed prolonged grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and died of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Nonhematologic toxicity was mild. Single photon emission computer tomography imaging showed tumor-specific uptake and retention of (131)I and no excessive retention in normal organs. Of nine patients receiving >/=1,200 MBq/m(2), six responded (three complete response and three partial response); one of six patients with administered radioactivity of </=740 MBq/m(2) had a complete response. CONCLUSIONS: CHT-25 is well tolerated with 1,200 MBq/m(2) administered radioactivity and shows clinical activity in patients who are refractory to conventional therapies. Phase II studies are justified to determine efficacy and toxicity in a broader range of clinical scenarios. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7701-10).
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2009; 15(24):7701-7710. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1421 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In preclinical models, radioimmunotherapy with (131)I-A5B7 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody ((131)I-A5B7) combined with the vascular disruptive agent combretastatin-A4-phosphate (CA4P) produced cures unlike either agent alone. We conducted a phase I trial determining the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose, efficacy, and mechanism of this combination in patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Patients had CEA of 10 to 1,000 microg/L, QTc < or =450 ms, no cardiac arrhythmia/ischaemia, and adequate hematology/biochemistry. Tumor was suitable for blood flow analysis by dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The starting dose was 1,800 MBq/m(2) of (131)I-A5B7 on day 1 and 45 mg/m(2) CA4P given 48 and 72 hours post-(131)I-A5B7, then weekly for up to seven weeks. Twelve patients were treated, with mean age of 63 years (range, 32-77). Two of six patients at the first dose level had DLTs (grade 4 neutropenia). The dose was reduced to 1,600 MBq/m(2), and CA4P escalated to 54 mg/m(2). Again, two of six patients had DLTs (neutropenia). Of ten assessable patients, three had stable disease and seven had progressive disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography confirmed tumor antibody uptake in all 10 patients. DCE-MRI confirmed falls in kinetic parameters (K(trans)/IAUGC(60)) in 9 of 12 patients. The change of both pharmacokinetic parameters reached a level expected to produce efficacy in one patient who had a minor response on computed tomography and a reduced serum tumor marker level. This is believed to be the first trial reporting the combination of radioimmunotherapy and vascular disruptive agent; each component was shown to function, and myelosuppression was dose-limiting. Optimal dose and timing of CA4P, and moderate improvements in the performance of radioimmunotherapy seem necessary for efficacy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2009; 15(13):4484-92. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0035 · 8.19 Impact Factor
  • Surinder K. Sharma, Kerry A. Chester, Kenneth D. Bagshawe
    Handbook of Therapeutic Antibodies, 01/2008: pages 501 - 513; , ISBN: 9783527619740
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    ABSTRACT: MFECP1 is a mannosylated antibody-enzyme fusion protein used in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The antibody selectively targets tumor cells and the targeted enzyme converts a prodrug into a toxic drug. MFECP1 is obtained from expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris and produced to clinical grade. The P. pastoris-derived mannosylation of the fusion protein aids rapid normal tissue clearance required for successful ADEPT. The work presented provides evidence that MFECP1 is cleared by the endocytic and phagocytic mannose receptor (MR), which is known to bind to mannose-terminating glycans. MR-transfected fibroblast cells internalize MFECP1 as revealed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that in vivo clearance in mice occurs predominantly by MR on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, although MR is also expressed on adjacent Kupffer cells. In the spleen, MFECP1 is taken up by MR-expressing macrophages residing in the red pulp and not by dendritic cells which are found in the marginal zone and white pulp. Clearance can be inhibited in vivo by the MR inhibitor mannan as shown by increased enzyme activities in blood. The work improves understanding of interactions of MFECP1 with normal tissue, shows that glycosylation can be exploited in the design of recombinant anticancer therapeutics and opens the ways for optimizing pharmacokinetics of mannosylated recombinant therapeutics.
    Glycobiology 02/2007; 17(1):36-45. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwl053 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a two-stage treatment whereby a tumor-targeted antibody-enzyme complex localizes in tumor for selective conversion of prodrug. The purpose of this study was to establish optimal variables for single administration of MFECP1, a recombinant antibody-enzyme fusion protein of an anti–carcinoembryonic antigen single-chain Fv antibody and the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 followed by a bis-iodo phenol mustard prodrug. MFECP1 is manufactured in mannosylated form to facilitate normal tissue elimination. Experimental design: Pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and tumor localization studies were used to test the hypothesis that MFECP1 localizes in tumor and clears from normal tissue via the liver. Firstly, safety of MFECP1 and a blood concentration of MFECP1 that would avoid systemic prodrug activation were tested. Secondly, dose escalation of prodrug was done. Thirdly, the dose of MFECP1 and timing of prodrug administration were optimized. Results: MFECP1 was safe and well tolerated, cleared rapidly via the liver, and was less immunogenic than previously used products. Eighty-fold dose escalation from the starting dose of prodrug was carried out before dose-limiting toxicity occurred. Confirmation of the presence of enzyme in tumor and DNA interstrand cross-links indicating prodrug activation were obtained for the optimal dose and time point. A total of 28 of 31 patients was evaluable for response, the best response being a 10% reduction of tumor diameter, and 11 of 28 patients had stable disease. Conclusions: Optimal conditions for effective therapy were established. A study testing repeat treatment is currently being undertaken.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2006; 12(21). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0769 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy has demonstrated feasibility as a treatment for cancer. Numerous prodrug/drug systems have been developed for activation by a variety of enzymes and although many have shown potential in preclinical studies, so far only one system has progressed to the clinic. Clinical studies have identified issues that were not readily apparent in xenograft models, however, these have not been addressed in the development and testing of new prodrugs. The issue of immunogenicity arising from the use of non-human enzymes has also been a major hurdle. The development of recombinant fusion proteins provides reproducible and effective antibody-enzyme products that retain the necessary specificity for prodrug activation. Advances in molecular, structural and systems biology, in combination with bioinformatics, have allowed these molecules to be readily manipulated to provide the desired characteristics.
    Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England: 2000) 07/2005; 6(6):611-5. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) aims to restrict the cytotoxic action to tumour sites. The obstacles to achieve this were recognised at the outset, but time and experience have given these better definition. The development of fusion proteins has provided the means of making consistent antibody-enzyme constructs on an adequate scale, and glycosylation has provided the means to control the clearance of enzyme from non-tumour sites. Human enzymes have yet to be tested in a clinical setting, and there are pointers indicating that the immunological response to foreign enzymes can be overcome. The relatively small number of purpose-designed prodrugs tested so far leaves this an area ripe for further development. The ongoing iterative process between preclinical and clinical studies is critical to achieving the objective.
    Expert opinion on biological therapy 12/2004; 4(11):1777-89. DOI:10.1517/14712598.4.11.1777 · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Methods in molecular medicine 02/2004; 90:491-514.
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies are highly specific recognition molecules which are increasingly being applied to target therapy in patients. One type of developmental antibody-based therapy is antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) for the treatment of cancer. In ADEPT, an antibody specific to a tumor marker protein delivers a drug-activating enzyme to the cancer. Subsequent intravenous administration of an inactive prodrug results in drug activation and cytotoxicity only within the locale of the tumor. Pilot clinical trials with chemical conjugates of the prodrug activating enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) chemically conjugated with an antibody to and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), have shown that CPG2-mediated ADEPT is effective but limited by formation of human antibodies to CPG2 (HACA). We have developed a recombinant fusion protein (termed MFE-CP) of CPG2 with an anti-CEA single chain Fv antibody fragment and we have developed methods to address the immunogenicity of this therapeutic. A HACA-reactive discontinuous epitope on MFE-CP was identified using the crystal structure of CPG2, filamentous phage technology and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization affinity mass spectrometry. This information was used to create a functional mutant of MFE-CP with a significant reduction (range 19.2 to 62.5%, median 38.5%) in reactivity with the sera of 11 patients with post-therapy HACA. The techniques described here are valuable tools for identifying and adapting undesirable immunogenic sites on protein therapeutics.
    PROTEOMICS 04/2002; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) targets an enzyme selectively to a tumor where it converts a relatively non-toxic prodrug to a potent cytotoxic drug. Previous clinical work using antibody-enzyme chemical conjugates has been limited by the moderate efficiency of tumor targeting of these molecules. To address this a recombinant fusion protein composed of MFE-23, an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) single chain Fv (scFv) antibody, fused to the amino-terminus of the enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) has been constructed to achieve ADEPT in CEA-producing tumors. MFE-23::CPG2 fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using CEA affinity chromatography. Efficacy of MFE-23::CPG2 delivery to tumors in vivo was assessed by measuring catalytic activity after intravenous injection of purified MFE-23::CPG2 into nude mice bearing CEA-positive LS174T human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts. Recombinant MFE-23::CPG2 cleared rapidly from circulation and catalytic activity in extracted tissues showed tumor to plasma ratios of 1.5:1 (6 hr), 10:1 (24 hr), 19:1 (48 hr) and 12:1 (72 hr). 125I-MFE-23::CPG2 was retained in kidney, liver and spleen but MFE-23::CPG2 catalytic activity was not, resulting in excellent tumor to normal tissue enzyme ratios 48 hr after injection. These were 371:1 (tumor to liver), 450:1 (tumor to lung), 562:1 (tumor to kidney), 1,477:1 (tumor to colon) and 1,618:1 (tumor to spleen). Favorable tumor : normal tissue ratios occurred at early time points when there was still 21% (24 hr) and 9.5% (48 hr) of the injected activity present per gram of tumor tissue. The high tumor concentrations and selective tumor retention of active enzyme delivered by MFE-23::CPG2 establish that this recombinant fusion protein has potential to give improved clinical efficiency for ADEPT. Int. J. Cancer 85:571–577, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/2000; 85(4):571 - 577. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000215)85:4<571::AID-IJC20>3.0.CO;2-1 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies can be used to target cancer therapies to malignant tissue; the approach is attractive because conventional treatments such as chemo- and radiotherapy are dose limited due to toxicity in normal tissues. Effective targeting relies on appropriate pharmacokinetics of antibody-based therapeutics, ideally showing maximum uptake and retention in tumor and rapid clearance from normal tissue. We have studied the factors influencing these dynamics for antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Protein engineering of anti-CEA antibodies, in vivo biodistribution models, and mathematical models have been employed to improve understanding of targeting parameters, define optimal characteristics for the antibody-based molecules employed, and develop new therapies for the clinic. Engineering antibodies to obtain the desired therapeutic characteristics is most readily achieved using recombinant antibody technology, and we have taken the approach of immunizing mice to provide high-affinity anti-CEA single-chain Fv antibodies (sFvs) from filamentous bacteriophage libraries. MFE-23, the most characterized of these sFvs, has been expressed in bacteria and purified in our laboratory for two clinical trials: a gamma camera imaging trial using 123I-MFE-23 and a radioimmunoguided surgery trial using 125I-MFE-23, where tumor deposits are detected by a hand-held probe during surgery. Both these trials showed that MFE-23 is safe and effective in localizing tumor deposits in patients with cancer. We are now developing fusion proteins that use the MFE-23 antibody to deliver a therapeutic moiety; MFE-23:: carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) targets the enzyme CPG2 for use in the antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy system and MFE::tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) aims to reduce sequestration and increase tumor concentrations of systemically administered TNFalpha.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/2000; 46 Suppl:S8-12. DOI:10.1007/PL00014055 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer therapy based on the delivery of enzymes to tumour sites has advanced in several directions since antibody-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy was first described. It has been shown that methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) can be used to deliver enzyme to a variety of solid tumours. MPEG-enzyme conjugates show reduced immunogenicity and may allow repeated treatment with enzymes of bacterial origin. Enzyme delivery to tumours by polymers can be used to convert a low toxicity prodrug to a potent cytotoxic agent. An example of such a prodrug is CB1954, which can be activated by a human enzyme in the presence of a cosubstrate. Tumour-located enzymes can also be used in conjunction with a combination of antimetabolites and rescue agents. The rescue agent protects normal tissue but is degraded at cancer sites by the enzyme, thus deprotecting the tumour and allowing prolonged antimetabolite action.
    Current Opinion in Immunology 11/1999; 11(5):579-83. DOI:10.1016/S0952-7915(99)00004-7 · 7.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two methods of using tumour located enzymes have been described. These are antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) and macromolecule directed enzyme prodrug therapy (MDEPT), where the tumour located enzyme converts a non-toxic prodrug into a cytotoxic drug at tumour sites. The alternative use of tumour located enzymes is to inactivate rescue agents that protect cells from antimetabolite action, and is described as 'Antimetabolite with inactivation of rescue agent at cancer sites' (AMIRACS). The leakiness of tumour blood vessels and poor lymphatic drainage allows enzymes to be targeted to many cancers by attachment to polymeric macromolecules (MDEPT), as well as to antibodies and antibody fragments (ADEPT). To avoid systemic toxicity, enzyme activity in blood and normal tissues must be very low before giving a prodrug or rescue agent. Antibodies directed against the enzyme component of macromolecular conjugates have proved to be very efficient at clearing normal tissues. Human enzymes which are over expressed by cancer cells can be exploited particularly if they require co-factors or co-substrates, either in situ or targeted to extracellular sites. Bacterial enzymes have advantages in specificity but require some form of immunological control in view of their immunogenicity. Prodrugs which generate drugs with very short half lives are desirable, and have been developed, including one which has a differential toxicity between prodrug and the active drug of 1000 to 10,000 fold. The range of antimetabolites available for AMIRACS was initially restricted to inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase but has been greatly extended by the introduction of inhibitors of other enzymes. The limitations of these systems are discussed.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 03/1999; 8(2):161-72. DOI:10.1517/13543784.8.2.161 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) can be targeted to tumors by antibodies and used to activate prodrugs in a treatment called antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). Different doses of CPG2 conjugated to the anti-CEA antibody A5B7 were administered i.v. to nude mice bearing the LS174T human colon adenocarcinoma xenograft, and the biodistribution of conjugate activity 48 and 72 h later was determined using a novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Conjugate doses of 2,500 and 625 U/kg gave tumor enzyme levels of 0.5-0.6 U/g. Lower doses of 300 and 150 U/kg gave tumor enzyme levels of 0.1-0.3 U/g. Intriguingly, the best tumor:blood ratio of conjugate activity at both 48 and 72 h was achieved after administration of the 625-U/kg dose, not the 2,500-U/kg dose. After 48 h this ratio was 3.8, whereas after 72 h the value was 5.5. This conjugate dose also gave the greatest tumor:tissue ratios in all other tissues examined. After 72 h the tumor:colon ratio was 105, whereas the tumor:kidney ratio was 36. In ADEPT, to obtain maximal tumor damage to LS174T xenografts in nude mice with minimal systemic toxicity using the A5B7-CPG2 conjugate, prodrug should therefore be administered at least 72 h after a conjugate dose of 625 U/kg.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/1997; 40(4):277-84. DOI:10.1007/s002800050659 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) was administered to ten patients in a phase I clinical trial. The aim was to measure plasma levels of the prodrug 4-[(2-chloroethyl)(2-mesyloxyethyl) amino] benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (CMDA) and the bifunctional alkylating drug (CJS11) released from it by the action of tumour-localised carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) enzyme. New techniques were developed to extract the prodrug and drug from plasma by solid-phase absorption and elution and to measure CPG2 activity in plasma and tissue. All extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). CPG2 activity was found in metastatic tumour biopsies but not in normal tissue, indicating that localisation had been successful. The clearing agent SB43-gal, given at 46.5 mg/m2, achieved the aim of clearing non-tumour-localised enzyme in the circulation, indicating that conversion of prodrug to drug could take place only at the site of localised conjugate. Plasma prodrug did not always remain above its required threshold of 3 microM for the "therapeutic window" of 120 min after dosing, but the presence of residual prodrug after the first administration of each day indicated that this could be achieved during the remaining four doses over the following 8 h. Despite considerable inter-patient prodrug plasma concentration variability, the elimination half-life of the prodrug was remarkably reproducible at 18 +/- 8 min. Rapid appearance of the drug in plasma indicated that successful conversion from the prodrug had taken place, but also undesirable leakback from the site of localisation into the bloodstream. However, drug plasma levels fell rapidly by at least 50% at between 10 and 60 min with a half-life of 36 +/- 14 min. Analysis of the plasma extracts by LC/MS indicated that this technique might be used to confirm qualitatively the presence of prodrug, drug and their metabolites.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/1997; 40(3):189-201. DOI:10.1007/s002800050646 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) has been studied in a human ovarian carcinoma xenograft grown subcutaneously in nude mice. Radioimmunoassay of supernatants obtained from tumor homogenates showed these to contain carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Biodistribution studies with125I-labeled monoclonal anti-CEA antibody, A5B7, and its F(ab′)2 fragment showed localization in these xenografts. The AB57-F(ab′)2 fragment conjugated to a bacterial enzyme, carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2), and, radiolabeled with125iodine, also localized in the xenografts. The radiolabeled conjugate cleared from blood faster than the antibody alone. The percentage of injected dose per gram in tumor at 24 h postinjection was about fivefold lower than antibody alone. Tumor-to-blood ratio at 72 h after injection of the radiolabeled conjugate was 7 and the tumor-to-normal tissue ratios at this time point ranged from 20 (liver) to 75 (colon). A three-phase ADEPT antitumor study was carried out in which A5B7-F(ab′)2-CPG2 was allowed to localize and was followed by accelerated inactivation/clearance of blood CPG2 by a galactosylated anti-CPG2 antibody (SB43gal). A benzoic acid mustard-derived prodrug was injected 24 h after the conjugate, which led to growth delay in this tumor compared to the control untreated group. Further antitumor studies in this model are in progress.
    Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 09/1996; 24-25(1):219-228. DOI:10.1007/BF02789232 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) has been studied as a two- and three-phase system in which an antibody to a tumor-associated antigen has been used to deliver an enzyme to tumor sites where it can convert a relatively nontoxic prodrug to a cytotoxic agent. In such a system, it is necessary to allow the enzyme activity to clear from the blood before prodrug injection to avoid toxicity caused by prodrug activation in plasma. To accelerate plasma clearance of enzyme activity, two approaches have been studied. The studies have been performed with a monoclonal anticarcinoembryonic-antigen antibody fragment A5B7-F(ab′)2 conjugated to a bacterial enzyme, carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2), in LS174T xenografted mice. In the first approach, a monoclonal antibody (SB43), directed at CPG2, was used, which inactivates CPG2 in vitro and in vivo. SB43 was galactosylated so that it had sufficient time to form a complex with plasma CPG2, resulting in the inactivation and clearance of the complex from plasma via the carbohydrate-specific receptors in the liver. Injection of SB43gal 19 hours after administration of the radiolabeled conjugate reduced the percentage of injected dose per gram in blood without affecting levels in the tumor.The second approach involved galactosylation of the conjugate so that it cleared rapidly from blood via the asialoglycoprotein receptors in the liver. Localization of the radiolabeled conjugate was achieved by blocking this receptor for about 8 hours with a single injection (8 mg/mouse) of an inhibitor that binds competitively to the receptor. This allowed tumor localization of the conjugate followed by a rapid clearance of the galactosylated conjugate from blood as the inhibitor was consumed. A tumor-to-blood ratio of 45:1 was obtained at 24 hours, which increased to 100:1 at 72 hours after the conjugate injection. These accelerated clearance mechanisms have been applied in antitumor studies in ADEPT. Cancer 1994; 73:1114–20.
    Cancer 02/1994; 73(S3):1114 - 1120. DOI:10.1002/1097-0142(19940201)73:3+<1114::AID-CNCR2820731352>3.0.CO;2-L · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • C J Springer, G K Poon, Surinder K. Sharma, K D Bagshawe
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) involves two phases. The first is an antibody-enzyme conjugate that localizes to tumor. The second phase is a prodrug that is administered when the enzyme-conjugate has cleared from blood and other nontumor tissues. In the pilot-scale clinical trial, the prodrug has been measured--in the plasma of patients, by liquid chromatography (HPLC) and by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Active drug has been detected and metabolites identified. An indirect measurement of enzyme-conjugate in the plasma of patients has also been developed.
    Cell biophysics 01/1993; 22(1-3):9-26. DOI:10.1007/BF03033864

Publication Stats

524 Citations
80.06 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2011
    • University College London
      • Department of Oncology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Technische Universität Braunschweig
      • Institut für Technische Chemie
      Braunschweig, Lower Saxony, Germany