Sun Mi Choi

Seoul National University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (73)185.96 Total impact

  • Ha Youn Lee · Sun Mi Choi
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1164/rccm.201502-0350IM · 13.00 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Critical Care 08/2015; 30(4):845-846. DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.04.076 · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Yeon Joo Lee · Sun Mi Choi · Ju Hee Park · Jae-Joon Yim
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    ABSTRACT: To examine changes in the performance of physicians after working in busy outpatient clinics, we conducted a prospective study, involving full-time clinicians who held morning and afternoon outpatient clinics on the same day. The participants completed three measures of attention, the psychomotor vigilance task, two-back test, and trail-making test, and a measure of emotion, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), before and after the two clinic sessions. The physicians saw a mean of 91.3 patients in the two outpatient clinics on the day of testing. Overall, performance in the attention test did not deteriorate after the two successive outpatient sessions. However, we observed an increased STAXI score in 24 (54.3%) participants and saw a significant overall increase in STAXI scores. Our results indicate that busy outpatient sessions may increase physicians' anger although their attentional capacity appears to be maintained. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Evaluation &amp the Health Professions 05/2015; 38(3). DOI:10.1177/0163278715589346 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    05/2015; 4(1):47. DOI:10.1016/j.imr.2015.04.023
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of self-administered acupressure to alleviate symptoms of various health problems, including allergic disease, cancer, respiratory disease, dysmenorrhea, perceived stress, insomnia, and sleep disturbances. We searched core, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese databases, including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), six representative electronic Korean medical databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator (J-STAGE). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that examined disease-specific effects or symptom relief, adverse reactions, and quality-of-life (QOL) for self-administered acupressure. Data collection and assessment of the methodological quality of the included studies were conducted by two independent reviewers. Eight RCTs and two quasi-RCTs showed positive effects and safety of self-acupressure therapy in clinically diverse populations. Quality assessment revealed moderate quality for the RCTs, with 50% or more of the trials assessed as presenting a low risk of bias in seven domains. All of the selected 10 studies reported positive effects for primary outcomes of self-acupressure therapy for symptom management, including significant improvements in symptom scores in allergic disease, nausea and vomiting in cancer, symptom scores in respiratory disease, pain symptoms in dysmenorrhea, and stress/fatigue scores and sleep disturbances in healthy people. Our findings suggest that self-administered acupressure shows promise to alleviate the symptoms of various health problems. Therefore, further research with larger samples and methodologically well-designed RCTs is required to establish the efficacy of self-administered acupressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Complementary Therapies in Medicine 02/2015; 23(1):68-78. DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2014.11.002 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To systematically review the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in patients with chronic health conditions. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for literature published from 1948 to January 2014. The databases included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, CNKI, J-STAGE, Koreamed, Kmbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS. Key search terms were "exp/relaxation therapy," "foot," "reflexology," "zone therapy," and "self." All study designs were included. Two raters independently extracted data and assessed study quality by using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (for randomized controlled trials) and the risk of bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies (for nonrandomized and before-and-after studies). A qualitative and descriptive analysis was performed because of the clinical diversity associated with chronic health conditions. Results: Of the 224 records assessed, 4 trials met the inclusion criteria: 3 nonrandomized controlled trials and 1 before-and-after study without comparison. Self-administered foot reflexology might have a positive effect in type 2 diabetes, but the low quality of the included study and the lack of adequately reported clinical outcomes obscure the results. Two studies of hypertensive patients and 1 study of patients with urinary incontinence showed that self-performed foot reflexology may exert a beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure and urinary incontinence; however, given the small sample size and the lack of any description of medications and other cointerventions, there was insufficient evidence to conclusively determine whether foot reflexology had any effect. Conclusions: The included studies on self-administered foot reflexology in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or urinary incontinence provided insufficient evidence to determine a treatment effect. Therefore, a well-designed, large-scale, and randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm the effect of self-administered foot reflexology for chronic conditions.
    Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 01/2015; 21(2). DOI:10.1089/acm.2014.0166 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group distribution and self-awareness of COPD. We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ≥40 years) who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7. We analyzed self-administered COPD questionnaires for the assessment of the frequency of acute exacerbation over the previous year and dyspnea severity using the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test. Among 3029 patients aged >40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44-93 years) were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5%) patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%), emphysema (0.8%), or chronic bronchitis (2.5%). The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D. The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0115787. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115787 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Self-administered foot reflexology is unrestricted by time and space, economical, and practical because it is easy to learn and apply. This study estimated the effectiveness of self-foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: The participants were healthy persons not diagnosed with a specific disease. The intervention was foot reflexology administered by participants, not by practitioners or healthcare providers. The comparative studies either between groups or within group comparison were included. Our search utilized core databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL). We also searched Chinese (CNKI), Japanese (J-STAGE), and Korean databases (KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS). The search was used MeSH terminology and key words (foot reflexology, foot massage, and self). Results: Analysis of three non-randomized trials and three before-and-after studies showed that self-administered foot reflexology resulted in significant improvement in subjective outcomes such as perceived stress, fatigue, and depression. However, there was no significant improvement in objective outcomes such as cortisol levels, blood pressure, and pulse rate. We did not find any randomized controlled trial. Conclusions: This study presents the effectiveness of self-administered foot reflexology for healthy persons' psychological and physiological symptoms. While objective outcomes showed limited results, significant improvements were found in subjective outcomes. However, owing to the small number of studies and methodological flaws, there was insufficient evidence supporting the use of self-performed foot reflexology. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in healthy people.
    Complementary Therapies in Medicine 12/2014; 23(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2014.11.005 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple comorbidities related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) make it a difficult disease to treat. The relationship between these comorbidities and COPD has not been fully investigated. We aimed to determine whether COPD was independently associated with various comorbidities. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V conducted between 2010 and 2012. Survey design analysis was employed to determine the association between COPD and 15 comorbidities. A COPD patient was defined as a smoker with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7 and comorbidities were defined based on objective laboratory findings and questionnaires. Results: Of a total of 9488 patient who underwent spirometry, 744 (7.84%) COPD cases and 3313 non-COPD controls were included in the analyses. Although the prevalence rates of the majority of the comorbidities were high among the COPD patients, only hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.33 in Stage 1 COPD group; aOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.36-2.72 in Stage 2-4 COPD group) and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.90-5.99 in Stage 2-4 COPD group) were independently associated with COPD after adjustment for age, smoking status, and confounders. Conclusions: Only hypertension and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis were independently associated with COPD after adjustment for confounders among 15 comorbidities. The results suggest that majority of COPD patients might have similar risk factors with its comorbidities, including age and smoking status.
    Respiratory Medicine 11/2014; 109(1). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2014.10.015 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) is recommended in the management of patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS), but its effectiveness has not been clearly proved. Objective: To evaluate whether ICS has effects on outcomes of ACOS. Methods: In this observational 12-year retrospective cohort study involving 125 patients with ACOS from Seoul National University Hospital, the annual rate of decrease in forced expiration volume in 1 second, the incidence rate of severe exacerbation, and overall mortality in an ICS-treated group were compared with those in a non-ICSetreated group. Results: Of 125 patients with ACOS, 90 and 35 were categorized to the ICS and non-ICS treatment groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the annual rate of decrease in forced expiration volume in 1 second (9.61 mL/year in ICS treatment group vs 15.68 mL/year in non-ICS treatment group, P = .598). Compared with the non-ICS treatment group, the ICS treatment group did not show a decrease in the risk of severe exacerbation (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 0.44-3.46). Time to death also did not differ between the 2 groups. Even when analyses with propensity score matching were performed, the results were similar. Conclusion: In the management of ACOS, the use of ICS was not significantly associated with improvements in the annual rate of decrease in forced expiration volume in 1 second, the incidence of severe exacerbations, and overall mortality compared with the non-ICS treatment group.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 09/2014; 113(6). DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2014.08.021 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: No study has determined whether the risk of mortality predicted by the GAP (gender, age, and physiologic variables) model matches the observed mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in non-Western populations. We evaluated the clinical course of IPF and validated the GAP model in Korean patients with IPF. Methods: We included 268 patients who received a diagnosis of IPF at Seoul National University Hospital between 2005 and 2009. For each patient, demographics and clinical data, such as lung physiologic parameters at IPF diagnosis, were evaluated. We validated the GAP model using discrimination and calibration to predict the risk of death in Korean patients with IPF. Results: The study population comprised 181 men and 87 women (mean age, 65.9 years). The mean baseline % predicted FVC was 77, and % predicted diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was 65.9. A total of 157 deaths (58.6%) occurred during follow-up, and the median time to death was 4.64 years. The observed cumulative mortality at 1, 2, and 3 years was 10.4%, 20.9%, and 31.0%, respectively. The GAP model produced estimates of 1-year mortality risk consistent with the observed data (C statistic: GAP calculator, 0.74; GAP index and staging system, 0.72; P < .29). However, calibration of the GAP model at 3 years was not satisfactory. Conclusions: The GAP model showed similar discrimination power compared with the original cohort but did not predict the 3-year risk of death accurately. Further multinational validation studies are needed.
    Chest 09/2014; 147(2). DOI:10.1378/chest.14-0453 · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The culture-negative conversion rate of sputum after 2 months of treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is used as a reliable surrogate marker for relapse after completion of treatment. We hypothesized that culture conversion of sputum at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to culture conversion are different among pulmonary TB patients who are diagnosed using different methods. Methods Culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who were diagnosed between 1 January, 2011 and 31 December, 2012 were classified into three groups based on the diagnostic method that prompted treatment initiation: positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining of sputum (smear-positive group), negative AFB staining, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from sputum (culture-positive group), and positive AFB staining, positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. tuberculosis, or culture of M. tuberculosis from a bronchoscopic specimen (bronchoscopy group). Rates of negative mycobacterial culture conversion at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to negative culture conversion of sputum were compared among the three groups. Results A total of 203 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB were included in the final analysis. TB patients in the culture-positive group (94.1%) and the bronchoscopy group (97.6%) showed a higher culture conversion rate at 2 months of treatment than those in the smear-positive group (78.7%, P = 0.001). Additionally, the time to culture conversion was longer in the smear-positive group (median, 40 days) than in the culture-positive (median, 19 days; P = 0.009) and bronchoscopy groups (median, 29 days; P = 0.004). Conclusions The higher culture conversion rate at 2 months and the shorter time to culture conversion among pulmonary TB patients with a negative AFB smear suggests the feasibility of shortening treatment duration and isolation in these patients.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103768. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103768 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lifestyle behaviors and health habits on the risk for acquiring pandemic influenza (H1N1) virus infection. Materials and Methods We conducted a case-control study in a secondary care hospital in South Korea between November 2009 and August 2010. We enrolled patients with H1N1 infection, as confirmed by a positive result of the real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay; for each patient, we enrolled 4 age- and gender-matched controls with no history of H1N1 infection or severe acute respiratory illness during the H1N1 pandemic in South Korea (1:4 match). Results During the study period, 33 cases and 132 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled. The case group had a higher percentage of current smokers (p<0.01), fewer subjects reporting regular physical activity (p=0.03), or regular vitamin supplementation (p<0.01), and more subjects reporting a higher annual incidence of the common cold (p=0.048) as compared to the control group. In the multivariable analysis, 2 factors were independently associated with the acquisition of H1N1 infection: current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=5.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60-19.16; p<0.01] and a higher annual incidence of the common cold (adjusted OR=1.24; 95% CI, 1.002-1.53; p=0.048). Conclusion A current smoking status and a history of frequent colds were associated with an increased risk of acquiring H1N1 infection.
    Yonsei medical journal 03/2014; 55(2):422-7. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.2.422 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have a high incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after lung resection, but there is little data about these complications in ILD after other types of surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics and predictors of PPCs after major surgery in patients with ILD. Methods: We included 336 patients with ILD who underwent major surgery between January 2005 and December 2010 at two tertiary hospitals in Korea. All types of surgery that had been performed under general anesthesia were included. Demographic characteristics, preoperative lung function, and operative conditions including anesthesia time and estimated blood loss were compared between patients with and without PPCs. Results: PPCs occurred in 37 patients (11%). Thirteen patients developed pneumonia, the most common PPC, and 11 had acute exacerbation of ILD. In multivariable analysis, BMI <23 (OR = 2.488, 95% CI: 1.084-5.710, p = 0.031), emergency surgery (OR = 23.992, 95% CI: 2.629-218.949, p = 0.005), lung surgery (OR = 5.090, 95% CI: 1.391-18.628, p = 0.014), and longer anesthesia time (OR = 1.595, 95% CI: 1.143-2.227, p = 0.006) were statistically significant risk factors. Conclusions: The incidence of PPCs detected over all surgeries was not as high as that reported for lung surgery alone in ILD patients. Lower BMI, emergency surgery, lung surgery, and longer anesthesia time were risk factors. Operative conditions as well as lung function should be considered in preoperative planning and management for ILD patients undergoing major surgery. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Respiration 02/2014; 87(4). DOI:10.1159/000357046 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    Sun Mi Choi · Pandian Sokkar · Young Min Rhee
    Biophysical Journal 01/2014; 106(2):413a. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2013.11.2322 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced for timely and accurate detection of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and turnaround time (TAT) of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in clinical practice in South Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients in whom Xpert MTB/RIF assay using sputum were requested. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and detection of rifampicin resistance were calculated. In addition, TAT of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was compared with those of other tests. Total 681 patients in whom Xpert MTB/RIF assay was requested were included in the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of PTB were 79.5% (124/156), 100.0% (505/505), 100.0% (124/124) and 94.0% (505/537), respectively. Those for the detection of rifampicin resistance were 57.1% (8/14), 100.0% (113/113), 100.0% (8/8) and 94.9% (113/119), respectively. The median TAT of Xpert MTB/RIF assay to the report of results and results confirmed by physicians in outpatient settings were 0 (0-1) and 6 (3-7) days, respectively. Median time to treatment after initial evaluation was 7 (4-9) days in patients with Xpert MTB/RIF assay, but was 21 (7-33.5) days in patients without Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Xpert MTB/RIF assay showed acceptable sensitivity and excellent specificity for the diagnosis of PTB and detection of rifampicin resistance in areas with intermediate TB burden. Additionally, the assay decreased time to the initiation of anti-TB drugs through shorter TAT.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77456. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077456 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide. Staphylococcal aureus can be a cause of severe pneumonia alone or a common pathogen in secondary pneumonia following influenza. Recently, we reported that preceding influenza attenuated the Type 17 pathway, increasing the lung's susceptibility to secondary infection. IL-1β is known to regulate host defense, including playing a role in Th17 polarization. We examined whether IL-1β signaling is required for S. aureus host defense and whether influenza infection impacted S. aureus-induced IL-1β production and subsequent Type 17 pathway activation. Mice were challenged with S. aureus (USA 300), with or without preceding Influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 infection. IL-1R1(-/-) mice had significantly higher S. aureus burden, increased mortality, and decreased Type 17 pathway activation following S. aureus challenge. Coinfected mice had significantly decreased IL-1β production versus S. aureus infection alone at early time points following bacterial challenge. Preceding influenza did not attenuate S. aureus-induced inflammasome activation, but there was early suppression of NF-κB activation, suggesting an inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcription of pro-IL-1β. Furthermore, overexpression of IL-1β in influenza and S. aureus-coinfected mice rescued the induction of IL-17 and IL-22 by S. aureus and improved bacterial clearance. Finally, exogenous IL-1β did not significantly rescue S. aureus host defense during coinfection in IL-17RA(-/-) mice or in mice in which IL-17 and IL-22 activity were blocked. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which Influenza A inhibits S. aureus-induced IL-1β production, resulting in attenuation of Type 17 immunity and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2013; 191(10). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301237 · 4.92 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2013; 188(4):e5-6. DOI:10.1164/rccm.201208-1417IM · 13.00 Impact Factor
  • Pandian Sokkar · Sun Mi Choi · Young Min Rhee
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    ABSTRACT: Combining fine-grained (FG) all-atom and coarse-grained (CG) systems in a single simulation in a hybrid manner is of immense interest in recent times, owing to the possibility of overcoming the limitations of both FG simulations as well as CG simulations. The existing methods for combining these two resolutions tend to require heavy parametrizations or sometimes lack in transferability to other systems of interest, and further developments toward such directions are highly required. We report here a simple protocol to combine CG and FG systems in a single simulation, using the standard FG and CG force field models by adopting a series of small proteins as test cases. Our method makes use of virtual sites as reported earlier for relatively simple butane and dialaine systems (Rzepiela et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 10437–10448), to bridge the interaction between FG protein atoms and CG water. We find that the conventional CG model (MARTINI potentials) couples too strongly with the FG model and that it leads to complete unfolding of a test protein within very short time. We find that reducing the Lennard-Jones potential between CG atoms and virtual site atoms stabilizes the secondary and tertiary structures, sometimes almost to a comparable level with the fully atomistic simulations. However, detailed inspection reveals that this reduction is not enough for satisfactory consistency of the hybrid scheme against the FG simulation. As a remedy, we observe that the addition of as small as 4 Å thick position-restrained FG water layer in the hybrid simulation can further improve the structural behaviors in many respects, with its results closely mimicking those of the FG-only simulations. However, free energy landscapes reveal that this agreement with a restrained solvent layer is still accompanied by the overstabilization of the protein native structure, which will likely pose limitations for studying protein dynamics with the scheme. We show various test results that we have tried in optimizing the FG-CG mixing scheme over the course and discuss future prospects as concluding remarks of the present work.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 07/2013; 9(8):3728–3739. DOI:10.1021/ct400091a · 5.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

621 Citations
185.96 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2015
    • Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
      부천시, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Genetics
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 2013
    • Daejeon University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Chosun University
      • Department of Nursing
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemistry
      Geijitsu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2003
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Biology
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea