[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the potential of bambangan (Mangifera pajang) fruit extracts in the protection against oxidative damage caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in the human hepatocellular HepG2 cell line. Proteins which might be involved in the cytoprotective mechanism were investigated using western blotting technique. Quercetin was used as a positive control. The results showed that only the kernel extract of M. pajang and quercetin displayed cytoprotective activity in HepG2 cells, with EC(50) values of 1.2 and 5.3μg/ml, respectively. Expression of quinone reductase, glutathione reductase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A proteins were significantly up-regulated by quercetin, suggesting their involvement in the cytoprotective activity of quercetin. However, expressions of only glutathione reductase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A proteins were significantly up-regulated by the kernel extract, again suggesting their involvement in the cytoprotective activity of bambangan kernel extract. Future study is needed to investigate the involvement of other cytoprotective proteins in the cytoprotection mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to concomitantly convey the importance of bias in experimentation by adopting a double-blind placebo-controlled approach. We have used this class effectively in various forms with ∼600 students receiving atropine over the last 16 yr. This class has received favorable feedback from staff and students of medicine, pharmacy, and neuroscience, and we recommend it for such undergraduates. The learning objectives that students are expected to achieve are to be able to 1) know the ethical, safety, and hygiene requirements for using human volunteers as subjects; 2) implement and explain a double-blind placebo-controlled trial; 3) design, agree, and execute a protocol for making (and accurately recording) precise reproducible measurements of pulse rate, pupil diameter, and salivary flow; 4) evaluate the importance of predose periods and measurement consistency to detect effects (including any reversibility) after an intervention; 5) experience direct cause-and-effect relationships integrating physiology with pharmacology in people; 6) calculate appropriate summary statistics to describe the data and determine the data's statistical significance; 7) recognize normal variability both within and between subjects in baseline physiological parameters and also recognize normal variability in response to pharmacological treatment; 8) infer the distribution and role of muscarinic receptors in the autonomic nervous system with respect to the heart, eye, and mouth; 9) identify and explain the clinical significance of differences in effect due to the route and formulation of atropine; 10) produce and deliver a concise oral presentation of experimental findings; and 11) produce a written report in the form of a short scientific research article. The results of a typical study are presented, which demonstrate that the administration of atropine by a subcutaneous injection elicited a significant increase in pulse rate and pupil diameter and a significant decrease in salivary flow, whereas administration of atropine in an oral liquid elicited significant effects on pulse rate and salivary flow, and an oral solid format elicited a significant alteration in salivary flow alone. More detailed analysis of the salivary flow data demonstrated clear differences between the routes of administration and formulation in the onset and magnitude of action of atropine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An extract of Mangifera pajang kernel has been previously found to contain a high content of antioxidant phytochemicals. The present research was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of this kernel extract. The results showed that the kernel crude extract induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 (hormone-dependent breast cancer) cells and MDA-MB-231 (non-hormone dependent breast cancer) cells with IC50 values of 23 and 30.5 microg/ml, respectively. The kernel extract induced cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase of the cell cycle in a time-dependent manner. For MDA-MB-231 cells, the kernel extract induced strong G2-M arrest in cell cycle progression at 24h, resulting in substantial sub-G1 (apoptosis) arrest after 48 and 72 h of incubation. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide revealed that this apoptosis occurred early in both cell types, 36 h for MCF-7 cells and 24 h for MDA-MB-231 cells, with 14.0% and 16.5% of the cells respectively undergoing apoptosis at these times. This apoptosis appeared to be dependent on caspase-2 and -3 in MCF-7 cells, and on caspase-2, -3 and -9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that M. pajang kernel extract has potential as a potent cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cell lines.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 04/2010; 48(6):1688-97. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The default assumption that different pyrethroid insecticides, sharing a common mode of action, will show additivity of toxicity has not always been supported by in vitro measures, some of which have indicated antagonism. Our intention was to see whether the antagonism between pyrethroids of different classes seen in vitro could be reproduced in vivo. We therefore investigated the effects of single and combined exposures to two commonly used pyrethroids, deltamethrin (type II) and S-bioallethrin (type I) given intravenously to anaesthetised rats. We used two quantitative measures that are responsive to pyrethroids: the duration of prolongation of hippocampal dentate granule cell inhibition and the amplitude of the abnormal electromyogram discharge. At equi-toxic doses, S-bioallethrin extended the inter-stimulus interval evoking 50% inhibition in the hippocampus by 30+/-2.2 ms, and deltamethrin extended it by 199+/-21 ms. Combined administration of the same doses of deltamethrin and S-bioallethrin extended hippocampal inhibition by 164+/-14 ms, which did not differ significantly from the effect of deltamethrin alone. S-bioallethrin was without any effect on the electromyogram, and produced no significant change in the amplitude of the abnormal muscle discharges evoked by deltamethrin. The increase in arterial blood pressure evoked by the combination was significantly less than that evoked by either pyrethroid alone (p<0.001). In summary, although our electrophysiological indices provide no support for functional antagonism between these two pyrethroids, they also fail to indicate any summation of effect.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2006; 216(2):354-62. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have proposed that since the type II pyrethroids deltamethrin and cypermethrin, but not the type I pyrethroid cismethrin act on chloride channels, this could contribute to the bimodal nature of pyrethroid poisoning syndromes. We now examine a wider range of pyrethroid structures on the activity of these calcium-independent voltage-gated maxi-chloride channels. Excised inside-out membrane patches from differentiated mouse neuroblastoma cells were used, and mean channel open probabilities calculated. For single dosing at 10 microM, bioallethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenpropathrin were all found to significantly decrease open channel probability (p < 0.05). Bifenthrin, bioresmethrin, cispermethrin, cisresmethrin, cyfluthrin isomers 2 and 4, lambda-cyhalothrin, esfenvalerate, and tefluthrin, did not significantly alter open channel probability (p > 0.05). Since the type II pyrethroids, esfenvalerate, and lambda-cyhalothrin were ineffective, we must conclude that actions at the chloride ion channel target cannot in themselves account for the differences between the two types of poisoning syndrome. Sequential dosing with type II pyrethroids caused no further chloride ion channel closure. The type I pyrethroid cisresmethrin did however prevent a subsequent effect by the mixed type pyrethroid fenpropathrin. In contrast, the type I pyrethroid cispermethrin did not prevent a subsequent effect due to the type II pyrethroid deltamethrin. The difference in effect may be the result of differences in potency, as deltamethrin had a greater effect than fenpropathrin. It therefore appears clear that in some combinations the type I and type II pyrethroids can compete and may bind to the same chloride channel target site.