Susana Gomes

North Lisbon Hospital Center, Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

Are you Susana Gomes?

Claim your profile

Publications (12)8.68 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The prevalence of malnutrition in ambulatory patients with heart failure is difficult to determine, depending on the timing and methodology. Objective: To determine the nutritional status of outpatients with systolic heart failure with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) full and short-form versions, and evaluate its relationship with the short-term prognosis, biomarkers and quality of life. Methods: Fifty consecutive (70% male), geriatric (74.3+ 6.2years old) stable outpatient with heart failure (NYHA class II 68%, III 32%) and left ventricular ejection fraction of 26.7 +11.5% were included and followed during 12 months. At a routine visit to the heart failure clinic, the MNA, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire (MLHFQ) were applied. According to the MNA screening score the nutritional status was classified using the MNA full (MNA-F) and the short-form (MNA-F) versions of the questionnaire. The recorded events were death and hospitalization. Statistics: The survival and hospitalizations curves were evaluated with the Log-Rank test and Cox Regression analysis. The association between parameters was analyzed with the Pearson and Spearmann correlation coefficient. Results: (1) The mortality and hospitalization rates were 12% and 42%, respectively. (2) With the MNA-SF 7.6% of the patients had malnutrition and 20% were at risk of malnutrition. There was a good agreement (90%) between the MNA-SF and the MNA-F classifications. (3) There was a significant relationship between the MNA screening score and the MLHFQ (rs= -0.592 p<0.001), Nt-ProBNP (rs= -0.49 p<0.001) and total plasma protein (r= 0.672 p=0.006); (3) The MNA-SF nutritional classification was associated with the 12 months survival (Log-Rank p=0.044) and hospitalization (Log-Rank p=0.005) curves. (4) Those patients with malnutrition by the MNA-SF were at greater risk of death (HR= 8.0 p=0.059) and hospitalization (HR 8.1 p=0.008). Conclusion: The MNA is useful for the evaluation of the nutritional status of elderly outpatients with systolic heart failure. It is a good predictor of the short-term outcome and is also associated with the quality of life and Nt-ProBNP.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2013; 17(4):300-4. · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Various studies have compared coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with controls in order to determine which polymorphisms are associated with a higher risk of disease. The results have often been contradictory. Moreover, these studies evaluated polymorphisms in isolation and not in association, which is the way they occur in nature. Our purpose was to evaluate the risk of CAD in patients with associated polymorphisms in the same gene or in differen genes. We evaluated the risk associated with ACE DD, ACE 8 CC, ACT 174MM, AGT 235TT, MTHFR 677TT, MTHFR 1298AA, PON1 192RR and PON1 55MM in 298 CAD patients and 298 healthy individuals. We then evaluated the risk of associated polymorphisms in the same gene (ACE DD + ACE 8GG; AGT 174MM + AGT 235TT; MTHFR 677TT + MTHFR 1298AA). Finally, for the isolated polymorphisms which were significant, we evaluated the risk of polymorphism associations at different functional levels (ACE + AGT; ACE + MTHFR; ACE + PON1). Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for CAD. Isolated polymorphisms including ACE DD(p < 0.0001), ACE 8 gg (p=0.023), and MTHFR 1298AA (p = 0.049) presented with a significantly higher frequency in the CAD group. An association of polymorphisms in the same gene did not have an additive or synergistic effect, nor did it increase the risk of CAD. Polymorphic associations in different genes increased the risk of CAD, compared with the isolated polymorphisms. The association of ACE DD or ACE 8 GG with PON1 192RR increased the risk of CA fourfold (1.8 to 4.2). After logistic regression analysis, current smoking, family history, fibrinogen, diabetes, and the ACE DD or ACE 8 GG + MTHFR 1298AA and ACE DD or ACE 8 GG + PON1 192RR associations remained in the, model and proved to be independent predictors of CAD. The association of polymorphisms in the same gene did not increase the risk of the isolated polymorphism. The association of polymorphisms in genes belonging to different enzyme systems was always linked to increased risk compared to the isolated polymorphisms. This study may contribute to a better understanding of overall genetic risk for CAD rather than that associated with each polymorphism in isolation.
    Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 04/2009; 28(4):397-415. · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arterial compliance or stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease and there is considerable interest in its noninvasive measurement. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is widely used as an index of arterial stiffness. To determine whether PWV is useful for risk stratification in both healthy individuals and coronary patients. Control subjects, n=510, aged 46.1 +/- 11 years, with no history of coronary disease, were selected from electoral rolls, and coronary patients, n=301, aged 53.7 +/- 10 years, were selected from hospital patients with a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) confirmed by coronary angiogram (at least 75% obstruction of one of the main coronary vessels). The asymptomatic subjects without CAD formed Group A, and were subdivided into A1 (without hypertension, dyslipidemia and/or diabetes) and A2 (with hypertension, dyslipidemia and/or diabetes). The coronary patients formed Group B, who were also subdivided into B1, without these classic risk factors, and B2 with hypertension, dyslipidemia and/or diabetes. We used the Student's t test to compare continuous variables and the chi-square test to compare categorical data. The strength of correlation between continuous variables was tested by Pearson's linear correlation. Independent variables predictive of CAD were determined by backward logistic regression analysis. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version 11.0 and data were expressed as means +/- SD; a p value of 0.05 was considered significant. Comparing the two groups A1 and A2, mean PWV was significantly lower in group A1. Comparing B1 and B2, mean PWV was also significantly lower in group B1. In group A1, PWV was significantly and positively correlated with age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, alcohol consumption, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, apo B, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, unlike HDL which was inversely correlated (Pearson's coefficient). In group A2, PWV was significantly and positively correlated with age, alcohol consumption, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, systolic, diastolic and mean BP, blood glucose and pulse pressure (PP), but not HDL, which was inversely correlated with PWV. In group B1, PWV was only significantly and positively correlated with age, systolic, mean, and diastolic BP and PP, and presented a significant inverse correlation with ejection fraction. However, in the high-risk coronary population (group B2), there was a positive correlation with age, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and mean BP, PP and homocysteine. After stepwise logistic regression, PWV remained in the model and proved to be a significant and independent risk factor for CAD. The results of our study show that PWV is higher in high-risk groups and significantly correlated with many classic and new CAD risk markers, suggesting that there is a cumulative influence of risk factors in the development of arterial stiffness. We believe that PWV is a useful index of vascular status and hence cardiovascular risk and that it may be useful for risk stratification in both asymptomatic and coronary patients.
    Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 03/2009; 28(2):155-71. · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Complex diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension and diabetes are usually caused by individual susceptibility to multiple genes, environmental factors, and the interaction between them. The paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and CAD. Two common polymorphisms in the coding region of the PON1 gene, which lead to a glutamine (Q)/arginine (R) substitution at position 192 and a leucine (L)/methionine (M) substitution at position 55, influence PON1 activity. Studies have investigated the association between these polymorphisms and CAD, but with conflicting results. 1) To evaluate the association between PON1 polymorphisms and CAD risk; and 2) to study the interaction between PON1 polymorphisms and others in different candidate genes. We evaluated the risk of CAD associated with PON1 Q192R and L55M polymorphisms in 298 CAD patients and 298 healthy individuals. We then evaluated the risk associated with the interaction of the PON1 polymorphisms with ACE DD, ACE 8 GG and MTHFR 1298AA. Finally, using a logistic regression model, we evaluated which variables (genetic, biochemical and environmental) were linked significantly and independently with CAD. We found that the PON1 55MM genotype was more common in the CAD population, but this did not reach statistical significance as a risk factor for CAD, while PON1 192RR presented an 80% higher relative risk compared to the population without this polymorphism. The interaction between PON1 192RR and MTHFR 1298AA, sited in different genes, increased the risk for CAD, compared with the polymorphisms in isolation (OR=2.76; 95% CI=1.20-6.47; p=0.009), as did the association of PON1 192RR with ACE DD, which presented a 337% higher risk compared to the population without this polymorphic association (OR=4.37; 95% CI=1.47-13.87; p=0.002). Similarly, the association between PON1 192RR and ACE 8 GG was linked to an even higher risk (OR=6.23; 95% CI=1.67-27.37; p<0.001). After logistic regression, smoking, family history, fibrinogen, diabetes, Lp(a) and the association of PON1 192RR + ACE 8 GG remained in the regression model and proved to be significant and independent risk factors for CAD. In the regression model the latter association had OR=14.113; p=0.018. When analyzed separately, the PON1 192RR genotype presented a relative risk for CAD 80% higher than in the population without this genotype. Its association with other genetic polymorphisms sited in different genes, coding for different enzymes and belonging to different physiological systems, always increased the risk for CAD. After correction for other conventional and biochemical risk factors, the PON1 192RR + ACE 8 GG association remained a significant and independent risk factor for CAD.
    Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 12/2008; 27(12):1539-55. · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Internal Medicine - EUR J INTERN MED. 01/2008; 19.
  • European Journal of Internal Medicine - EUR J INTERN MED. 01/2008; 19.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recent introduction of new diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with troponin measurement, has increased the number of patients admitted with this diagnosis. To evaluate the epidemiologic and prognostic implications of the new diagnostic criteria for AMI. This was a retrospective study of 586 patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to the coronary care unit of our hospital, between 2002 and 2003. Data were collected from RECIMA, the Madeira Ischemic Heart Disease Registry. The population was analyzed following two different definitions of ACS: 1 - old criteria (Group I): AMI with ST elevation (typical symptoms or ECG with ST-segment elevation and raised CK-MB >2x), AMI without ST elevation (typical symptoms or ECG without ST elevation and raised CK-MB >2x) and unstable angina (UA) (symptoms or ECG indicative of ischemia, with normal CK-MB, regardless of troponin status); 2 - new criteria (Group II): AMI with ST elevation (typical symptoms or ECG with segment ST elevation and raised CK-MB >2x or troponin), AMI without ST elevation (typical symptoms or ECG without ST-segment elevation and raised CK-MB >2x or troponin) and UA (symptoms or ECG indicative of ischemia, with normal enzymes). We evaluated whether this change in criteria had any influence on in-hospital mortality. The new criteria significantly (by 11.9 %) increased the total number of patients admitted with AMI. This was due to an increase in AMI without ST elevation (p < 0.001) and a decrease in patients with UA (p < 0.001), with no changes in AMI with ST elevation. In-hospital mortality was lower in patients with AMI diagnosed by the new criteria and in those with UA. The overall increase in AMI resulting from the new diagnostic classification was accompanied by a decrease, although not statistically significant, of in-hospital mortality, probably due to the lower risk of the population analyzed.
    Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 02/2005; 24(2):231-7. · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The progression and extent of coronary heart disease (CHD) are extremely variable and in many instances independent of conventional risk factors. The differences may be partly explained by less favorable genetic polymorphisms that are associated with them. The polymorphisms of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene have been thoroughly evaluated, but the connection between them and the extent of CHD is unknown. Our study is aimed at determining whether any or all of the polymorphisms of the ACE gene are markers of the extent and severity of CHD. This was a descriptive study of 296 patients with a history of myocardial infarction or with coronary disease confirmed by coronary angiography. The severity of CHD was quantified according to Leaman's score (based on the number of arteries with more than 75% reduction in diameter and the number of affected coronary segments). The ACE genotypes were determined by specific polymerase chain reaction amplification and the segments were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The mean coronary score and standard deviation of the three polymorphisms were calculated and the values statistically compared using the Student's t test for independent samples. 296 patients with a mean age of 55.103 years, 234 male, were evaluated. The study clearly shows that the DD genotype is linked to the extent of CHD, with a high level of significance. If this is confirmed, careful secondary prevention is indicated in patients with this genotype.
    Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 01/2005; 23(12):1605-11. · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) is a strong risk marker for the disease, independently of classical risk factors. It could be decoded by recognizing the polymorphisms associated with increased risk. Renin-angiotensin system genes are candidate genes in CHD and the deletion allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been reported as deleterious. However, there is disagreement as to the role of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene in coronary risk. To evaluate whether ACE gene polymorphisms constitute a CHD risk factor. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 301 subjects with a history of myocardial infarction or angiographic evidence of coronary heart disease and 510 age- and gender-matched controls, without CHD, living in a region with high CHD mortality rates. Blood samples were taken, DNA extracted and genotypes determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplification products were identified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The Data were evaluated by SPSS for Windows, using the Student's t test, the chi-square test, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of the DD, ID and II genotype was 41.2%, 46.3%, 12.5% in the cases and 28.1%, 55.2% and 16.7% in the control group. The frequency of the DD genotype was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls (41.2% vs. 28.1%, odds ratio 1.79, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.4, p < 0.0001). By contrast, the ID and II genotypes' prevalence was higher in the control group (55.2% vs. 46.3%, p = 0.002 and 16.7 vs. 12.5%, p = NS, respectively) compared to the case group. This study clearly shows that the ACE DD polymorphism is strongly linked to CHD, and if our data are confirmed in a larger population sample, more aggressive vascular prevention could be justified in patients carrying the DD genotype.
    Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 01/2005; 23(12):1593-601. · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Internal Medicine - EUR J INTERN MED. 01/2003; 14.
  • A Cardoso, S Gomes
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 11/1972; 86(10):1073-4. · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Internal Medicine 19:S6. · 2.05 Impact Factor