[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the NF-κB pathway requires the formation of Met1-linked 'linear' ubiquitin chains on NEMO, which is catalysed by the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) E3 consisting of HOIP, HOIL-1L and Sharpin. Here, we show that both LUBAC catalytic activity and LUBAC specificity for linear ubiquitin chain formation are embedded within the RING-IBR-RING (RBR) ubiquitin ligase subunit HOIP. Linear ubiquitin chain formation by HOIP proceeds via a two-step mechanism involving both RING and HECT E3-type activities. RING1-IBR catalyses the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 onto RING2, to transiently form a HECT-like covalent thioester intermediate. Next, the ubiquitin is transferred from HOIP onto the N-terminus of a target ubiquitin. This transfer is facilitated by a unique region in the C-terminus of HOIP that we termed 'Linear ubiquitin chain Determining Domain' (LDD), which may coordinate the acceptor ubiquitin. Consistent with this mechanism, the RING2-LDD region was found to be important for NF-κB activation in cellular assays. These data show how HOIP combines a general RBR ubiquitin ligase mechanism with unique, LDD-dependent specificity for producing linear ubiquitin chains.
The EMBO Journal 08/2012; 31(19):3833-44. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in women. Recent advances in gene expression profiling have indicated that breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the current prognostication using clinico-pathological features is not sufficient to fully predict therapy response and disease outcome. In this retrospective study, we show that expression levels of BRE, which encodes a member of the BRCA1 DNA damage repair complex, predicted disease-free survival (DFS) in non-familial breast cancer patients. The predictive value of BRE expression depended on whether patients received radiotherapy as a part of their primary treatment. In radiotherapy-treated patients, high BRE expression predicted a favorable DFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.47, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.78, p = 0.004), while in non-treated patients, high BRE expression predicted an adverse prognosis (HR = 2.59, 95 % CI = 1.00-6.75, p = 0.05). Among radiotherapy-treated patients, the prognostic impact of BRE expression was confined to patients with smaller tumors (HR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.068-0.75, p = 0.015) and it remained an independent factor after correction for the other prognostic factors age, tumor size, lymph node involvement, and histological grade (HR = 0.50, CI = 0.27-0.90, p = 0.021). In addition, high BRE expression predicted a favorable relapse-free survival in a publicly available dataset of 2,324 breast cancer patients (HR = 0.59, CI = 0.51-0.68, p < 0.001). These data indicate that BRE is an interesting candidate for future functional studies aimed at developing targeted therapies.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2012; 135(1):125-33. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin system plays an important role in trafficking of signaling receptors from the plasma membrane to lysosomes. Triad1 is a ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes the formation of poly-ubiquitin chains linked via lysine-48 as well as lysine-63 residues. We show that depletion of Triad1 affects the sorting of both growth hormone and epidermal growth factor. Triad1-depleted cells accumulate both ligands in endosomes. While fluid phase transport to the lysosomes is reduced in the absence of Triad1, growth hormone receptor can recycle back to the plasma membrane together with transferrin. Using immune electron microscopy we show that Triad1 depletion results in enlarged endosomes with enlarged and irregular shaped intraluminal vesicles. The endosomes display prominent clathrin coats and show increased levels of growth hormone label. We conclude that Triad1 is required for the proper function of multivesicular bodies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrations in protein ubiquitination have recently been identified in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We studied whether expression changes of more than 1600 ubiquitination related genes correlated with clinical outcome in 525 adult AML patients. High expression of one of these genes, BRE, was observed in 3% of the cases and predicted favorable prognosis independently of known prognostic factors (5-year overall survival: 57%). Remarkably, unsupervised expression profiling showed that 86% of high BRE-expressing patients were confined to a previously unrecognized cluster. High BRE expression was mutually exclusive with FLT3 ITD, CEBPA, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations, EVI1 overexpression, and favorable karyotypes. In contrast, high BRE expression co-occurred strongly with FAB M5 morphology and MLL-AF9 fusions. Within the group of MLL-AF9-positive patients, high BRE expression predicted superior survival, while normal BRE expression predicted extremely poor survival (5-year overall survival of 80% vs 0%, respectively, P = .0002). Both the co-occurrence of high BRE expression with MLL-AF9 and its prognostic impact were confirmed in an independent cohort of 436 AML patients. Thus, high BRE expression defines a novel subtype of adult AML characterized by a favorable prognosis. This work contributes to improved risk stratification in AML, especially among MLL-AF9-positive patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitination plays a major role in many aspects of hematopoiesis. Alterations in ubiquitination have been implicated in hematological cancer. The ubiquitin ligase Triad1 controls the proliferation of myeloid cells. Here, we show that two RING (really interesting new gene) domains in Triad1 differentially bind ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, UbcH7 and Ubc13. UbcH7 and Ubc13 are known to catalyze the formation of different poly-ubiquitin chains. These chains mark proteins for proteasomal degradation or serve crucial non-proteolytic functions, respectively. In line with the dual Ubc interactions, we observed that Triad1 catalyzes the formation of both types of ubiquitin chains. The biological relevance of this finding was studied by testing Triad1 mutants in myeloid clonogenic assays. Full-length Triad1 and three mutants lacking conserved domains inhibited myeloid colony formation by over 50%. Strikingly, deletion of either RING finger completely abrogated the inhibitory effect of Triad1 in clonogenic growth. We conclude that Triad1 exhibits dual ubiquitin ligase activity and that both of its RING domains are crucial to inhibit myeloid cell proliferation. The differential interaction of the RINGs with Ubcs strongly suggests that the ubiquitination mediated through UbcH7 as well as Ubc13 plays a major role in myelopoiesis.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 05/2009; 23(8):1480-9. · 8.30 Impact Factor