S. Madden

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (318)679.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the detection and analysis of molecular hydrogen emission toward ten interstellar regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We examined low-resolution infrared spectral maps of twelve regions obtained with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS). The low-J rotational transitional lines of H2 at 28.2 and 17.1mu are detected in the IRS spectra for ten regions. The higher level transitions are mostly upper limit measurements except for three regions, where a 3sigma detection threshold is achieved for lines at 12.2 and 8.6mu. The excitation diagrams of the detected H2 transitions are used to determine the warm H2 gas column density and temperature. The single-temperature fits through the lower transition lines give temperatures in the range 80-130K. The bulk of the excited H2 gas is found at these temperatures and contributes a significant fraction of ~7-16% to the total gas mass. A tight correlation of the H2 surface brightness with PAH and total infrared emission has been found, which is a clear indication of photo-electric heating in photodissociation regions. We find the excitation of H2 by this process is equally efficient in both atomic and molecular dominated regions. We also present the correlation of the warm H2 physical conditions with the dust parameters. The warm H2 mass fraction and excitation temperature show positive correlations with the average starlight intensity, strongly supporting the excitation process in photodissociation regions.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral arms and sub-features. We examine the morphology of this long-wavelength dust emission as seen by Planck, including a study of its outermost spiral arms, and investigate the dust heating mechanism across M31. We find that dust dominating the longer wavelength emission ($\gtrsim 0.3$ mm) is heated by the diffuse stellar population (as traced by 3.6 $\mu$m emission), with the dust dominating the shorter wavelength emission heated by a mix of the old stellar population and star-forming regions (as traced by 24 $\mu$m emission). We also fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for individual 5' pixels and quantify the dust properties across the galaxy, taking into account these different heating mechanisms, finding that there is a linear decrease in temperature with galactocentric distance for dust heated by the old stellar population, as would be expected, with temperatures ranging from around 22 K in the nucleus to 14 K outside of the 10 kpc ring. Finally, we measure the integrated spectrum of the whole galaxy, which we find to be well-fitted with a global dust temperature of ($18.9\pm0.9$) K with a spectral index of $1.61\pm0.11$ (assuming a single modified blackbody), and a significant amount of free-free emission at intermediate frequencies, which when converted into a star formation rate agrees well with the star formation estimate from H$\alpha$ emission of 0.4$M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We see no evidence for spinning dust emission, with a 3$\sigma$ upper limit of 1.26 Jy in the 20-60 GHz band.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 micron. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power- law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models we investigate the origin of the submm excess; defined as the submillimeter (submm) emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations < 200 micron. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 micron submm excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our the fitting results shows that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submm excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 +/- 1.7) x 10^5 and (8.3 +/- 2.1) times 10^4 M(sun) for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submm excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We search for variations in the disk of Centaurus A of the emission from atomic fine structure lines using Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy. In particular we observe the [C II](158 $\mu$m), [N II](122 and 205 $\mu$m), [O I](63 and 145 $\mu$m) and [O III](88 $\mu$m) lines, which all play an important role in cooling the gas in photo-ionized and photodissociation regions. We determine that the ([C II]+[O I]$_{63}$)/$F_{TIR}$ line ratio, a proxy for the heating efficiency of the gas, shows no significant radial trend across the observed region, in contrast to observations of other nearby galaxies. We determine that 10 - 20% of the observed [C II] emission originates in ionized gas. Comparison between our observations and a PDR model shows that the strength of the far-ultraviolet radiation field, $G_0$, varies between $10^{1.75}$ and $10^{2.75}$ and the hydrogen nucleus density varies between $10^{2.75}$ and $10^{3.75}$ cm$^{-3}$, with no significant radial trend in either property. In the context of the emission line properties of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 and the elliptical galaxy NGC 4125, the gas in Cen A appears more characteristic of that in typical disk galaxies rather than elliptical galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 787(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Magellanic Bridge is the nearest low-metallicity, tidally stripped environment, offering a unique high-resolution view of physical conditions in merging and forming galaxies. In this paper we present analysis of candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs), i.e., {\it in situ, current} massive star formation (MSF) in the Bridge using {\it Spitzer} mid-IR and complementary optical and near-IR photometry. While we definitely find YSOs in the Bridge, the most massive are $\sim10 M_\odot$, $\ll45 M_\odot$ found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The intensity of MSF in the Bridge also appears decreasing, as the most massive YSOs are less massive than those formed in the past. To investigate environmental effects on MSF, we have compared properties of massive YSOs in the Bridge to those in the LMC. First, YSOs in the Bridge are apparently less embedded than in the LMC: 81% of Bridge YSOs show optical counterparts, compared to only 56% of LMC sources with the same range of mass, circumstellar dust mass, and line-of-sight extinction. Circumstellar envelopes are evidently more porous or clumpy in the Bridge's low-metallicity environment. Second, we have used whole samples of YSOs in the LMC and the Bridge to estimate the probability of finding YSOs at a given \hi\ column density, N(HI). We found that the LMC has $\sim3\times$ higher probability than the Bridge for N(HI) $>10\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$, but the trend reverses at lower N(HI). Investigating whether this lower efficiency relative to HI is due to less efficient molecular cloud formation, or less efficient cloud collapse, or both, will require sensitive molecular gas observations.
    03/2014; 785(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the connection between dust and gas in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891. High resolution Herschel PACS and SPIRE 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 $\mu$m images are combined with JCMT SCUBA 850 $\mu$m observations to trace the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution (SED). Maps of the HI 21 cm line and CO(J=3-2) emission trace the atomic and molecular hydrogen gas, respectively. We fit one-component modified blackbody models to the integrated SED, finding a global dust mass of 8.5$\times$10$^{7}$ M$_{\odot}$ and an average temperature of 23$\pm$2 K. We also fit the pixel-by-pixel SEDs to produce maps of the dust mass and temperature. The dust mass distribution correlates with the total stellar population as traced by the 3.6 $\mu$m emission. The derived dust temperature, which ranges from approximately 17 to 24 K, is found to correlate with the 24 $\mu$m emission. Allowing the dust emissivity index to vary, we find an average value of $\beta$ = 1.9$\pm$0.3. We confirm an inverse relation between the dust emissivity spectral index and dust temperature, but do not observe any variation of this relationship with vertical height from the mid-plane of the disk. A comparison of the dust properties with the gaseous components of the ISM reveals strong spatial correlations between the surface mass densities of dust and the molecular hydrogen and total gas surface densities. Observed asymmetries in the dust temperature, and the H$_{2}$-to-dust and total gas-to-dust ratios hint that an enhancement in the star formation rate may be the result of larger quantities of molecular gas available to fuel star formation in the NE compared to the SW. Whilst the asymmetry likely arises from dust obscuration due to the geometry of the line-of-sight projection of the spiral arms, we cannot exclude an enhancement in the star formation rate in the NE side of the disk.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band-, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 micron wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique dataset to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/sub-millimeter spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8<log(M*/Msun)<12), the far-infrared/sub-millimeter colours are inconsistent with a single modified black-body having the same dust emissivity index beta for all galaxies. In particular, either beta decreases, or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified black-body depend on the assumptions made on beta. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of beta only change the strength of the observed trends.
    02/2014; 440(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the applicability of far-infrared fine-structure lines [CII] 158 micron, [OI] 63 micron and [OIII] 88 micron to reliably trace the star formation rate (SFR) in a sample of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey and compare with a broad sample of galaxies of various types and metallicities in the literature. We study the trends and scatter in the relation between the SFR (as traced by GALEX FUV and MIPS 24 micron) and far-infrared line emission, on spatially resolved and global galaxy scales, in dwarf galaxies. We assemble far-infrared line measurements from the literature and infer whether the far-infrared lines can probe the SFR (as traced by the total-infrared luminosity) in a variety of galaxy populations. In metal-poor dwarfs, the [OI] and [OIII] lines show the strongest correlation with the SFR with an accuracy on the SFR estimates better than a factor of 2, while the link between [CII] emission and the SFR is more dispersed (factor of 2.5 accuracy). The scatter in the SFR-L([CII]) relation increases towards low metal abundances, warm dust temperature, large filling factors of diffuse, highly ionized gas (high values of [OIII]/[CII]+[OI]) and high [O{\sc{i}}]$_{63}$/[CII]+[OI] line ratios. For the literature sample, we evaluate the correlations for a number of different galaxy populations. The [CII] and [OI] lines are considered to be reliable SFR tracers in starburst galaxies, recovering the star formation activity within a precision factor of 2. [Abridged]
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We gather infrared (IR) photometric data from 8 to 500 microns (Spitzer, WISE, IRAS and Herschel) for all of the HRS galaxies. Draine & Li (2007) models are fit to the data from which the stellar contribution has been carefully removed. We find that our photometric coverage is sufficient to constrain all of the models parameters and that a strong constraint on the 20-60 microns range is mandatory to estimate the relative contribution of the photo-dissociation regions to the IR SED. The SED models tend to systematically under-estimate the observed 500 microns flux densities, especially for low mass systems. We provide the output parameters for all of the galaxies: the minimum intensity of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF), the fraction of PAH, the relative contribution of PDR and evolved stellar population to the dust heating, the $M_{dust}$ and the $L_{IR}$. For a subsample of gas-rich galaxies, we analyze the relations between these parameters and the integrated properties of galaxies, such as $M_*$, SFR, metallicity, H$\alpha$ and H-band surface brightness, and the FUV attenuation. A good correlation between the fraction of PAH and the metallicity is found implying a weakening of the PAH emission in galaxies with low metallicities. The intensity of the IRSF and the H-band and H$\alpha$ surface brightnesses are correlated, suggesting that the diffuse dust component is heated by both the young stars in star forming regions and the diffuse evolved population. We use these results to provide a new set of IR templates calibrated with Herschel observations on nearby galaxies and a mean SED template to provide the z=0 reference for cosmological studies. For the same purpose, we put our sample on the SFR-$M_*$ diagram. The templates are compared to the most popular IR SED libraries, enlightening a large discrepancy between all of them in the 20-100 microns range.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observations of the Antennae (NGC 4038/39), a well-studied, nearby (22 Mpc), ongoing merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies. The SPIRE-FTS is a low spatial ( FWHM ~ 19''-43'') and spectral (~1.2 GHz) resolution mapping spectrometer covering a large spectral range (194-671 μm, 450-1545 GHz). We detect five CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 8-7), both [C I] transitions, and the [N II] 205 μm transition across the entire system, which we supplement with ground-based observations of the CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions and Herschel Photodetecting Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations of [C II] and [O I] 63 μm. Using the CO and [C I] transitions, we perform both a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of [C I] and a non-LTE radiative transfer analysis of CO and [C I] using the radiative transfer code RADEX along with a Bayesian likelihood analysis. We find that there are two components to the molecular gas: a cold (T kin ~ 10-30 K) and a warm (T kin >~ 100 K) component. By comparing the warm gas mass to previously observed values, we determine a CO abundance in the warm gas of x CO ~ 5 × 10─5. If the CO abundance is the same in the warm and cold gas phases, this abundance corresponds to a CO J = 1-0 luminosity-to-mass conversion factor of αCO ~ 7 M ☉ pc─2 (K km s─1)─1 in the cold component, similar to the value for normal spiral galaxies. We estimate the cooling from H2, [C II], CO, and [O I] 63 μm to be ~0.01 L ☉/M ☉. We compare photon-dominated region models to the ratio of the flux of various CO transitions, along with the ratio of the CO flux to the far-infrared flux in NGC 4038, NGC 4039, and the overlap region. We find that the densities recovered from our non-LTE analysis are consistent with a background far-ultraviolet field of strength G 0 ~ 1000. Finally, we find that a combination of turbulent heating, due to the ongoing merger, and supernova and stellar winds are sufficient to heat the molecular gas.Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
    01/2014; 781(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to quantify the molecular gas reservoir in a subset of 6 low-metallicity galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey with newly acquired CO data, and link this reservoir to the observed star formation activity. We present CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2) observations obtained at the ATNF Mopra 22-m, APEX, and IRAM 30-m telescopes, as well as [CII] 157um and [OI] 63um observations obtained with the Herschel/PACS spectrometer in the 6 galaxies: Haro11, Mrk1089, Mrk930, NGC4861, NGC625, and UM311. We derive molecular gas mass from several methods including the use of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor Xco (both Galactic and metallicity-scaled values) and of dust measurements. The molecular and atomic gas reservoirs are compared to the star formation activity. We also constrain the physical conditions of the molecular clouds using the non-LTE code RADEX and the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. We detect CO in 5 of the 6 galaxies, including first detections in Haro11 (Z~0.4 Zsun), Mrk930 (0.2 Zsun), and UM311 (0.5 Zsun), but CO remains undetected in NGC4861 (0.2 Zsun). The CO luminosities are low while [CII] is bright in these galaxies, resulting in [CII]/CO(1-0)>10000. Our dwarf galaxies are in relatively good agreement with the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation for total gas. They show short molecular depletion time scales, even when considering metallicity-scaled Xco factors. Those galaxies are dominated by their HI gas, except Haro11 which has high star formation efficiency and is dominated by ionized and molecular gas. We determine the mass of each ISM phase in Haro11 using Cloudy and estimate an equivalent Xco factor which is 10 times higher than the Galactic value. Overall, our results confirm the emerging picture that CO suffers from significant selective photodissociation in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the behaviour of the gas-to-dust mass ratio (G/D) of local Universe galaxies over a large metallicity range. We combine three samples: the Dwarf Galaxy Survey, the KINGFISH survey and a subsample from Galametz et al. (2011) totalling 126 galaxies, covering a 2 dex metallicity range, with 30% of the sample with 12+log(O/H) < 8.0. The dust masses are homogeneously determined with a semi-empirical dust model, including submm constraints. The atomic and molecular gas masses are compiled from the literature. Two XCO are used to estimate molecular gas masses: the Galactic XCO, and a XCO depending on the metallicity (as Z^{-2}). Correlations with morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates and specific star formation rates are discussed. The trend between G/D and metallicity is empirically modelled using power-laws (slope of -1 and free) and a broken power-law. We compare the evolution of the G/D with predictions from chemical evolution models. We find that out of the five tested galactic parameters, metallicity is the galactic property driving the observed G/D. The G/D versus metallicity relation cannot be represented by a power-law with a slope of -1 over the whole metallicity range. The observed trend is steeper for metallicities lower than ~ 8.0. A large scatter is observed in the G/D for a given metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.37 dex in metallicity bins of ~0.1 dex. The broken power-law reproduces best the observed G/D and provides estimates of the G/D that are accurate to a factor of 1.6. The good agreement of the G/D and its scatter with the three tested chemical evolution models shows that the scatter is intrinsic to galactic properties, reflecting the different star formation histories, dust destruction efficiencies, dust grain size distributions and chemical compositions across the sample. (abriged)
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of the Antennae (NGC 4038/39), a well studied, nearby ($22$ Mpc) ongoing merger between two gas rich spiral galaxies. We detect 5 CO transitions ($J=4-3$ to $J=8-7$), both [CI] transitions and the [NII]$205\mu m$ transition across the entire system, which we supplement with ground based observations of the CO $J=1-0$, $J=2-1$ and $J=3-2$ transitions, and Herschel PACS observations of [CII] and [OI]$63\mu m$. Using the CO and [CI] transitions, we perform both a LTE analysis of [CI], and a non-LTE radiative transfer analysis of CO and [CI] using the radiative transfer code RADEX along with a Bayesian likelihood analysis. We find that there are two components to the molecular gas: a cold ($T_{kin}\sim 10-30$ K) and a warm ($T_{kin} \gtrsim 100$ K) component. By comparing the warm gas mass to previously observed values, we determine a CO abundance in the warm gas of $x_{CO} \sim 5\times 10^{-5}$. If the CO abundance is the same in the warm and cold gas phases, this abundance corresponds to a CO $J=1-0$ luminosity-to-mass conversion factor of $\alpha_{CO} \sim 7 \ M_{\odot}{pc^{-2} \ (K \ km \ s^{-1})^{-1}}$ in the cold component, similar to the value for normal spiral galaxies. We estimate the cooling from H$_2$, [CII], CO and [OI]$63\mu m$ to be $\sim 0.01 L_{\odot}/M_{\odot}$. We compare PDR models to the ratio of the flux of various CO transitions, along with the ratio of the CO flux to the far-infrared flux in NGC 4038, NGC 4039 and the overlap region. We find that the densities recovered from our non-LTE analysis are consistent with a background far-ultraviolet field of strength $G_0\sim 1000$. Finally, we find that a combination of turbulent heating, due to the ongoing merger, and supernova and stellar winds are sufficient to heat the molecular gas.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an analysis of archival 21 cm (H I) data of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 11 (ESO 350-IG038). Observations were obtained at the Very Large Array, and the presence of a compact absorption feature near the optical centre of the galaxy has been detected. The central location of the absorption feature coincides with the centre of the continuum background of the galaxy, as well as with the location of knot B. The absorption feature yields an H I mass in the range of 3-10 × 108 M⊙, corresponding to spin temperatures from 91 K to 200 K, respectively. The absence of H I seen in emission places an upper limit of 1.7 × 109 M⊙ on the mass. To our knowledge this is the first example of a dwarf galaxy that shows H I absorption from its own background continuum. The continuum emission from the galaxy is also used to determine star formation rates, namely 6.85 ± 0.05 M⊙ yr-1 (for a stellar mass range of 5 M⊙ < M < 100 M⊙), or 32.8 ± 0.2 M⊙ yr-1 (for an extended range of 0.1 M⊙ < M < 100 M⊙).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herschel FIR observations are used to construct Virgo cluster galaxy luminosity functions and to show that the cluster lacks the very bright and the numerous faint sources detected in field galaxy surveys. The far-infrared SEDs are fitted to obtain dust masses and temperatures and the dust mass function. The cluster is over dense in dust by about a factor of 100 compared to the field. The same emissivity (beta) temperature relation applies for different galaxies as that found for different regions of M31. We use optical and HI data to show that Virgo is over dense in stars and atomic gas by about a factor of 100 and 20 respectively. Metallicity values are used to measure the mass of metals in the gas phase. The mean metallicity is about 0.7 solar and 50% of the metals are in the dust. For the cluster as a whole the mass density of stars in galaxies is 8 times that of the gas and the gas mass density is 130 times that of the metals. We use our data to consider the chemical evolution of the individual galaxies, inferring that the measured variations in effective yield are due to galaxies having different ages, being affected to varying degrees by gas loss. Four galaxy scaling relations are considered: mass-metallicity, mass-velocity, mass-star formation rate and mass-radius - we suggest that initial galaxy mass is the prime driver of a galaxy's ultimate destiny. Finally, we use X-ray observations and galaxy dynamics to assess the dark and baryonic matter content compared to the cosmological model.
    11/2013; 438(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) provide an ideal laboratory for studying the interplay between dust formation around evolved stars and its subsequent destruction in a hot gas. Using Spitzer-IRS and Herschel data we compare the dust production rate in the envelopes of evolved AGB stars with a constraint on the total dust mass. Early-type galaxies which appear to be truly passively evolving are not detected by Herschel. We thus derive a distance independent upper limit to the dust grain survival time in the hostile environment of ETGs of <46 ± 25 Myr for amorphous silicate grains. This implies that ETGs which are detected at far-infrared wavelengths have acquired a cool dusty medium via interaction. Given likely time-scales for ram-pressure stripping, this also implies that only galaxies with dust in a cool (atomic) medium can release dust into the intra-cluster medium.
    A&A. 10/2013; 518:L50.
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of M 87, taken as part of the science demonstration phase observations of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We compare these data with a synchrotron model based on mid-infrared, far-infrared, submm and radio data from the literature to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. Both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M 87, which is not unexpected in the harsh X-ray environment of this radio galaxy sitting at the core of the Virgo cluster.
    A&A. 10/2013; 518:L53.
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    ABSTRACT: Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and HI emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5x10^6 Msun. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (< 12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [CII] emission raises this limit to < 39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r^{1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is towards the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures >= 10^4 K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new photometric data from our Herschel Key Programme, the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), dedicated to the observation of the gas and dust in 48 low-metallicity environments. They were observed with PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel at 70,100,160,250,350, and 500 microns. We focus on a systematic comparison of the derived FIR properties (FIR luminosity, dust mass, dust temperature and emissivity index) with more metal-rich galaxies and investigate the detection of a potential submm excess. The data reduction method is adapted for each galaxy to derive the most reliable photometry from the final maps. PACS flux densities are compared with the MIPS 70 and 160 microns bands. We use colour-colour diagrams and modified blackbody fitting procedures to determine the dust properties of the DGS galaxies. We also include galaxies from the Herschel KINGFISH sample, containing more metal-rich environments, totalling 109 galaxies. The location of the DGS galaxies on Herschel colour-colour diagrams highlights the differences in global environments of low-metallicity galaxies. The dust in DGS galaxies is generally warmer than in KINGFISH galaxies (T_DGS~32 K, T_KINGFISH~23 K). The emissivity index, beta, is ~1.7 in the DGS, but metallicity does not make a strong effect on beta. The dust-to-stellar mass ratio is lower in low-metallicity galaxies: M_dust/M_star~0.02% for the DGS vs 0.1% for KINGFISH. Per unit dust mass, dwarf galaxies emit ~6 times more in the FIR than higher metallicity galaxies. Out of the 22 DGS galaxies detected at 500 micron, 41% present an excess in the submm not explained by our dust SED model. The excess mainly appears in lower metallicity galaxies (12+log(O/H) < 8.3), and the strongest excesses are detected in the most metal-poor galaxies. We stress the need for observations longwards of the Herschel wavelengths to detect any submm excess appearing beyond 500 micron.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • S. Lianou, P. Barmby, S. Madden, A. Remy
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    ABSTRACT: NGC1569 is one of the strongest nearby starburst dwarf galaxies as revealed by its super star cluster population. Its current distance estimate places it in the IC342 group of galaxies, thus tidal interactions with the IC342 group member galaxies may have triggered the starburst and the super star cluster formation. With the ultimate goal of understanding the impact of massive star formation on the interstellar medium, we derive properties of the interstellar medium surrounding the super star cluster population and of the galaxy globally. We use multiwavelength imaging, including new Herschel observations, to measure star formation rates, dust masses, and stellar masses. We find that the super star clusters have very little dust and contain only a tiny fraction of the total dust mass in NGC1569. Super star clusters are sometimes considered to be the young counterparts of the old Galactic globular clusters, which also have very little dust or gas. Thus, the starburst dwarf galaxy environment of NGC1569 may hold clues to the processes responsible for the missing intracluster medium in old Galactic globular clusters.
    09/2013;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
679.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, CA, United States
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2009–2014
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999–2014
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • Joint Astronomy Centre
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 2013
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2012
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Peking University
      • Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1994–2007
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Cologne
      • I. Institute of Physics
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1992
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, NY, United States