S. Madden

Cea Leti, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (163)378.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral arms and sub-features. We examine the morphology of this long-wavelength dust emission as seen by Planck, including a study of its outermost spiral arms, and investigate the dust heating mechanism across M31. We find that dust dominating the longer wavelength emission ($\gtrsim 0.3$ mm) is heated by the diffuse stellar population (as traced by 3.6 $\mu$m emission), with the dust dominating the shorter wavelength emission heated by a mix of the old stellar population and star-forming regions (as traced by 24 $\mu$m emission). We also fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for individual 5' pixels and quantify the dust properties across the galaxy, taking into account these different heating mechanisms, finding that there is a linear decrease in temperature with galactocentric distance for dust heated by the old stellar population, as would be expected, with temperatures ranging from around 22 K in the nucleus to 14 K outside of the 10 kpc ring. Finally, we measure the integrated spectrum of the whole galaxy, which we find to be well-fitted with a global dust temperature of ($18.9\pm0.9$) K with a spectral index of $1.61\pm0.11$ (assuming a single modified blackbody), and a significant amount of free-free emission at intermediate frequencies, which when converted into a star formation rate agrees well with the star formation estimate from H$\alpha$ emission of 0.4$M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We see no evidence for spinning dust emission, with a 3$\sigma$ upper limit of 1.26 Jy in the 20-60 GHz band.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band-, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 micron wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique dataset to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/sub-millimeter spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8<log(M*/Msun)<12), the far-infrared/sub-millimeter colours are inconsistent with a single modified black-body having the same dust emissivity index beta for all galaxies. In particular, either beta decreases, or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified black-body depend on the assumptions made on beta. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of beta only change the strength of the observed trends.
    02/2014; 440(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Herschel FIR observations are used to construct Virgo cluster galaxy luminosity functions and to show that the cluster lacks the very bright and the numerous faint sources detected in field galaxy surveys. The far-infrared SEDs are fitted to obtain dust masses and temperatures and the dust mass function. The cluster is over dense in dust by about a factor of 100 compared to the field. The same emissivity (beta) temperature relation applies for different galaxies as that found for different regions of M31. We use optical and HI data to show that Virgo is over dense in stars and atomic gas by about a factor of 100 and 20 respectively. Metallicity values are used to measure the mass of metals in the gas phase. The mean metallicity is about 0.7 solar and 50% of the metals are in the dust. For the cluster as a whole the mass density of stars in galaxies is 8 times that of the gas and the gas mass density is 130 times that of the metals. We use our data to consider the chemical evolution of the individual galaxies, inferring that the measured variations in effective yield are due to galaxies having different ages, being affected to varying degrees by gas loss. Four galaxy scaling relations are considered: mass-metallicity, mass-velocity, mass-star formation rate and mass-radius - we suggest that initial galaxy mass is the prime driver of a galaxy's ultimate destiny. Finally, we use X-ray observations and galaxy dynamics to assess the dark and baryonic matter content compared to the cosmological model.
    11/2013; 438(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) provide an ideal laboratory for studying the interplay between dust formation around evolved stars and its subsequent destruction in a hot gas. Using Spitzer-IRS and Herschel data we compare the dust production rate in the envelopes of evolved AGB stars with a constraint on the total dust mass. Early-type galaxies which appear to be truly passively evolving are not detected by Herschel. We thus derive a distance independent upper limit to the dust grain survival time in the hostile environment of ETGs of <46 ± 25 Myr for amorphous silicate grains. This implies that ETGs which are detected at far-infrared wavelengths have acquired a cool dusty medium via interaction. Given likely time-scales for ram-pressure stripping, this also implies that only galaxies with dust in a cool (atomic) medium can release dust into the intra-cluster medium.
    A&A. 10/2013; 518:L50.
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of M 87, taken as part of the science demonstration phase observations of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We compare these data with a synchrotron model based on mid-infrared, far-infrared, submm and radio data from the literature to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. Both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M 87, which is not unexpected in the harsh X-ray environment of this radio galaxy sitting at the core of the Virgo cluster.
    A&A. 10/2013; 518:L53.
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    ABSTRACT: Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and HI emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5x10^6 Msun. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (< 12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [CII] emission raises this limit to < 39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r^{1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is towards the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures >= 10^4 K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 09/2013; 776(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have obtained ~64deg2 of data over four fields covering a part of the Virgo Cluster using the SPIRE/PACS parallel scan-map mode. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) is the deepest, confusion-limited survey of the Virgo Cluster at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The entire survey at full depth covers ~55deg2 in five bands (100-500um), encompassing the areas around the central dominant elliptical galaxies (M87, M86 and M49) and extends as far as the NW cloud, the W cloud and the Southern extension. The survey extends beyond this region with lower sensitivity so that the total area covered is 84 deg2. In this paper we describe the data, the data acquisition techniques and present the detection rates of the optically selected Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC). We detect 254 (34%) of 750 VCC galaxies found within the survey boundary in at least one band and 171 galaxies are detected in all five bands. For the remainder of the galaxies we have measured strict upper limits for their FIR emission. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: By combining Herschel-SPIRE observations obtained as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey with 21 cm Hi data from the literature, we investigate the role of the cluster environment on the dust content of Virgo spiral galaxies. We show for the first time that the extent of the dust disk is significantly reduced in Hi-deficient galaxies, following remarkably well the observed “truncation” of the Hi disk. The ratio of the submillimetre-to-optical diameter correlates with the Hi-deficiency, suggesting that the cluster environment is able to strip dust as well as gas. These results provide important insights not only into the evolution of cluster galaxies but also into the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate star formation and dust heating in the compact far-infrared (FIR) bright sources detected in the Herschel maps of M83. We use the source extraction code GETSOURCES to detect and extract sources in the FIR, as well as their photometry in the mid-infrared and Hα. By performing infrared spectral energy distribution fitting and applying an Hα-based star formation rate (SFR) calibration, we derive the dust masses and temperatures, SFRs, gas masses and star formation efficiencies (SFEs). The detected sources lie exclusively on the spiral arms and represent giant molecular associations, with gas masses and sizes of 106-108 M⊙ and 200-300 pc, respectively. The inferred parameters show little to no radial dependence and there is only a weak correlation between the SFRs and gas masses, which suggests that more massive clouds are less efficient at forming stars. Dust heating is mainly due to local star formation. However, although the sources are not optically thick, the total intrinsic young stellar population luminosity can almost completely account for the dust luminosity. This suggests that other radiation sources also contribute to the dust heating and approximately compensate for the unabsorbed fraction of UV light.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 432(3):2182-2207. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LISA Pathfinder is a mission planned by the European Space Agency to test the key technologies that will allow the detection of gravitational waves in space. The instrument on-board, the LISA Technology package, will undergo an exhaustive campaign of calibrations and noise characterisation campaigns in order to fully describe the noise model. Data analysis plays an important role in the mission and for that reason the data analysis team has been developing a toolbox which contains all the functionalities required during operations. In this contribution we give an overview of recent activities, focusing on the improvements in the modelling of the instrument and in the data analysis campaigns performed both with real and simulated data.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We exploit the deep and extended far infrared data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 um) of the Herschel GTO PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the HERschel Multi tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) data at 250, 350 and 500 um, to derive the evolution of the restframe 35 um, 60 um, 90 um, and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z~4. We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF combined with a density evolution. In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density increases steeply to z~1, then flattens between z~1 and z~3 to decrease at z greater than 3. Galaxies with different SEDs, masses and sSFRs evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to the IR luminosity density. Galaxies occupying the well established SFR/stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF and luminosity density at all redshifts, with the contribution from off MS sources (0.6 dex above MS) being nearly constant (~20% of the total IR luminosity density) and showing no significant signs of increase with increasing z over the whole 0.8<z<2.2 range. Sources with mass in the 10< log(M/Msun) <11 range are found to dominate the total IR LF, with more massive galaxies prevailing at the bright end of the high-z LF. A two-fold evolutionary scheme for IR galaxies is envisaged: on the one hand, a starburst-dominated phase in which the SMBH grows and is obscured by dust, is followed by an AGN dominated phase, then evolving toward a local elliptical. On the other hand, moderately starforming galaxies containing a low-luminosity AGN have various properties suggesting they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase preceding the formation of steady spiral galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 436(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Star formation is arguably the most important physical process in the cosmos. It is a fundamental driver of galaxy evolution and the ultimate source of most of the energy emitted by galaxies. A correct interpretation of star formation rate (SFR) measures is therefore essential to our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Unfortunately, however, no single SFR estimator is universally available or even applicable in all circumstances: the numerous galaxies found in deep surveys are often too faint (or too distant) to yield significant detections with most standard SFR measures, and until now there have been no global, multi-band observations of nearby galaxies that span all the conditions under which star-formation is taking place. To address this need in a systematic way, we have undertaken a multi-band survey of all types of star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. This project, the Star Formation Reference Survey (SFRS), is based on a statistically valid sample of 369 nearby galaxies that span all existing combinations of dust temperature, SFR, and specific SFR. Furthermore, because the SFRS is blind with respect to AGN fraction and environment it serves as a means to assess the influence of these factors on SFR. Our panchromatic global flux measurements (including GALEX FUV+NUV, SDSS ugriz, 2MASS JHKs, Spitzer 3-8um, and others) furnish uniform SFR measures and the context in which their reliability can be assessed. This paper describes the SFRS survey strategy, defines the sample, and presents the multi-band photometry collected to date. (7 data files).
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel observations of the Fornax cluster at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500u with a spatial resolution of 7 - 36 arc sec (10" = 1 kpc at d_Fornax=17.9 Mpc). We define a sample of 11 bright galaxies, selected at 500u, directly comparable with our past work on Virgo. We find good agreement with previous observations made by IRAS and Planck. The FIR luminosity density is higher (factor of three) in Fornax compared to Virgo. The 100u (42.5-122.5u) luminosity is two orders of magnitude larger in Fornax than in the local field as measured by IRAS. Using stellar (L_{0.4-2.5}) and FIR (L_{100-500}) luminosities we estimate a mean optical depth of tau=0.4+/-0.1 - the same value as Virgo. For 10 of the 11 galaxies (NGC1399 excepted) we fit a modified blackbody curve (beta=2.0) to the SEDs to derive dust masses and temperatures of 10^{6.54-8.35} M_0 and T=14.6-24.2K respectively, comparable to Virgo. The derived stars-to-gas(atomic) and gas(atomic)-to-dust ratios vary from 1.1-67.6 and 9.8-436.5 respectively, again consistent with Virgo. Fornax is a mass overdensity in stars and dust of about 120 compared to the local field (30 for Virgo). Fornax and Virgo are both a factor of 6 lower over densities in gas(atomic) than in stars and dust indicating loss of gas, but not dust and stars, in the cluster environment. As the brightest FIR source in either Fornax and Virgo, NGC1365 is detected by Planck. The Planck data fit the PACS/SPIRE SED out to 1382u with no evidence of other sources of emission ('spinning dust', free-free, synchrotron). At the opposite end of the scale NGC1399 is detected only at 500$\mu$m with the emission probably arising from the nuclear radio source rather than inter-stellar dust.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2012; 428(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) is the deepest, confusion-limited survey of the Virgo Cluster at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The entire survey at full depth covers $\sim$55 sq. deg. in 5 bands (100-500 \micron), encompassing the areas around the central dominant elliptical galaxies (M87, M86 & M49) and extends as far as the NW cloud, the W cloud and the Southern extension. The survey extends beyond this region with lower sensitivity so that the total area covered is 84 sq. deg. In this paper we describe the data, the data acquisition techniques and present the detection rates of the optically selected Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC). We detect 254 (34%) of 750 VCC galaxies found within the survey boundary in at least one band and 171 galaxies are detected in all five bands. For the remainder of the galaxies we have measured strict upper limits for their FIR emission. The population of detected galaxies contains early- as well as late-types although the latter dominate the detection statistics. We have modelled 168 galaxies, showing no evidence of a strong synchrotron component in their FIR spectra, using a single-temperature modified blackbody spectrum with a fixed emissivity index ($\beta = 2$). A study of the $\chi^2$ distribution indicates that this model is not appropriate in all cases, and this is supported by the FIR colours which indicate a spread in $\beta$=1--2. Statistical comparison of the dust mass and temperature distributions from 140 galaxies with $\chi^2_{dof=3} < 7.8$ (95% confidence level) shows that late-types have typically colder, more massive dust reservoirs; the early-type dust masses have a mean of ${\rm log}( / M_{\sun}) = 6.3 \pm 0.3 $, while for late-types ${\rm log}( / M_{\sun}) =7.1 \pm 0.1$... (abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2012; 428(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.
    Classical and Quantum Gravity 06/2012; 29(12):124014. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Herschel-SPIRE imaging spectroscopy (194-671 microns) of the bright starburst galaxy M82. Covering the CO ladder from J=4-3 to J=13-12, spectra were obtained at multiple positions for a fully sampled ~ 3 x 3 arcminute map, including a longer exposure at the central position. We present measurements of 12CO, 13CO, [CI], [NII], HCN, and HCO+ in emission, along with OH+, H2O+ and HF in absorption and H2O in both emission and absorption, with discussion. We use a radiative transfer code and Bayesian likelihood analysis to model the temperature, density, column density, and filling factor of multiple components of molecular gas traced by 12CO and 13CO, adding further evidence to the high-J lines tracing a much warmer (~ 500 K), less massive component than the low-J lines. The addition of 13CO (and [CI]) is new and indicates that [CI] may be tracing different gas than 12CO. No temperature/density gradients can be inferred from the map, indicating that the single-pointing spectrum is descriptive of the bulk properties of the galaxy. At such a high temperature, cooling is dominated by molecular hydrogen. Photon-dominated region (PDR) models require higher densities than those indicated by our Bayesian likelihood analysis in order to explain the high-J CO line ratios, though cosmic-ray enhanced PDR models can do a better job reproducing the emission at lower densities. Shocks and turbulent heating are likely required to explain the bright high-J emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 753(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the dust and gas in Andromeda, using Herschel images sampling the entire far-infrared peak. We fit a modified-blackbody model to ~4000 quasi-independent pixels with spatial resolution of ~140pc and find that a variable dust-emissivity index (beta) is required to fit the data. We find no significant long-wavelength excess above this model suggesting there is no cold dust component. We show that the gas-to-dust ratio varies radially, increasing from ~20 in the center to ~70 in the star-forming ring at 10kpc, consistent with the metallicity gradient. In the 10kpc ring the average beta is ~1.9, in good agreement with values determined for the Milky Way (MW). However, in contrast to the MW, we find significant radial variations in beta, which increases from 1.9 at 10kpc to ~2.5 at a radius of 3.1kpc and then decreases to 1.7 in the center. The dust temperature is fairly constant in the 10kpc ring (ranging from 17-20K), but increases strongly in the bulge to ~30K. Within 3.1kpc we find the dust temperature is highly correlated with the 3.6 micron flux, suggesting the general stellar population in the bulge is the dominant source of dust heating there. At larger radii, there is a weak correlation between the star formation rate and dust temperature. We find no evidence for 'dark gas' in M31 in contrast to recent results for the MW. Finally, we obtained an estimate of the CO X-factor by minimising the dispersion in the gas-to-dust ratio, obtaining a value of (1.9+/-0.4)x10^20 cm^-2 [K kms^-1]^-1.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 756(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, HerMES, is a legacy program designed to map a set of nested fields totalling ~380 deg^2. Fields range in size from 0.01 to ~20 deg^2, using Herschel-SPIRE (at 250, 350 and 500 \mu m), and Herschel-PACS (at 100 and 160 \mu m), with an additional wider component of 270 deg^2 with SPIRE alone. These bands cover the peak of the redshifted thermal spectral energy distribution from interstellar dust and thus capture the re-processed optical and ultra-violet radiation from star formation that has been absorbed by dust, and are critical for forming a complete multi-wavelength understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The survey will detect of order 100,000 galaxies at 5\sigma in some of the best studied fields in the sky. Additionally, HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. Making maximum use of the full spectrum of ancillary data, from radio to X-ray wavelengths, it is designed to: facilitate redshift determination; rapidly identify unusual objects; and understand the relationships between thermal emission from dust and other processes. Scientific questions HerMES will be used to answer include: the total infrared emission of galaxies; the evolution of the luminosity function; the clustering properties of dusty galaxies; and the properties of populations of galaxies which lie below the confusion limit through lensing and statistical techniques. This paper defines the survey observations and data products, outlines the primary scientific goals of the HerMES team, and reviews some of the early results.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometry of the nearby galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) observed with the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory, at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 {\mu}m, as well as new CO J = 3-2 observations taken with the HARP-B instrument on the JCMT. Using a single component modified blackbody, we model the dust spectral energy distribution within the disk of the galaxy using all five Herschel wavebands, and find dust temperatures of ~30 K towards the centre of the disk and a smoothly decreasing trend to ~20 K with increasing radius. We find a total dust mass of (1.59 \pm 0.05) \times 10^7 M\odot, and a total gas mass of (2.7 \pm 0.2) \times 10^9 M\odot. The average gas-to-dust mass ratio is 103 \pm 8 but we find an interesting increase in this ratio to approximately 275 toward the centre of Cen A. We discuss several possible physical processes that may be causing this effect, including dust sputtering, jet entrainment and systematic variables such as the XCO factor. Dust sputtering by X-rays originating in the AGN or the removal of dust by the jets are our most favoured explanations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2012; 422(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

909 Citations
378.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2010–2013
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Cologne
      • I. Institute of Physics
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany