S. Madden

Cea Leti, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (168)487.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel-SPIRE imaging spectroscopy (194-671 μm) of the bright starburst galaxy M82. We use RADEX and a Bayesian Likelihood Analysis to simultaneously model the temperature, density, column density, and filling factor of both the cool and warm components of molecular gas traced by the entire CO ladder up to J=13-12. The high-J lines observed by SPIRE trace much warmer gas (~500 K) than those observable from the ground. The addition of 13CO (and [C I]) is new and indicates that [C I] may be tracing different gas than 12CO. At such a high temperature, cooling is dominated by molecular hydrogen; we conclude with a discussion on the possible excitation processes in this warm component. Photon-dominated region (PDR) models require significantly higher densities than those indicated by our Bayesian likelihood analysis in order to explain the high-J CO line ratios, though cosmic-ray enhanced PDR models can do a better job reproducing the emission at lower densities. Shocks and turbulent heating are likely required to explain the bright high-J emission.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2015; 10(H16):618. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314012472
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    ABSTRACT: Thermal Diagnostics experiments to be carried out on board LISA Pathfinder (LPF) will yield a detailed characterisation of how temperature fluctuations affect the LTP (LISA Technology Package) instrument performance, a crucial information for future space based gravitational wave detectors as the proposed eLISA. Amongst them, the study of temperature gradient fluctuations around the test masses of the Inertial Sensors will provide as well information regarding the contribution of the Brownian noise, which is expected to limit the LTP sensitivity at frequencies close to 1 mHz during some LTP experiments. In this paper we report on how these kind of Thermal Diagnostics experiments were simulated in the last LPF Simulation Campaign (November, 2013) involving all the LPF Data Analysis team and using an end-to-end simulator of the whole spacecraft. Such simulation campaign was conducted under the framework of the preparation for LPF operations.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 05/2015; 610:012023. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/610/1/012023
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    ABSTRACT: The cold gas micro-propulsion system that will be used during the LISA-Pathfinder mission will be one of the most important component used to ensure the "free-fall" of the enclosed test masses. In this paper we present a possible strategy to characterize the effective direction and amplitude gain of each of the 6 thrusters of this system.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 05/2015; 610:012026. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/610/1/012026
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    ABSTRACT: The main goal of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission is to estimate the acceleration noise models of the overall LISA Technology Package (LTP) experiment on-board. This will be of crucial importance for the future space-based Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors, like eLISA. Here, we present the Bayesian analysis framework to process the planned system identification experiments designed for that purpose. In particular, we focus on the analysis strategies to predict the accuracy of the parameters that describe the system in all degrees of freedom. The data sets were generated during the latest operational simulations organised by the data analysis team and this work is part of the LTPDA Matlab toolbox.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 05/2015; 610:012027. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/610/1/012027
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new technical simulator for the eLISA mission, based on state space modeling techniques and developed in MATLAB. This simulator computes the coordinate and velocity over time of each body involved in the constellation, i.e. the spacecraft and its test masses, taking into account the different disturbances and actuations. This allows studying the contribution of instrumental noises and system imperfections on the residual acceleration applied on the TMs, the latter reflecting the performance of the achieved free-fall along the sensitive axis. A preliminary version of the results is presented.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 05/2015; 610:012036. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/610/1/012036
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetically-induced forces on the inertial masses on-board LISA Pathfinder are expected to be one of the dominant contributions to the mission noise budget, accounting for up to 40%. The origin of this disturbance is the coupling of the residual magnetization and susceptibility of the test masses with the environmental magnetic field. In order to fully understand this important part of the noise model, a set of coils and magnetometers are integrated as a part of the diagnostics subsystem. During operations a sequence of magnetic excitations will be applied to precisely determine the coupling of the magnetic environment to the test mass displacement using the on-board magnetometers. Since no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the test mass position will be available, an extrapolation of the magnetic measurements to the test mass position will be carried out as a part of the data analysis activities. In this paper we show the first results on the magnetic experiments during an end- to-end LISA Pathfinder simulation, and we describe the methods under development to map the magnetic field on-board.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 05/2015; 610:012024. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/610/1/012024
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    ABSTRACT: The LISA Pathfinder mission will demonstrate the technology of drag-free test masses for use as inertial references in future space-based gravitational wave detectors. To accomplish this, the Pathfinder spacecraft will perform drag-free flight about a test mass while measuring the acceleration of this primary test mass relative to a second reference test mass. Because the reference test mass is contained within the same spacecraft, it is necessary to apply forces on it to maintain its position and attitude relative to the spacecraft. These forces are a potential source of acceleration noise in the LISA Pathfinder system that are not present in the full LISA configuration. While LISA Pathfinder has been designed to meet it's primary mission requirements in the presence of this noise, recent estimates suggest that the on-orbit performance may be limited by this `suspension noise'. The drift-mode or free-flight experiments provide an opportunity to mitigate this noise source and further characterize the underlying disturbances that are of interest to the designers of LISA-like instruments. This article provides a high-level overview of these experiments and the methods under development to analyze the resulting data.
    Journal Of Physics, Conference Series. Presented at 10th International LISA Symposium, May 2014, Gainesville, FL, USA; 12/2014
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    ABSTRACT: More complete knowledge of galaxy evolution requires understanding the process of star formation and interaction between the interstellar radiation field and the ISM in galactic environments traversing a wide range of physical parameter space. Here we focus on the impact of star formation on the surrounding low metallicity ISM. Indeed, lowering the metal abundance, as is the case of some galaxies of the early universe, results in an overall lower galactic dust reservoir, hence, less shielding for the formation of the molecular gas necessary for star formation to proceed. A convenient laboratory to zoom into the various phases of the ISM to study the effects of low metallicity on the ISM properties, is our nearest neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has a metallicity 1/2 that of solar. The goal is to construct a comprehensive, self-consistent picture of the density, radiation field, and ISM structure in the vicinity of one of the most massive star clusters in our local neighborhood, R136.
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    ABSTRACT: The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral arms and sub-features. We examine the morphology of this long-wavelength dust emission as seen by Planck, including a study of its outermost spiral arms, and investigate the dust heating mechanism across M31. We find that dust dominating the longer wavelength emission ($\gtrsim 0.3$ mm) is heated by the diffuse stellar population (as traced by 3.6 $\mu$m emission), with the dust dominating the shorter wavelength emission heated by a mix of the old stellar population and star-forming regions (as traced by 24 $\mu$m emission). We also fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for individual 5' pixels and quantify the dust properties across the galaxy, taking into account these different heating mechanisms, finding that there is a linear decrease in temperature with galactocentric distance for dust heated by the old stellar population, as would be expected, with temperatures ranging from around 22 K in the nucleus to 14 K outside of the 10 kpc ring. Finally, we measure the integrated spectrum of the whole galaxy, which we find to be well-fitted with a global dust temperature of ($18.9\pm0.9$) K with a spectral index of $1.61\pm0.11$ (assuming a single modified blackbody), and a significant amount of free-free emission at intermediate frequencies, which when converted into a star formation rate agrees well with the star formation estimate from H$\alpha$ emission of 0.4$M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We see no evidence for spinning dust emission, with a 3$\sigma$ upper limit of 1.26 Jy in the 20-60 GHz band.
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band-, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 micron wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique dataset to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/sub-millimeter spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8<log(M*/Msun)<12), the far-infrared/sub-millimeter colours are inconsistent with a single modified black-body having the same dust emissivity index beta for all galaxies. In particular, either beta decreases, or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified black-body depend on the assumptions made on beta. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of beta only change the strength of the observed trends.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2014; 440(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu175 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herschel FIR observations are used to construct Virgo cluster galaxy luminosity functions and to show that the cluster lacks the very bright and the numerous faint sources detected in field galaxy surveys. The far-infrared SEDs are fitted to obtain dust masses and temperatures and the dust mass function. The cluster is over dense in dust by about a factor of 100 compared to the field. The same emissivity (beta) temperature relation applies for different galaxies as that found for different regions of M31. We use optical and HI data to show that Virgo is over dense in stars and atomic gas by about a factor of 100 and 20 respectively. Metallicity values are used to measure the mass of metals in the gas phase. The mean metallicity is about 0.7 solar and 50% of the metals are in the dust. For the cluster as a whole the mass density of stars in galaxies is 8 times that of the gas and the gas mass density is 130 times that of the metals. We use our data to consider the chemical evolution of the individual galaxies, inferring that the measured variations in effective yield are due to galaxies having different ages, being affected to varying degrees by gas loss. Four galaxy scaling relations are considered: mass-metallicity, mass-velocity, mass-star formation rate and mass-radius - we suggest that initial galaxy mass is the prime driver of a galaxy's ultimate destiny. Finally, we use X-ray observations and galaxy dynamics to assess the dark and baryonic matter content compared to the cosmological model.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; 438(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt2213 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) provide an ideal laboratory for studying the interplay between dust formation around evolved stars and its subsequent destruction in a hot gas. Using Spitzer-IRS and Herschel data we compare the dust production rate in the envelopes of evolved AGB stars with a constraint on the total dust mass. Early-type galaxies which appear to be truly passively evolving are not detected by Herschel. We thus derive a distance independent upper limit to the dust grain survival time in the hostile environment of ETGs of <46 ± 25 Myr for amorphous silicate grains. This implies that ETGs which are detected at far-infrared wavelengths have acquired a cool dusty medium via interaction. Given likely time-scales for ram-pressure stripping, this also implies that only galaxies with dust in a cool (atomic) medium can release dust into the intra-cluster medium.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2013; 518:L50. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201014533 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of M 87, taken as part of the science demonstration phase observations of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We compare these data with a synchrotron model based on mid-infrared, far-infrared, submm and radio data from the literature to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. Both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M 87, which is not unexpected in the harsh X-ray environment of this radio galaxy sitting at the core of the Virgo cluster.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2013; 518:L53. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201014555 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and HI emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5x10^6 Msun. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (< 12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [CII] emission raises this limit to < 39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r^{1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is towards the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures >= 10^4 K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 09/2013; 776(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/776/2/L30 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have obtained ~64deg2 of data over four fields covering a part of the Virgo Cluster using the SPIRE/PACS parallel scan-map mode. (2 data files).
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) is the deepest, confusion-limited survey of the Virgo Cluster at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The entire survey at full depth covers ~55deg2 in five bands (100-500um), encompassing the areas around the central dominant elliptical galaxies (M87, M86 and M49) and extends as far as the NW cloud, the W cloud and the Southern extension. The survey extends beyond this region with lower sensitivity so that the total area covered is 84 deg2. In this paper we describe the data, the data acquisition techniques and present the detection rates of the optically selected Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC). We detect 254 (34%) of 750 VCC galaxies found within the survey boundary in at least one band and 171 galaxies are detected in all five bands. For the remainder of the galaxies we have measured strict upper limits for their FIR emission. (2 data files).
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    ABSTRACT: By combining Herschel-SPIRE observations obtained as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey with 21 cm HI data from the literature, we investigate the role of the cluster environment on the dust content of Virgo spiral galaxies.We show for the first time that the extent of the dust disk is significantly reduced in HI-deficient galaxies, following remarkably well the observed 'truncation' of the HI disk. The ratio of the submillimetre-to- optical diameter correlates with the HI-deficiency, suggesting that the cluster environment is able to strip dust as well as gas. These results provide important insights not only into the evolution of cluster galaxies but also into the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; 518. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201014550 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate star formation and dust heating in the compact far-infrared (FIR) bright sources detected in the Herschel maps of M83. We use the source extraction code GETSOURCES to detect and extract sources in the FIR, as well as their photometry in the mid-infrared and Hα. By performing infrared spectral energy distribution fitting and applying an Hα-based star formation rate (SFR) calibration, we derive the dust masses and temperatures, SFRs, gas masses and star formation efficiencies (SFEs). The detected sources lie exclusively on the spiral arms and represent giant molecular associations, with gas masses and sizes of 106-108 M⊙ and 200-300 pc, respectively. The inferred parameters show little to no radial dependence and there is only a weak correlation between the SFRs and gas masses, which suggests that more massive clouds are less efficient at forming stars. Dust heating is mainly due to local star formation. However, although the sources are not optically thick, the total intrinsic young stellar population luminosity can almost completely account for the dust luminosity. This suggests that other radiation sources also contribute to the dust heating and approximately compensate for the unabsorbed fraction of UV light.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 432(3):2182-2207. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt618 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LISA Pathfinder is a mission planned by the European Space Agency to test the key technologies that will allow the detection of gravitational waves in space. The instrument on-board, the LISA Technology package, will undergo an exhaustive campaign of calibrations and noise characterisation campaigns in order to fully describe the noise model. Data analysis plays an important role in the mission and for that reason the data analysis team has been developing a toolbox which contains all the functionalities required during operations. In this contribution we give an overview of recent activities, focusing on the improvements in the modelling of the instrument and in the data analysis campaigns performed both with real and simulated data.
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    ABSTRACT: We exploit the deep and extended far infrared data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 um) of the Herschel GTO PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the HERschel Multi tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) data at 250, 350 and 500 um, to derive the evolution of the restframe 35 um, 60 um, 90 um, and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z~4. We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF combined with a density evolution. In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density increases steeply to z~1, then flattens between z~1 and z~3 to decrease at z greater than 3. Galaxies with different SEDs, masses and sSFRs evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to the IR luminosity density. Galaxies occupying the well established SFR/stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF and luminosity density at all redshifts, with the contribution from off MS sources (0.6 dex above MS) being nearly constant (~20% of the total IR luminosity density) and showing no significant signs of increase with increasing z over the whole 0.8<z<2.2 range. Sources with mass in the 10< log(M/Msun) <11 range are found to dominate the total IR LF, with more massive galaxies prevailing at the bright end of the high-z LF. A two-fold evolutionary scheme for IR galaxies is envisaged: on the one hand, a starburst-dominated phase in which the SMBH grows and is obscured by dust, is followed by an AGN dominated phase, then evolving toward a local elliptical. On the other hand, moderately starforming galaxies containing a low-luminosity AGN have various properties suggesting they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase preceding the formation of steady spiral galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 436(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1748 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
487.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2010–2013
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2007
    • Queens University of Charlotte
      New York, United States
  • 2006
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States