Publications (3)3.02 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: This study addresses the questions of how to estimate the external costs of agricultural pesticide use and how to disaggregate these costs to particular chemicals and farm production systems. Using the case of Thailand—a lower-middle income country with an export-oriented agriculture and an annual growth in pesticide use of about 10%, we estimate the external costs of pesticide use for the period 1997–2010 by applying the Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool and compare the estimates to an accounting of actual costs for two years. We also use the tool to estimate the external costs of two distinct production systems of rice and intensive horticulture. Using the PEA tool, we estimate the average external costs of pesticide use in Thailand to be USD 27.1/ha of agricultural land in 2010; yet the actual cost estimate for the same year is only USD 18.7/ ha. This difference leads us to discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the PEA approach. The negative externalities of pesticide use could be reduced by giving farmers a financial incentive to use fewer pesticides, for instance by introducing an environmental tax. We argue that for such instrument to be effective, it needs to be combined with supportive measures to change on-farm practices through awareness-raising about the adverse effects of pesticides and introducing farmers to non-chemical alternatives to manage their pest problems.Environmental Science & Policy 01/2013; 27:103-113. · 3.02 Impact Factor
Article: The Diffusion of Greenhouse Agriculture in Northern Thailand: Combining Econometrics and Agent-Based Modeling[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: "This paper studies the diffusion of greenhouse agriculture in a watershed in the northern uplands of Thailand by applying econometrics and agent-based modeling in combination. Adoption has been rapid by farmers in the central valley of the watershed, while farmers at higher altitudes, lacking transferable land titles that could serve as mortgage collateral, have been unable to obtain loans for greenhouse investment. The objectives of the paper are both methodological and empirical. On the methodological side, it shows that econometrically estimated models of farm household behavior are useful to design and to parameterize an agent-based model. On the empirical side, simulation results show that if mortgage collateral would not be required, then adoption in the upper part of the watershed could reach nearly 77% of farm households by 2020, as compared to about 36% under current conditions. Furthermore results suggest a significant increase in incomes related to the innovation and a substantially greater irrigation water use, especially in the central part. As bell pepper under greenhouses has replaced pesticide-intensive chrysanthemum, it has declined average levels of pesticide use. Nevertheless, pesticide use is high and farmers are struggling to control pests, which raises questions about the long-term sustainability of the innovation." Copyright (c) 2009 Canadian Agricultural Economics Society.Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie. 01/2009; 57(4):513-536.
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ABSTRACT: An increase in highland population, immigration from neighboring countries and the expansion of infrastructure in the northern part of Thailand have resulted in non-sustainable use of natural resources. In many places, forests have been converted to agricultural land. In addition, the fallow period of land use has been shortened. Also, land has been used intensively for agricultural purposes and the use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has increased tremendously. As a result, degradation of natural resources such as soil erosion as well as the accumulation of pesticides and fertilizer, toxic to water and soils, has occurred, with an adverse impact on human health and living conditions. Moreover, highland farmers’ existing agricultural systems have changed in favor of market-oriented systems. Therefore, there is an urgent need to study the conditions of sustainable farming systems in the highland areas of Thailand.12/2006: pages 263-276;