S Kantachuvesiri

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (7)37.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Severe forms of hypertension are characterized by high blood pressure combined with end organ damage. Through the development and refinement of a transgenic rat model of malignant hypertension incorporating the mouse renin gene, we previously identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 10, which affects malignant hypertension severity and morbidity. We next generated an inducible malignant hypertensive model where the timing, severity, and duration of hypertension was placed under the control of the researcher, allowing development of and recovery from end organ damage to be investigated. We have now generated novel consomic Lewis and Fischer rat strains with inducible hypertension and additional strains that are reciprocally congenic for the refined chromosome 10 quantitative trait locus. We have captured a modifier of end organ damage within the congenic region and, using a range of bioinformatic, biochemical and molecular biological techniques, have identified angiotensin-converting enzyme as the modifier of hypertension-induced tissue microvascular injury. Reciprocal differences between angiotensin-converting enzyme and the anti-inflammatory tetrapeptide, N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro in the kidney, a tissue susceptible to end organ damage, suggest a mechanism for the amelioration of hypertension-dependent damage.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2009; 284(23):15564-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The POU transcription factor Oct-4 is essential for the pluripotent character of the mouse inner cell mass (ICM) and derivative embryonic stem (ES) cells. We analyzed the expression of Oct-4 during culture and establishment of cell lines from mouse and rat preimplantation embryos. Oct-4 was rapidly lost in primary outgrowths of the majority of cultured embryos prior to any evidence of morphological differentiation. Oct-4 persisted in only a minority of strain 129 cultures, which can go on to give ES cells. We used transgenic rats in which the dual reporter/selection marker beta-geo is under control of Oct-4 regulatory elements to investigate the effect of direct selection for Oct-4 expressing cells. Ablation of all cells occurred, consistent with complete downregulation of Oct-4. Without selection, in contrast, continuous cultures of morphologically undifferentiated cells could be derived readily from rat blastocysts and ICMs. However, these cells did not express significant Oct-4 and, although capable of differentiating into extraembryonic cell types, appeared incapable of producing fetal germ layer derivatives. Downregulation of Oct-4 appears to be a limiting factor in attempts to derive pluripotent cell lines from preimplantation embryos.
    Biology of Reproduction 02/2003; 68(1):222-9. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracardiac renin is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocardial infarction. Cardiac renin is predominantly derived from the circulation, because preprorenin is not expressed locally and uptake of renin has been demonstrated. One mechanism of internalization recently described involves the mannose-6-phosphate receptor and requires glycosylation of renin. Based on previous observations, we considered the existence of another pathway of uptake, not requiring glycosylation and predominantly involving prorenin. This hypothesis and its functional consequences were investigated in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that isolated adult cardiomyocytes internalize unglycosylated prorenin, which is followed by the generation of angiotensins. We further show that transgenic rats, expressing the ren-2(d) renin gene in an inducible manner, exhibit markedly enhanced levels of unglycosylated renin within intracellular compartments in the heart as a consequence of the induction of hepatic transgene expression and the rise of circulating unglycosylated prorenin levels. Because in this model severe cardiac damage occurs as a consequence of the rise of circulating prorenin levels, internalization of prorenin into cardiac cells is likely to play a key role in this process.
    Circulation Research 06/2002; 90(10):1135-41. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    N J Mayer, A Forsyth, S Kantachuvesiri, J J Mullins, S Fleming
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is an association between the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the human angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene and malignant vascular injury (MVI). The polymerase chain reaction was used to genotype DNA extracted from archival, paraffin wax embedded renal biopsy material from 48 patients with MVI, made up from cases of malignant hypertension (n = 23), scleroderma (n = 10), and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (n = 15), and from whole blood samples from 191 healthy controls. The D allele was found more frequently in cases of MVI than in healthy controls, (65% v 52%). Both the DD and I/D genotypes occurred significantly more frequently in patients with MVI than did the II genotype (chi(2) = 7.26, p = 0.007; and chi(2) = 4.06, p = 0.04, respectively). Possession of at least one copy of the D allele is associated with an increased risk of developing MVI. Our data support a dominant mode of effect for the D allele. Use of the I/D polymorphism as a genetic marker for MVI may be of value clinically in identifying at risk individuals before the development of target end organ damage. Furthermore, those at risk may benefit from early ACE inhibition.
    Molecular Pathology 03/2002; 55(1):29-33.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel inbred rat model with inducible hypertension has been generated using a renin transgene under the transcriptional control of the cytochrome P450, Cyp1a1 promoter. The degree and duration of hypertension are regulated tightly by administration of the natural xenobiotic indole-3 carbinol and can be readily reversed. Induction experiments reveal distinct temporal and mechanistic responses to hypertensive injury in different vascular beds, which is indicative of differential susceptibility of organs to a hypertensive stimulus. The mesentery and heart exhibited the greatest sensitivity to damage, and the kidney showed an adaptive response prior to the development of malignant hypertensive injury. Quantitative analysis of morphological changes induced in mesenteric resistance arteries suggest eutrophic remodeling of the vessels. Kinetic evidence suggests that locally activated plasma prorenin may play a critical role in mediating vascular injury. This model will facilitate studies of the cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying vascular injury and repair and provide a basis for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for vascular disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2001; 276(39):36727-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic background has a major influence on the manifestation of multifactorial diseases such as hypertension in which severe complications may be caused through an interaction with additional factors, which may be genetically determined. We have previously described a genetic model of malignant hypertension (MH) in rats carrying the mouse Ren2 gene (TGRmRen2-27), in which the phenotype is dependent on the genetic background. Using a single homozygous TGRmRen2-27 male as transgene donor, we produced two F1 populations with (a) 100% penetrance of MH in progeny heterozygous for the Fischer F344 genetic background and (b) 58.5% penetrance in progeny heterozygous for the Lewis genetic background. To identify the modifier loci affecting the phenotype, a cohort of 252 males was produced by breeding the same single male with Fischer-Lewis F1 females. The progeny were phenotyped for clinical and pathological features of MH. Genome-wide screening and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified two loci, on chromosome 10 (LOD 4.4) and on chromosome 17 (LOD 3.9) close to the Ace and At1 genes, respectively, which contribute to the lethal MH phenotype. Their influence on mortality was consistent with a multiplicative effect of the two loci. In addition, we found higher plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in progeny receiving the Fischer allele than in progeny receiving the Lewis allele (123.5 +/- 9.5 vs. 91.8 +/- 4.9 U/liter, P < 0.01), suggesting the association of angiotensin-converting enzyme and MH. Our study demonstrates the application of a transgene as a "major gene" to facilitate the identification of modifier loci, which can affect the phenotype of MH, and reveals Ace and At1 as candidate genes involved in the manifestation of the MH phenotype.
    Kidney International 09/1999; 56(2):414-20. · 7.92 Impact Factor
  • M G Sharp, S Kantachuvesiri, J J Mullins
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of cardiovascular diseases have been facilitated through animal models and human case studies. The identification of genes that contribute to human disease leads to functional studies of disease-associated mutations, and the use of genetically manipulated animals in these types of study are providing important insights into molecular mechanisms in vivo. This article reviews some genetically manipulated animal models of cardiovascular diseases, and their relevance to human conditions. Application of these approaches to address physiological questions is also discussed.
    Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 02/1997; 6(1):51-7. · 3.96 Impact Factor