Steven H. Cadle

Tsinghua University, Beijing, Beijing Shi, China

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Publications (72)88.56 Total impact

  • Journal of The Air & Waste Management Association - J AIR WASTE MANAGE ASSOC. 01/2009; 59(2).
  • Journal of The Air & Waste Management Association - J AIR WASTE MANAGE ASSOC. 01/2009; 59(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) held its 17th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop in March 2007, where results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. We summarize ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the role and contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories. Participants in the Workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as emerging issues and topics for future research.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 02/2008; 58(1):3-11. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Coordinating Research Council held its 16th workshop in March 2006, with 83 presentations describing the most recent mobile source-related emissions research. In this paper, we summarize the presentations from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed evaluation of in-use emissions control programs, effects of fuels on emissions, emission models and emission inventories, results from gas- and particle-phase emissions studies from spark-ignition and diesel-powered vehicles, and efforts to improve our capabilities in performing on-board emissions measurements, as well as topics for future research.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 03/2007; 57(2):139-45. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Coordinating Research Council held its 15th workshop in April 2005, with nearly 90 presentations describing the most recent mobile source-related emissions research. In this paper, the authors summarize the presentations from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed emission models and emission inventories, results from gas- and particle-phase emissions studies from spark-ignition and diesel-powered vehicles (with an emphasis in this workshop on particle emissions), effects of fuels on emissions, evaluation of in-use emissions control programs, and efforts to improve our capabilities in performing on-board emissions measurements, as well as topics for future research.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 03/2006; 56(2):121-36. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weekly PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at a semi-residential (Tsinghua University) and a downtown (Chegongzhuang) site in Beijing from August 2001 through September 2002. The ambient mass concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 were determined. Analyses including elemental composition, water-soluble ions, and organic and elemental carbon were performed. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5 were 96.5 microg m(-3) and 106.9 microg m(-3) at CGZ and HU site, respectively. More than 80% of the PM2.5 mass concentrations were explained by carbonaceous species, secondary particles, crustal matters and trace elements at the two sites. Carbonaceous species were the most abundant components, constituting about 45% and 48% of the total PM2.5 mass concentrations at CGZ and THU site, respectively. SO4(2-), NO3- and NH4+ were three major ions, accounting for 37%, 23% and 20%, respectively, of the total mass of inorganic water-soluble ions.
    Science of The Total Environment 03/2006; 355(1-3):264-75. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One-week integrated fine particulate matter (i.e., particles <2.5 microm in diameter; PM2.5) samples were collected continuously with a low-flow rate sampler at a downtown site (Chegongzhuang) and a residential site (Tsinghua University) in Beijing between July 1999 and June 2000. The annual average concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) at the urban site were 23.9 and 8.8 microg m(-3), much higher than those in some cities with serious air pollution. Similar weekly variations of OC and EC concentrations were found for the two sampling sites with higher concentrations in the winter and autumn. The highest weekly variations of OC and EC occurred in the winter, suggesting that combustion sources for space heating were important contributors to carbonaceous particles, along with a significant impact from variable meteorological conditions. High emissions coupled with unfavorable meteorological conditions led to the max weekly carbonaceous concentration the week of November 18-25, 1999. The weekly mass ratios of OC:EC ranged between 2 and 4 for most samples and averaged 2.9, probably suggesting that secondary OC (SOC) is present most weeks. The range of contemporary carbon fraction, based on the C14 analyses of eight samples collected in 2001, is 0.330-0.479. Estimated SOC accounted for approximately 38% of the total OC at the two sites. Average OC and EC concentrations at Tsinghua University were 25% and 18%, respectively, higher than those at Chegongzhuang, which could be attributed to different local emissions of primary carbonaceous particles and gaseous precursors of SOC, as well as different summer photochemical intensities between the two locations.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 07/2005; 55(7):984-92. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weekly PM2.5 samples were collected for one year in Beijing and Shanghai and the crustal elements analyzed to investigate the concentration levels and temporal variations of ambient fine mineral dust. The mass concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Mg, and Fe exhibited similar significant weekly variations in both Beijing and Shanghai. The annual average PM2.5 concentrations of major crustal elements ranged from 0.27 microg m-3 Mg to 2.48 microg m-3 Si in Beijing, which were 1.40-2.24 times higher than those in Shanghai. Their PM-weighted values were comparable between the two cities. A distinct seasonal pattern was present for these crustal elements with the highest concentrations during the spring in Beijing and during the winter in Shanghai, and the lowest concentrations during the summer in both cities. During the dusty spring of 2000 in Beijing, soil dust was the second most abundant PM2.5 constituent with a contribution as high as 18.6%, over twice that in the winter. The highest fine soil concentration (37.8 microg m-3) and mass percentage (41.6%) occurred in the same week of intensive dust events impacting Beijing. The impact of dust storms complicates the goal of reducing PM2.5 in Beijing. Ca originating from construction activities appears to be a significant PM2.5 contributor as well.
    Science of The Total Environment 06/2005; 343(1-3):221-30. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Coordinating Research Council held its 14th Vehicle Emissions Workshop in March 2004, where results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. We summarize ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as topics for future research.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 03/2005; 55(2):130-46. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weekly PM<sub>2.5</sub> samples were collected for one year (1999-2000) in Beijing and Shanghai and the carbonaceous species analyzed to investigate and compare their time series patterns and possible sources in the two biggest cities of China. Weekly carbonaceous concentrations varied in wide ranges with 8.6-59µg m<sup>-3</sup> for OC and 1.5-25.4µg m<sup>-3</sup> for EC in Beijing, and with 5.1-38.4µg m<sup>-3</sup> for OC and 2.3-13.0µg m<sup>-3</sup> for EC in Shanghai. Similar weekly and seasonal variations of OC and EC concentrations were found in each city though major combustion sources presented source-dependent emission characteristics and seasonal differences in emission amount for carbonaceous species. Both OC and EC maintained much higher concentrations in late fall through winter, probably due to enhanced emissions coupled with unfavorable meteorological conditions. In Beijing, the <sup>14</sup>C analysis of limited samples suggested there was a significant contribution (33-48%) of modern carbon to the total fine carbonaceous PM burden with higher fractions in the harvest seasons. The high mass ratios of excessive potassium to EC in both Beijing and Shanghai also indicated that biomass burning had important contribution to fine carbonaceous particles.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2005; · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    J David Mobley, Steven H Cadle
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    ABSTRACT: Emission inventories are an essential tool for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollution. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions, and techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are needed to enhance emission inventories. This workshop provided recommendations for improving emission factors, improving emission models, and reducing inventory uncertainty. Communication that increases cooperation between developers and users of inventories is essential. Emission inventories that incorporate these improvements will meet the challenges of the future.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 12/2004; 54(11):1422-39. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the concentration levels and temporal variations of the mineral component of PM2.5 in the ambient air of Beijing, weeklong samples were simultaneously collected for one year at Qinghuayuan and Chegongzhuang. The concentrations of five major crustal elements Al, Si, Ca, Mg, and Fe exhibited similar significant weekly variations, with their maximum values in the week of a serious dust event in the spring of 2000. Obvious seasonal pattern was also found for these elements, indicating different influences on fine mineral particles from the source emissions and meteorology in different seasons. Soil dust concentration increased from a low level in summer to the peak value (21.1 microg x m(-3)) in spring, suggesting that frequent dust events made a significant contribution to fine soil dust. A large number of construction activities in Beijing substantially increased the loading of fine calcium-bearing particles, and their emissions thus need to be further controlled.
    Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 10/2004; 25(5):26-30.
  • Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 03/2004; 72(2):233-9. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Coordinating Research Council held its thirteenth Vehicle Emissions Workshop in April 2003, when results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. Ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories is summarized here. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, the role of on-board diagnostic systems in inspection and maintenance programs, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as topics for future research.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 02/2004; 54(1):8-23. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand concentration levels and sources of trace elements in PM2.5(particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microns) concentration and composition in the ambient air of Beijing, weekly samples were simultaneously collected for one year in Chegongzhuang and Qinghuayuan. Trace elements exhibited similar significant weekly variations. The strongest weekly shift occurred in winter, which reached as high as a factor of 1.6 for two consecutive weeks. No obvious seasonal pattern was found for trace elements except for that their average concentrations were much higher in winter. The EFs of trace elements were lowest in spring, probably due to frequent dust storms resulting in reduced contribution of anthropogenic sources and increased contribution of soil dust. The ambient concentrations of Se, Br, and Pb were about 1000-8000 times higher than those expected from the crustal soil in Beijing. Se was most enriched in PM2.5, reflecting the characteristics of fine particles from coal burning in Beijing. The annual mean concentration of Pb of 0.31 microgram.m-3 did not exceeded the WHO annual standard, but was at very high level compared to those measured in Los Angles and Brisbane. Comparison analysis of Pb with Br and Se shows that coal burning is probably another major source of Pb in PM2.5 other than vehicle emission.
    Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 12/2003; 24(6):33-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) held its 12th workshop in April 2002, with nearly 90 presentations on the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research. This paper summarizes the presentations from researchers who are engaged in improving understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed mobile source emission models and emission inventories, results from gas- and particle-phase emissions studies from spark-ignition and diesel-powered vehicles (with an emphasis in this workshop on particle emissions), effects of fuels on emissions, evaluation of in-use emissions control programs, and efforts to improve our capabilities in performing on-board emissions measurements, as well as topics for future research.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 03/2003; 53(2):152-67. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weekly PM2.5 samples were collected in Shanghai, China at two sites, Tongji University and Hainan Road. Sampling started in March 1999 and was conducted for 1 year. The ambient mass concentration and chemical composition of the PM2.5 were determined. Chemical analyses included elemental composition, water-soluble ions, and organic and elemental carbon. Weekly PM2.5 mass concentrations ranged from 21 to 147 μg/m3, with annual average concentrations of 57.9 and 61.4 μg/m3 at the two sites, respectively. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was significant, with the highest concentrations observed from mid-November through December and the lowest from June through September. Ammonium sulfate and nitrate accounted for 41.6% of the PM2.5 mass with sulfate alone accounting for 23.4% of the PM2.5 mass. Carbonaceous material accounted for 41.4% of the PM2.5 mass, with 73% of that mass being organic, as defined by the TOR analysis method. Crustal components averaged 9.6% of the PM2.5 mass. Potassium, which was 95% water soluble, accounted for 2.7% of the PM2.5 mass.
    Atmospheric Environment 02/2003; · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Weekly PM2.5 samples were collected in Shanghai, China at two sites, Tongji University and Hainan Road. Sampling started in March 1999 and was conducted for 1 year. The ambient mass concentration and chemical composition of the PM2.5 were determined. Chemical analyses included elemental composition, water-soluble ions, and organic and elemental carbon. Weekly PM2.5 mass concentrations ranged from 21 to 147μg/m3, with annual average concentrations of 57.9 and 61.4μg/m3 at the two sites, respectively. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was significant, with the highest concentrations observed from mid-November through December and the lowest from June through September. Ammonium sulfate and nitrate accounted for 41.6% of the PM2.5 mass with sulfate alone accounting for 23.4% of the PM2.5 mass. Carbonaceous material accounted for 41.4% of the PM2.5 mass, with 73% of that mass being organic, as defined by the TOR analysis method. Crustal components averaged 9.6% of the PM2.5 mass. Potassium, which was 95% water soluble, accounted for 2.7% of the PM2.5 mass.
    Atmospheric Environment 01/2003; 37(4):499-510. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Analytical Chemistry - ANAL CHEM. 04/2002; 52(13).
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    ABSTRACT: The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) held its eleventh workshop in March 2001, focusing on results from the most recent real-world vehicle emissions research. We summarize the presentations from researchers engaged in improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models and emission inventories, the role of on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems in inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs, particulate matter (PM) emissions, contributions of diesel vehicles to the emission inventory, on-road emissions measurements, fuel effects, unregulated emissions, and microscale and modal emission models, as well as topics for future research.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 03/2002; 52(2):220-36. · 1.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
88.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2006
    • Tsinghua University
      • • Department of Environmental Engineering
      • • School of Environment
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • Tongji University
      • Department of Environmental Engineering
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2004
    • The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2001
    • General Motors Company
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Michigan-Dearborn
      Dearborn, Michigan, United States