ABSTRACT: The fibrinolytic enzyme from southern copperhead snake venom, fibrolase, contains 1 mole of zine per mole of protein, belongs
to the major family of metalloproteinases known as the metzincins, and has been shown to degrade fibrin clots in vitro and
in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a 3-dimensional model of fibrolase to investigate the geometry of conserved
and variable sequences between members of the snake venom metalloproteinases. When compared to atrolysin C (form D) or adamalysin
II (metzincins with completely different substrate specificity), fibrolase has approximately 60% overall sequence identity
and nearly 100% sequence similarity in the active site. We used the crystal structure of adamalysin II to build a 3-dimensional
homology model of fibrolase. Three disulfide bonds were constructed (the highly conserved disulfide bond [118–198] was maintained
from the adamalysin II structure and 2 new disulfide bonds were introduced between residues 158–182 and 160–165). We used
Sculpt 2.5 and HyperChem 5.0 to “dock” a substrate fragment octapeptide (HTEKLVTS), and a water molecule into the active site
cleft. We calculated the differential average homology profile for fibrolase compared to 8 hemorrhagic and 5 nonhemorrhagic
metzincins. We then determined the sequence regions that might be responsible for their substrate specificity. Our 3-dimensional
homology model shows that the variable sequences lie on the periphery of the identified active site region containing the
His triangle; this indicates that substrate specificity may depend on surface residues that are not directly associated with
the active site.
The AAPS Journal 04/2012; 3(2):78-90. · 5.09 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To introduce the adhesion site of proteins and/or cells on parylene C (PC)-coated medical devices that can be used as implantable biosensors or drug delivery capsules, the PC surfaces were initially modified by the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction to generate active chlorines. These chlorines were then employed to initiate the atom transfer radical polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (TBA) and form a polymer brush layer of polyTBA on PC; the acrylate groups in the polymer brushes were hydrolyzed to carboxylic acid groups and further activated into succinimidyl ester groups via the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling reaction. The PC surface grafted with polymer brushes and activated by succinimide showed efficient attachment of proteins, including gelatin, contortrostatin (CN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), all at high density on the PC surface. The CN density on the surface was evaluated for both monolayer and polymer brush-based coatings. Based on fluorescence measurements, the polymer brush gives a 60-fold higher surface protein density than the monolayer-based system. Gelatin was used as a model protein and covalently coated onto the modified PC surface for cell culture study. Substrates with gelatin coating showed a significantly higher cell attachment and proliferation in 7 days cultures as compared to the uncoated substrates. In addition, a conventional photolithography technique was coupled with the surface chemistry to successfully pattern the BSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate on the modified PC surfaces.
Acta biomaterialia 06/2011; 7(10):3746-56. · 3.98 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Fibrolase is the fibrinolytic enzyme isolated from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (southern copperhead snake) venom. The enzyme was purified by a three-step HPLC procedure and was shown to be homogeneous by standard criteria including reverse phase HPLC, molecular sieve chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme is a zinc metalloproteinase containing one mole of zinc. It is composed of 203 amino acids with a blocked amino-terminus due to cyclization of the terminal Gln residue. Fibrolase shares a significant degree of homology with enzymes of the reprolysin sub-family of metalloproteinases including an active site homology of close to 100%; it is rapidly inhibited by chelating agents such as EDTA, and by alpha2-macroglobulin (α2Μ). The enzyme is a direct-acting thrombolytic agent and does not rely on plasminogen for clot dissolution. Fibrolase rapidly cleaves the A(α)-chain of fibrinogen and the B(β)-chain at a slower rate; it has no activity on the γ-chain. The enzyme exhibits the same specificity with fibrin, cleaving the α-chain more rapidly than the β-chain. Fibrolase was shown to have very effective thrombolytic activity in a reoccluding carotid arterial thrombosis model in the canine. A recombinant version of the enzyme was made in yeast by Amgen, Inc. (Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) and called alfimeprase. Alfimeprase is identical to fibrolase except for a two amino acid truncation at the amino-terminus and the insertion of a new amino-terminal amino acid in the truncated protein; these changes lead to a more stable enzyme for prolonged storage. Alfimeprase was taken into clinical trials by Nuvelo, Inc. (San Carlos, CA), which licensed the enzyme from Amgen. Alfimeprase was successful in Phase I and II clinical trials for peripheral arterial occlusion (PAO) and central venous access device (CVAD) occlusion. However, in Phase III trials alfimeprase did not meet the expected end points in either PAO or CVAD occlusion and in a Phaase II stroke trial, and Nuvelo dropped further development in 2008.
Toxins. 04/2010; 2(4):793-808.
ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the biology of ovarian cancer (OC). Inhibitors of VEGF suppress tumor growth in OC models. Metronomic chemotherapy, defined as frequent administration of low doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy, suppresses tumor growth, possibly by inhibiting angiogenesis. A phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the antitumor activity and adverse effects of bevacizumab and metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in women with recurrent OC.
Patients with measurable disease and prior treatment with a platinum-containing regimen were eligible. Up to two different regimens for recurrent disease were allowed. Treatment consisted of bevacizumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks and oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg/d. The primary end point was progression-free survival at 6 months. Plasma levels of VEGF, E-selectin, and thrombospondin-1 were obtained serially.
Seventy patients were enrolled. The probability of being alive and progression free at 6 months was 56% (+/- 6% SE). A partial response was achieved in 17 patients (24%). Median time to progression and survival were 7.2 and 16.9 months, respectively. The most common serious toxicities were hypertension, fatigue, and pain. Bevacizumab-related toxicities included four episodes of gastrointestinal perforation or fistula, two episodes each of CNS ischemia and pulmonary hypertension, and one episode each of gastrointestinal bleeding and wound healing complication. There were three treatment-related deaths. Levels of VEGF, E-selectin, and thrombospondin-1 were not associated with clinical outcome.
The combination of bevacizumab and metronomic cyclophosphamide is active in recurrent OC. Further study of this combination is warranted.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2008; 26(1):76-82. · 18.37 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Adenovirus vector (AdV)-mediated gene delivery has been recently demonstrated in clinical trials as a novel potential treatment for malignant gliomas. Combined coxsackievirus B and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has been shown to function as an attachment receptor for multiple adenovirus serotypes, whereas the vitronectin integrins (alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5) are involved in AdV internalization. In resected glioma specimens, the authors demonstrated that malignant gliomas have varying levels of CAR, alphavbeta3, and alphavbeta5 expression.
A correlation between CAR expression and the transduction efficiency of AdV carrying the green fluorescent protein in various human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines and GBM primary cell lines was observed. To increase transgene activity in in vitro glioma cells with low or deficient levels of CAR, the authors used basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) as a targeting ligand to redirect adenoviral infection through its cognate receptor, FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), which was expressed at high levels by all glioma cells. These findings were confirmed by in vivo study data demonstrating enhanced transduction efficiency of FGF2-retargeted AdV in CAR-negative intracranial gliomas compared with AdV alone, without evidence of increased angiogenesis.
Altogether, the results demonstrated that AdV-mediated gene transfer using the FGF2/FGFR system is effective in gliomas with low or deficient levels of CAR and suggested that FGF2-retargeting of AdV may be a promising approach in glioma gene therapy.
Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2006; 103(6):1058-66. · 2.96 Impact Factor