[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inorganic elements, although required only in trace amounts, permit life and primary productivity because of their functions in catalysis. Every organism has a minimal requirement of each metal based on the intracellular abundance of proteins that use inorganic cofactors, but elemental sparing mechanisms can reduce this quota. A well-studied copper-sparing mechanism that operates in microalgae faced with copper deficiency is the replacement of the abundant copper protein plastocyanin with a heme-containing substitute, cytochrome (Cyt) c6. This switch, which is dependent on a copper-sensing transcription factor, copper response regulator 1 (CRR1), dramatically reduces the copper quota. We show here that in a situation of marginal copper availability, copper is preferentially allocated from plastocyanin, whose function is dispensable, to other more critical copper-dependent enzymes like Cyt oxidase and a ferroxidase. In the absence of an extracellular source, copper allocation to Cyt oxidase includes CRR1-dependent proteolysis of plastocyanin and quantitative recycling of the copper cofactor from plastocyanin to Cyt oxidase. Transcriptome profiling identifies a gene encoding a Zn-metalloprotease, as a candidate effecting copper recycling. One reason for the retention of genes encoding both plastocyanin and Cyt c6 in algal and cyanobacterial genomes might be because plastocyanin provides a competitive advantage in copper-depleted environments as a ready source of copper.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; 112(9). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1422492112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The host response to both synthetic and biologically-derived biomaterials is a temporally regulated, complex process that involves multiple interacting cell types. This complexity has classically limited the efficacy of in vitro assays for predicting the in vivo outcome, necessitating the use of costly animal models for biomaterials development. The present study addressed these challenges by developing an in vitro assay that characterized the dynamic inflammatory response of human monocyte-derived-macrophages to biomaterials, coupled with quasi-mechanistic analysis in silico analysis; Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Dynamic Network Analysis (DyNA). Synthetic and extracellular matrix (ECM) derived materials were evaluated using this method, and were then associated with the in vivo remodeling and macrophage polarization response in a rodent skeletal muscle injury model. PCA and DyNA revealed a distinct in vitro macrophage response to ECM materials that corresponded to constructive remodeling and an increased M2 macrophage presence in vivo. In contrast, PCA and DyNA suggested a response to crosslinked ECM and synthetic materials characteristic of a foreign body reaction and dominant M1 macrophage response. These results suggest that in silico analysis of an in vitro macrophage assay may be useful as a predictor for determining the in vivo host response to implanted biomaterials.
Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 07/2014; 21(2). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEC.2014.0167 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biologic scaffolds composed of mammalian extracellular matrix promote constructive remodeling of tissues via mechanisms that include the recruitment of endogenous stem/progenitor cells, modulation of the host innate immune response, and influence of cell fate differentiation. Such scaffold materials are typically prepared by decellularization of source tissues and are prepared as sheets, powder, or hydrogels. It is plausible that ECM derived from an anatomically distinct tissue would have unique or specific effects upon cells which naturally reside in this same tissue. The present study investigated the in vitro effect of a soluble form of ECM derived from central nervous system (CNS) tissue, specifically the spinal cord or brain, versus ECM derived from a non-CNS tissue; specifically the urinary bladder upon the behavior of neural stem cells (NSCs) and perivascular stem cells. All forms of ECM induce positive mitogenic, and chemotactic effects at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml without affecting stem cell viability. CNS derived ECMs also showed the ability to differentiate NSCs into neurons as indicted by βIII-tubulin expression in two-dimensional culture and neurite extension on the millimeter scale after 24 days of three-dimensional cultures in an ECM hydrogel. These results suggest that solubilized forms of ECM scaffold materials may facilitate the post injury healing response in CNS tissues.
Tissue Engineering Part A 09/2013; 20(1-2). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0186 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biologic scaffolds composed of mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) are routinely used for the repair and reconstruction of injured or missing tissues in a variety of pre-clinical and clinical applications. However, the structural and functional outcomes have varied considerably. An important variable of xenogeneic biologic scaffolds is the age of the animal from which the ECM is derived. The present study compared the in vivo host response and remodeling outcomes of biologic scaffolds composed of small intestinal submucosa (SIS)-ECM harvested from pigs that differed only in age. Results showed that there are distinct differences in the remodeling characteristics as a consequence of source animal age. Scaffolds derived from younger animals were associated with a more constructive, site appropriate, tissue remodeling response than scaffolds derived from older animals. Furthermore, the constructive remodeling response was associated with a dominant M2 macrophage response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acellular biologic scaffolds are commonly used to facilitate the constructive remodeling of three of the four traditional tissue types: connective, epithelial, and muscle tissues. However, the application of extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds to neural tissue has been limited, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS) where intrinsic regenerative potential is low. The ability of decellularized liver, lung, muscle, and other tissues to support tissue-specific cell phenotype and function suggests that CNS-derived biologic scaffolds may help to overcome barriers to mammalian CNS repair. A method was developed to create CNS ECM scaffolds from porcine optic nerve, spinal cord, and brain, with decellularization verified against established criteria. CNS ECM scaffolds retained neurosupportive proteins and growth factors and, when tested with the PC12 cell line in vitro, were cytocompatible and stimulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Urinary bladder ECM (a non-CNS ECM scaffold) was also cytocompatible and stimulated PC12 proliferation but inhibited migration rather than acting as a chemoattractant over the same concentration range while inducing greater rates of PC12 differentiation compared to CNS ECM. These results suggest that CNS ECM may provide tissue-specific advantages in CNS regenerative medicine applications and that ECM scaffolds in general may aid functional recovery after CNS injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue regeneration in response to injury in adult mammals is generally limited to select tissues. Nonmammalian species such as newts and axolotls undergo regeneration of complex tissues such as limbs and digits via recruitment and accumulation of local and circulating multipotent progenitors preprogrammed to recapitulate the missing tissue. Directed recruitment and activation of progenitor cells at a site of injury in adult mammals may alter the default wound-healing response from scar tissue toward regeneration. Bioactive molecules derived from proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to recruit a variety of progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo to the site of injury. The present study further characterized the population of cells accumulating at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products in a well-established model of murine digit amputation. After a mid-second phalanx digit amputation in 6-8-week-old adult mice, treatment with ECM degradation products resulted in the accumulation of a heterogeneous population of cells, a subset of which expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a marker of pluripotent and adult progenitor cells. Sox2+ cells were localized lateral to the amputated P2 bone and coexpressed progenitor cell markers CD90 and Sca1. Transgenic Sox2 eGFP/+ and bone marrow chimeric mice showed that the bone marrow and blood circulation did not contribute to the Sox2+ cell population. The present study showed that, in addition to circulating progenitor cells, resident tissue-derived cells also populate at the site of injury after treatment with ECM degradation products. Although future work is necessary to determine the contribution of Sox2+ cells to functional tissue at the site of injury, recruitment and/or activation of local tissue-derived cells may be a viable approach to tissue engineering of more complex tissues in adult mammals.
Tissue Engineering Part A 04/2012; 18(13-14):1454-63. DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2011.0550 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To generate a comprehensive profile of the protein composition of xenogeneic biomaterial, derived from porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM).
Tunica layers and muscularis mucosa were removed from bladders using mechanical delamination. UBM was prepared using a solution of peracetic acid in ethanol, lyophilized then milled into powder. UBM biomaterial was subjected to tryptic digests and components separated using high-performance liquid chromatography with an ion trap mass spectrometer and identified through databases.
A repertoire of 129 proteins with neurotrophic, antiangiogenic and tumor-suppressive activities and those associated with tissue remodeling and wound repair were identified.
This study provides the first insight into the complex nature of the UBM and how its application may be tailored for specific applications in regenerative medicine. We propose that the UBM be further investigated for reconstructive and regenerative remodeling of cardiac and dermal tissues, as well as peripheral nerves.
Regenerative Medicine 03/2012; 7(2):159-66. DOI:10.2217/rme.12.6 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages have been classified as having plastic phenotypes which exist along a spectrum between M1 (classically activated; pro-inflammatory) and M2 (alternatively activated; regulatory, homeostatic). To date, the effects of polarization towards an M1 or M2 phenotype have been studied largely in the context of response to pathogen or cancer. Recently, M1 and M2 macrophages have been shown to play distinct roles in tissue remodeling following injury. In the present study, the M1/M2 paradigm was utilized to examine the role of macrophages in the remodeling process following implantation of 14 biologically derived surgical mesh materials in the rat abdominal wall. In situ polarization of macrophages responding to the materials was examined and correlated to a quantitative measure of the observed tissue remodeling response to determine whether macrophage polarization is an accurate predictor of the ability of a biologic scaffold to promote constructive tissue remodeling. Additionally the ability of M1 and M2 macrophages to differentially recruit progenitor-like cells in vitro, which are commonly observed to participate in the remodeling of those ECM scaffolds which have a positive clinical outcome, was examined as a possible mechanism underlying the differences in the observed remodeling responses. The results of the present study show that there is a strong correlation between the early macrophage response to implanted materials and the outcome of tissue remodeling. Increased numbers of M2 macrophages and higher ratios of M2:M1 macrophages within the site of remodeling at 14 days were associated with more positive remodeling outcomes (r(2)=0.525-0.686, p<0.05). Further, the results of the present study suggest that the constructive remodeling outcome may be due to the recruitment and survival of different cell populations to the sites of remodeling associated with materials that elicit an M1 vs. M2 response. Both M2 and M0 macrophage conditioned media were shown to have higher chemotactic activities than media conditioned by M1 macrophages (p<0.05). A more thorough understanding of these issues will logically influence the design of next generation biomaterials and the development of regenerative medicine strategies for the formation of functional host tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used successfully in preclinical models and humans for constructive remodeling of functional, site-appropriate tissue after injury. The mechanisms underlying ECM-mediated constructive remodeling are not completely understood, but scaffold degradation and site-directed recruitment of progenitor cells are thought to play critical roles. Previous studies have identified a cryptic peptide derived from the C-terminal telopeptide of collagen IIIα that has chemotactic activity for progenitor cells. The present study characterized the osteogenic activity of the same peptide in vitro and in vivo in an adult murine model of digit amputation. The present study showed that the cryptic peptide increased calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in human perivascular stem cells in vitro. Treatment with the cryptic peptide in a murine model of mid-second phalanx digit amputation led to the formation of a bone nodule at the site of amputation. In addition to potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone injuries and facilitation of reconstructive surgical procedures, cryptic peptides with the ability to alter stem cell recruitment and differentiation at a site of injury may serve as powerful new tools for influencing stem cell fate in the local injury microenvironment.
Tissue Engineering Part A 07/2011; 17(23-24):3033-44. DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2011.0257 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used successfully in preclinical models and humans for constructive remodeling of functional, site-appropriate tissue after injury. The mechanisms underlying ECM-mediated constructive remodeling are not completely understood, but scaffold degradation and site-directed recruitment of both differentiated and progenitor cells are thought to play critical roles. Previous studies have shown that degradation products of ECM scaffolds can recruit a population of progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. The present study identified a single cryptic peptide derived from the α subunit of the collagen III molecule that is chemotactic for a well-characterized perivascular stem cell in vitro and causes the site-directed accumulation of progenitor cells in vivo. The oligopeptide was additionally chemotactic for human cortical neural stem cells, rat adipocyte stem cells, C2C12 myoblast cells, and rat Schwann cells in vitro. In an adult murine model of digit amputation, treatment with this peptide after mid-second phalanx amputation resulted in a greater number of Sox2+ and Sca1+,Lin- cells at the site of injury compared to controls. Since progenitor cell activation and recruitment are key prerequisites for epimorphic regeneration in adult mammalian tissues, endogenous site-directed recruitment of such cells has the potential to alter the default wound healing response from scar tissue toward regeneration.
Tissue Engineering Part A 06/2011; 17(19-20):2435-43. DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2011.0036 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue and organ injury results in alterations of the local microenvironment, including the reduction in oxygen concentration and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The response of perivascular stem cells to these microenvironment changes are of particular interest because of their wide distribution throughout the body and their potential involvement in tissue and organ response to injury. The chemotactic, mitogenic, and phenotypic responses of this stem cell population were evaluated in response to a combination of decreased oxygen concentration and the presence of ECM degradation products. Culture in low-oxygen conditions resulted in increased proliferation and migration of the cells and increased activation of the ERK signaling pathway and associated integrins without a change in cell surface marker phenotype. The addition of ECM degradation products were additive to these processes. Reactive oxygen species within the cells were increased in association with the mitogenic and chemotactic responses. The increased proliferation and chemotactic properties of this stem cell population without any changes in phenotype and differentiation potential has important implications for both in vitro cell expansion and for in vivo behavior of these cells at the site of injury.
Tissue Engineering Part A 01/2011; 17(1-2):37-44. DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2010.0188 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biologic scaffold materials composed of mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used for the repair and reconstruction of injured tissues. An important, but unexplored variable of biologic scaffolds is the age of the animal from which the ECM is prepared. The objective of the present study was to compare the structural, mechanical, and compositional properties of small intestinal submucosa (SIS)-ECM harvested from pigs that differed only in age. Degradation product bioactivity of these ECM materials was also examined. Results showed that there are distinct differences in each of these variables among the various age source ECM scaffolds. The strength and growth factors content of ECM from 3-week-old animals is less than that of ECM harvested from 12, 26 or >52-week-old animals. The elastic modulus of SIS-ECM for 3 week and >52-week-old source was less than that of the 12 and 26 week source. Degradation products from all age source ECMs were chemotactic for perivascular stem cells, with the 12 week source the most potent, while the oldest source caused the greatest increase in proliferation. In summary, distinct differences exist in the mechanical, structural, and biologic properties of SIS-ECM harvested from different aged animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superfamily of prokaryotic inwardly rectifying (KirBac) potassium channels is homologous to mammalian Kir channels. However,
relatively little is known about their regulation or about their physiological role in vivo. In this study, we have used random mutagenesis and genetic complementation in K+-auxotrophic Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify activatory mutations in a range of different KirBac channels. We also show that the KirBac6.1 gene (slr5078) is necessary for normal growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Functional analysis and molecular dynamics simulations of selected activatory mutations identified regions within
the slide helix, transmembrane helices, and C terminus that function as important regulators of KirBac channel activity, as
well as a region close to the selectivity filter of KirBac3.1 that may have an effect on gating. In particular, the mutations
identified in TM2 favor a model of KirBac channel gating in which opening of the pore at the helix-bundle crossing plays a
far more important role than has recently been proposed.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2010; 285(52):40754-40761. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biologic materials from various species and tissues are commonly used as surgical meshes or scaffolds for tissue reconstruction. Extracellular matrix (ECM) represents the secreted product of the cells comprising each tissue and organ, and therefore provides a unique biologic material for selected regenerative medicine applications. Minimal disruption of ECM ultrastructure and content during tissue processing is typically desirable. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate effects of commonly used tissue processing steps upon porcine dermal ECM scaffold composition, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility. Processing steps evaluated included liming and hot water sanitation, trypsin/SDS/TritonX-100 decellularization, and trypsin/TritonX-100 decellularization. Liming decreased the growth factor and glycosaminoglycan content, the mechanical strength, and the ability of the ECM to support in vitro cell growth (p ≤ 0.05 for all). Hot water sanitation treatment decreased only the growth factor content of the ECM (p ≤ 0.05). Trypsin/SDS/TritonX-100 decellularization decreased the growth factor content and the ability of the ECM to support in vitro cell growth (p ≤ 0.05 for both). Trypsin/Triton X-100 decellularization also decreased the growth factor content of the ECM but increased the ability of the ECM to support in vitro cell growth (p ≤ 0.05 for both). We conclude that processing steps evaluated in the present study affect content, mechanical strength, and/or cytocompatibility of the resultant porcine dermal ECM, and therefore care must be taken in choosing appropriate processing steps to maintain the beneficial effects of ECM in biologic scaffolds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based scaffold materials have been used successfully in both preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. Results of numerous studies have shown that ECM scaffolds are capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of multiple cell types in vitro and of acting as inductive templates for constructive tissue remodeling after implantation in vivo. Adipose tissue represents a potentially abundant source of ECM and may represent an ideal substrate for the growth and adipogenic differentiation of stem cells harvested from this tissue. Numerous studies have shown that the methods by which ECM scaffold materials are prepared have a dramatic effect upon both the biochemical and structural properties of the resultant ECM scaffold material as well as the ability of the material to support a positive tissue remodeling outcome after implantation. The objective of the present study was to characterize the adipose ECM material resulting from three methods of decellularization to determine the most effective method for the derivation of an adipose tissue ECM scaffold that was largely free of potentially immunogenic cellular content while retaining tissue-specific structural and functional components as well as the ability to support the growth and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. The results show that each of the decellularization methods produced an adipose ECM scaffold that was distinct from both a structural and biochemical perspective, emphasizing the importance of the decellularization protocol used to produce adipose ECM scaffolds. Further, the results suggest that the adipose ECM scaffolds produced using the methods described herein are capable of supporting the maintenance and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells and may represent effective substrates for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to soft tissue reconstruction.
Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 11/2010; 17(4):411-21. DOI:10.1089/ten.TEC.2010.0342 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superfamily of prokaryotic inwardly rectifying (KirBac) potassium channels is homologous to mammalian Kir channels. However, relatively little is known about their regulation or about their physiological role in vivo. In this study, we have used random mutagenesis and genetic complementation in K(+)-auxotrophic Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify activatory mutations in a range of different KirBac channels. We also show that the KirBac6.1 gene (slr5078) is necessary for normal growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Functional analysis and molecular dynamics simulations of selected activatory mutations identified regions within the slide helix, transmembrane helices, and C terminus that function as important regulators of KirBac channel activity, as well as a region close to the selectivity filter of KirBac3.1 that may have an effect on gating. In particular, the mutations identified in TM2 favor a model of KirBac channel gating in which opening of the pore at the helix-bundle crossing plays a far more important role than has recently been proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection occurs after approximately 1% of hernia repair procedures. The resistance to infection of the repair materials is therefore an important consideration. We evaluated the infection resistance of five different materials in a rat model of body wall repair, two of which, urinary bladder matrix (UBM-ECM) and Revive, were not previously evaluated in a controlled model of infection.
An inoculum of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus was delivered to the wound site following implantation of an autograft, UBM-ECM, Proceed, Prolene, or Revive. Infection was monitored by white blood cell counts, body temperature, bacterial culture, and histomorphologic analysis of the implant site.
Infection was shown in all groups through increased white blood cell count and body temperature. Animals with UBM-ECM returned to pre-surgery body temperature before all other groups. Substantial bacterial clearance was found in the autograft, UBM-ECM, and Prolene. Histomorphologic analysis showed evidence for persistent bacterial infection in Prolene, Proceed, and Revive 28 d after implantation, whereas the autograft and UBM-ECM appeared free of infection. The autograft showed a pyogranulomatous inflammatory reaction at 28 d while UBM-ECM was similar to uninfected controls.
Superior infection resistance was shown by UBM-ECM compared with the other materials, which were substantially equivalent. Histomorphologic analysis clearly showed an increased ability to resist persistent bacterial infection for UBM-ECM. Our results suggest UBM-ECM may be useful as a repair material in areas of high risk for infection.
Journal of Surgical Research 09/2010; 173(1):38-44. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2010.08.035 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor and stem cells to a site of injury. Bioactive molecules resulting from degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to recruit a variety of progenitor and stem cells in vitro in adult mammals. The ability to recruit multipotential cells to the site of injury by in vivo administration of chemotactic ECM degradation products in a mammalian model of digit amputation was investigated in the present study. Adult, 6- to 8-week-old C57/BL6 mice were subjected to midsecond phalanx amputation of the third digit of the right hind foot and either treated with chemotactic ECM degradation products or left untreated. At 14 days after amputation, mice treated with ECM degradation products showed an accumulation of heterogeneous cells that expressed markers of multipotency, including Sox2, Sca1, and Rex1 (Zfp42). Cells isolated from the site of amputation were capable of differentiation along neuroectodermal and mesodermal lineages, whereas cells isolated from control mice were capable of differentiation along only mesodermal lineages. The present findings demonstrate the recruitment of endogenous stem cells to a site of injury, and/or their generation/proliferation therein, in response to ECM degradation products.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2009; 107(8):3351-5. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0905851106 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Cu(I) metallochaperone, Atx1, interacts with the amino-terminal domain of a Cu(I)-transporting ATPase, PacS(N), but not with a domain of related Zn-transporting ATPase, ZiaA(N) in Synechocystis PCC 6803. This is thought to prevent ZiaA(N) from acquiring Cu(I), which it binds more tightly than Zn. Solution structures of Atx1, PacS(N), and the heterodimer were previously described. Here we report solution structural studies of the ZiaA(N) soluble domain. Apo-ZiaA(N) has a typical ferredoxin-like fold followed by an atypical 34 residues of unstructured polypeptide containing a His(7) motif. ZiaA(N) competes with the metallochromic indicator 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol for 1 equiv of Zn, which can be displaced by thiol-modifying p-mercuriphenylsulfonic acid, establishing that a high-affinity site involves thiols of the CXXC motif within the ferredoxin-like fold. A single equivalent of Zn affects nuclear magnetic resonance signals arising from the CXXC motif as well as all seven His residues. The presence of NMR-line broadening in both sites implies that Zn(1)-ZiaA(N) undergoes exchange phenomena, consistent with CXXC-bound Zn coincidentally sampling various His ligands. These Zn-dependent dynamic changes could either aid metal transfer or alter intramolecular interactions. No formation of Atx1-Cu(I)-ZiaA(N) heterodimers was observed, and in the presence of equimolar ZiaA(N) and PacS(N), only Atx1-Cu(I)-PacS(N) complexes were detected. Residues flanking the CXXC motif of PacS(N) (R(13)-ASS(20)) differ in charge and bulk from those of ZiaA(N) (D(18)-KLK(25)) and make contacts in the Atx1-Cu(I)-PacS(N) complex. Crucially, swapping these residues flanking the CXXC motifs of ZiaA(N) and PacS(N) reciprocally swaps partner choice by Atx1. These few residues of the two ATPases have diverged during evolution to bias Atx1 interactions in favor of PacS(N) rather than ZiaA(N.).
European Journal of Biochemistry 08/2009; 15(1):87-98. DOI:10.1007/s00775-009-0568-7 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel ArsR-SmtB family transcriptional repressor, KmtR, has been characterized from mycobacteria. Mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lacking kmtR show elevated expression of Rv2025c encoding a deduced CDF-family metal exporter. KmtR-dependent repression of the cdf and kmtR operator-promoters was alleviated by nickel and cobalt in minimal medium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and fluorescence anisotropy show binding of purified KmtR to nucleotide sequences containing a region of dyad symmetry from the cdf and kmtR operator-promoters. Incubation of KmtR with cobalt inhibits DNA complex assembly and metal-protein binding was confirmed. KmtR is the second, to NmtR, characterized ArsR-SmtB sensor of nickel and cobalt from M. tuberculosis suggesting special significance for these ions in this pathogen. KmtR-dependent expression is elevated in complete medium with no increase in response to metals, whereas NmtR retains a response to nickel and cobalt under these conditions. KmtR has tighter affinities for nickel and cobalt than NmtR consistent with basal levels of these metals being sensed by KmtR but not NmtR in complete medium. More than a thousand genes encoding ArsR-SmtB-related proteins are listed in databases. KmtR has none of the previously defined metal-sensing sites. Substitution of His88, Glu101, His102, His110, or His111 with Gln generated KmtR variants that repress the cdf and kmtR operator-promoters even in elevated nickel and cobalt, revealing a new sensory site. Importantly, ArsR-SmtB sequence groupings do not correspond with the different sensory motifs revealing that only the latter should be used to predict metal sensing.