Stephen M Russell

Vienna General Hospital, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (27)68.84 Total impact

  • Stephen M Russell, Joshua Marcus, David Levine
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    ABSTRACT: Using the sequential inflation of 2 sphygmomanometers, Lewis et al. (Heart 16:1-32, 1931) concluded that compressive neuropathy was secondary to ischemia of the compressed nerve segment. Despite subsequent animal studies demonstrating that compressive lesions are more likely the result of mechanical nerve deformation, disagreement remains as to the etiology of rapidly reversible compressive neuropathy. Our hypothesis is that, during the classic sphygmomanometer experiments, the areas of nerve compression at the cuff margins overlapped, so that a region of transient nerve deformation persisted during the second cuff inflation. If true, the original results by Lewis et al. would be consistent with a mechanical pathogenesis. In our study, 6 patients underwent sequential upper extremity dual-sphygmomanometer inflation with serial assessment by grip-dynamometer and 2-point discrimination. The order of cuff inflation, as well as the distance between cuffs, was varied. Mean grip force and 2-point discrimination values were statistically compared between conditions. Patients with overlapping cuffs maintained their neurological deficits, whereas those with separated cuffs experienced an improvement in both grip force (P = 0.02) and 2-point discrimination (P < 0.001) when cuff inflation was switched. Rapidly reversible compressive neuropathy seems to be secondary to mechanical nerve deformation at the margins of the compressive force rather than the result of ischemia of the compressed nerve segment. Overlap of the mechanically deformed nerve segments likely explains why neurological deficits persisted despite sequential cuff inflation in the classic experiments by Lewis et al.
    Neurosurgery 10/2009; 65(4 Suppl):A174-80. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2 aims of this study were as follows: 1) to establish outcome measures of nerve regeneration in an axolotl model of peripheral nerve injury; and 2) to define the timing and completeness of reinnervation in the axolotl following different types of sciatic nerve injury. The sciatic nerves in 36 axolotls were exposed bilaterally in 3 groups containing 12 animals each: Group 1, left side sham, right side crush; Group 2, left side sham, right side nerve resected and proximal stump buried; and Group 3 left side cut and sutured, right side cut and sutured with tibial and peroneal divisions reversed. Outcome measures included the following: 1) an axolotl sciatic functional index (ASFI) derived from video swim analysis; 2) motor latencies; and 3) MR imaging evaluation of nerve and muscle edema. For crush injuries, the ASFI returned to baseline by 2 weeks, as did MR imaging parameters and motor latencies. For buried nerves, the ASFI returned to 20% below baseline by 8 weeks, with motor evoked potentials present. On MR imaging, nerve edema peaked at 3 days postintervention and gradually normalized over 12 weeks, whereas muscle denervation was present until a gradual decrease was seen between 4 and 12 weeks. For cut nerves, the ASFI returned to 20% below baseline by Week 4, where it plateaued. Motor evoked potentials were observed at 2-4 weeks, but with an increased latency until Week 6, and MR imaging analysis revealed muscle denervation for 4 weeks. Multiple outcome measures in which an axolotl model of peripheral nerve injury is used have been established. Based on historical controls, recovery after nerve injury appears to occur earlier and is more complete than in rodents. Further investigation using this model as a successful "blueprint" for nerve regeneration in humans is warranted.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2009; 112(4):880-9. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) document the presence and degree of vascularity in gliomas of different pathologic grades and (2) determine whether the presence of abnormal vascularity, determined by catheter angiography, correlates with a shortened survival. As part of a protocol for radiographic data acquisition that was used in a computer-assisted, stereotactic system, all patients who underwent biopsy or resection of a newly diagnosed glioma between 1994 and 2000 at our institution routinely underwent preoperative catheter angiography. The presence and degree of tumor vascularity were recorded and then correlated with survival and pathologic grade. The confounding effects of age, KPS, adjuvant treatment, and extent of resection on survival were considered. Two hundred thirty-one patients were included in this study. The mean follow-up of survivors was 7.8 years. Tumor vascularity correlated with a shortened survival (proportional hazards RR for survival, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58-0.82). This correlation persisted after correction for age, KPS score, adjuvant therapy, and extent of resection (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97). Abnormal vascularity was present in 25 (30%) of 82 low-grade (WHO grade 2) gliomas. Overall, the extent of vascularity (none [120 patients, 52%], blush [63 patients, 27%], neovessels [25 patients, 11%], and arteriovenous shunting [23 patients, 10%]) correlated with worse WHO tumor grade (P < .0001). The presence of abnormal vascularity correlates with both a shortened survival and higher grade of malignancy. These findings underscore the importance of antiangiogenesis factor investigation and drug development for the treatment of gliomas, regardless of their pathologic grade.
    Surgical Neurology 04/2009; 72(3):242-6; discussion 246-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Jae W Song, Lynda J Yang, Stephen M Russell
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve regeneration research has unfolded a wealth of basic science knowledge in the last century. Today, that knowledge has become the fundamental groundwork for evolving clinical applications to treat peripheral nerve defects. This article discusses two clinical applications that have been investigated thoroughly in the laboratory setting for decades and recently tested in the clinical setting: nerve allotransplantation to graft nerve defects, and brief electrical stimulation to promote nerve regeneration. It also discusses the generation of Thy-1-XFP transgenic mice, which express fluorescent proteins in the nervous system and provide new avenues for investigating peripheral nerve regeneration.
    Neurosurgery clinics of North America 02/2009; 20(1):121-31, viii. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE MR neurography (MRN) is a fairly new technique for imaging inherent nerve pathology and associated abnormalities. This technique has been applied more recently to 3T with predominantly small field of view (FOV) images and supplemented by large body coil images. The purpose of our study was to: 1) Describe 3T MRN technique using an array of surface coils to allow high resolution imaging with extended field of view of the entire nerve. 2) Compare MRN with EMGs and conventional MRI. 3) Assess the impact on clinical management. 4) Correlate MRN with surgical results. METHOD AND MATERIALS We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, MRI, and surgical results in 21 patients (11 females, 10 males, mean age, 44, range 14-63) referred from one neurosurgeon. All patients underwent both 3T extended FOV MRN and EMGs, and 9 patients underwent conventional MRIs prior to MRN. The pre MRN clinical indications were trauma (n=10), nerve compression (n=9), and tumor (n=2). The regions imaged included: pelvis/thigh (n=13), elbow/forearm (n=4), knee/calf (n=3), shoulder (n=1). RESULTS 11/21 (52%) patients had concordant results between 3T MRN and EMGs. In 8 of these patients (73%), 3T MRN results provided additional significant impact on their clinical management. 10/21 (48%) patients had disconcordant 3T MRN and EMG results. The 3T MRN results in these patients, however, provided significant information and contributed to the clinical management. In the 9 patients who underwent conventional MRI, only one study (11%) was diagnostic but MRN provided additional information. 18/21 (85%) patients had their management significantly altered by the 3T MRN results. 13 of the 21 patients underwent subsequent surgery, and the rest were treated conservatively. Significantly, in the disconcordant EMG/MRN group (n=10), surgery was avoided in 5 patients (50%) based on the 3T MRN findings. In 11 of 13 patients (85%), intra-operative pathology agreed with 3T MRN results. CONCLUSION Extended FOV 3T MRN is an accurate technique for assessing peripheral neuropathy. In limited numbers, it appears superior to conventional MRI and may have a greater impact on clinical management than EMGs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION High-resolution 3T MRN with extended field of view may play a significant role in the diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral neuropathy.
    Radiological Society of North America 2008 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 12/2008
  • Stephen M Russell, Vallo Benjamin
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of contemporary multiplanar imaging, microsurgical observations, and long-term follow-up in 60 consecutive patients with sphenoid ridge meningiomas, we propose a modification to Cushing's classification of these tumors. This article will concentrate on patients from this series with global medial sphenoid ridge tumors. Data were collected prospectively for 35 patients with global meningiomas arising from the medial portion of the sphenoid ridge that were surgically treated between 1982 and 2002. All patients were followed for the entire length of this study (mean, 12.8 yr). The tumor size ranged from 2 to 8 cm (mean, 4.5 cm). Of the 24 patients with purely intradural tumors, four (17%) had Simpson Grade I and 19 had Simpson Grade II resections; 23 (96%) had gross total resections. Of the 11 patients with tumors extending extradurally (i.e., cavernous sinus), one (9%) patient had a Simpson Grade II resection, whereas nine (82%) had Simpson Grade III resections, with the latter being all visible tumor removed except that in the cavernous sinus. One (9%) of these 11 patients had a gross total resection, and 9 (82%) had radical resections, with the latter defined as total removal of all intradural tumor. The overall morbidity rate was 18%. There was no surgical mortality or symptomatic cerebral infarction. An accurate classification of global medial sphenoid meningiomas is mandatory to gain insight into their clinical behavior and for understanding the long-term efficacy and safety of available treatment options. Primary medial sphenoid ridge tumors consistently involve the unilateral arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation, and therefore, the resection of tumor from around these arteries is the most important operative nuance for their safe excision.
    Neurosurgery 07/2008; 62(6 Suppl 3):1169-81. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • N Post, S M Russell, P Huang, J Jafar
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    ABSTRACT: Subcentimeter arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located in deep or eloquent cortex can be difficult to localize intraoperatively and safely remove with surgery. Nevertheless, surgical resection may be the optimal definitive treatment option available for select patients. In this communication, we describe our experience using a framed-based stereotactic approach for resecting these AVMs. The operative records of all AVMs treated at our institution over an 8-year period (1996-2004) were reviewed. 180 surgically treated AVMs were identified. From this group of patients, frame-based stereotaxy was used for 8 AVMs (4.4%) in 7 patients. The angiograms, operative reports, and medical records for these 7 patients were retrospectively reviewed with attention to neurological outcome, extent of AVM obliteration, and anatomic factors that impacted the decision to employ a frame-based stereotactic approach. All AVMs removed with this technique were less than 1 cm in diameter. Angiography confirmed complete resection in all cases. No new neurological deficits occurred in any patient. By providing highly accurate three-dimensional nidus localization and minimizing approach-related brain manipulation, frame-based stereotaxy reduces the morbidity associated with resection of subcentimeter AVMs located in deep or eloquent regions of the brain. This technique makes a definitive surgical cure available to patients who otherwise would only be considered for radiosurgery.
    min - Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery 05/2008; 51(2):114-8. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to examine the utility of acetazolamide TCD ultrasound in the evaluation of MCA collateral blood flow reserve in patients with carotid occlusive disease. Acetazolamide TCD and cerebral angiography were performed for 28 carotid territories in 14 patients with carotid occlusive disease. The percentage change in mean blood flow velocity and PI in the MCA was measured before and after 1 g of acetazolamide was administered. The carotid territories were divided into groups according their angiographic findings: (1) mild/moderate (<70%) vs severe (> or =70%) extracranial carotid artery stenosis, and (2) active collateral blood flow to the MCA territory vs no collateral blood flow to the MCA. After acetazolamide injection, the percentage increase in mean MCA velocity for mild/moderate vs severe carotid artery stenosis was 43% +/- 10% and 19% +/- 6%, respectively, indicating less collateral blood flow reserve in patients with severe stenosis (P = .04). The percentage decrease in the PI for MCA territories with vs without angiographic evidence of collateral blood flow was 4.6% +/- 4% and 16% +/- 3%, respectively (P = .04), indicating an exhausted vascular reserve in patients with evidence of active collateral blood flow on angiography. A decrease in the PI after acetazolamide administration represents a safe and noninvasive indicator of limited collateral blood flow reserve to the MCA territory ipsilateral to an extracranial carotid stenosis. Further study into the role acetazolamide TCD has in the preoperative evaluation of these patients, including threshold values, is warranted.
    Surgical Neurology 02/2008; 70(5):466-70; discussion 470. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Stephen M Russell
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    ABSTRACT: Using a fascicle-sparing approach, schwannomas and nonplexiform neurofibromas can often be removed without causing neurological deficit or neuropathic pain. This article provides a step-by-step description of how to remove these benign tumors using microsurgical techniques.
    Neurosurgery 10/2007; 61(3 Suppl):113-7; discussion 117-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a frameless stereotactic technique used to resect cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and to determine whether frameless stereotaxy during AVM resection could decrease operative times, minimize intraoperative blood losses, reduce postoperative complications, and improve surgical outcomes. Data for 44 consecutive patients with surgically resected cerebral AVMs were retrospectively reviewed. The first 22 patients underwent resection without stereotaxy (Group 1), whereas the next 22 patients underwent resection with the assistance of a frameless stereotaxy system (Group 2). The patient characteristics, AVM morphological features, and percentages of preoperatively embolized cases were statistically similar for the two treatment groups. The mean operative time for Group 1 was 497 minutes, compared with 290 minutes for Group 2 (P = 0.0005). The estimated blood loss for Group 1 was 657 ml, compared with 311 ml for Group 2 (P = 0.0008). Complication rates, residual AVM incidences, and clinical outcomes were similar for the two groups. Frameless stereotaxy allows surgeons to 1) plan the optimal trajectory to an AVM, 2) minimize the skin incision and craniotomy sizes, and 3) confirm the AVM margins and identify deep vascular components during resection. These benefits of stereotaxy were most apparent for small, deep AVMs that were not visible on the surface of the brain. Frameless stereotaxy reduces the operative time and blood loss during AVM resection.
    Neurosurgery 08/2007; 61(1 Suppl):445-53; discussion 453-5. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Stephen M Russell, Patrick J Kelly
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    ABSTRACT: We report the incidence and clinical evolution of postoperative deficits and supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome after volumetric stereotactic resection of glial neoplasms involving the posterior one-third of the superior frontal convolution. We investigated variables that may be associated with the occurrence of SMA syndrome. The postoperative clinical status of 27 consecutive patients who underwent resection of SMA gliomas was retrospectively reviewed. Neurological examination results were recorded 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postoperatively. The extent of tumor resection, the percentage of SMA resection, violation of the cingulate gyrus, and operative complications were tabulated. The overall incidence of SMA-related deficits was 26% (7 of 27 patients), with 3 patients having complete SMA syndrome and 4 patients having partial SMA syndrome. Two additional patients (7.5%) had other postoperative deficits, including one with mild facial weakness and one with transient aphasia. The resection of low-grade gliomas was associated with a higher incidence of SMA syndrome, an outcome that likely reflects more complete removal of functional SMA cortex in this subset of patients. Intraoperative monitoring localized the precentral sulcus within the preoperatively defined tumor volume in 6 (22%) of 27 patients, thereby precluding gross total resection. All 27 patients had excellent outcomes at the 6-month follow-up examination. When the resection of SMA gliomas is limited to the radiographic tumor boundaries, the incidence and severity of SMA syndrome may be minimized. With the use of these resection parameters, patients with high-grade SMA gliomas are unlikely to experience SMA syndrome. These findings are helpful in the preoperative counseling of patients who are to undergo cytoreductive resection of SMA gliomas.
    Neurosurgery 08/2007; 61(1 Suppl):358-67; discussion 367-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Stephen M Russell, David G Kline
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    ABSTRACT: Complication avoidance during peripheral nerve surgery has received little attention in the neurosurgical literature. The goal of our two-part review is to discuss these possible complications, with this initial article highlighting the pitfalls associated with pre- and intraoperative assessment of nerve injuries, as well as the operative nuances used during brachial plexus exploration to minimize complications.
    Neurosurgery 11/2006; 59(4 Suppl 2):ONS441-7; discussion ONS447-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Stephen M Russell, David G Kline
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this two-part review is to discuss peripheral nerve surgery complications, along with the techniques and principles used to prevent them. In this second article, we concentrate on injuries, tumors, and entrapment of nerves in the extremities, including carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar nerve compression at the elbow.
    Neurosurgery 11/2006; 59(4 Suppl 2):ONS449-56; discussion ONS456-7. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Stephen M Russell, Nicholas Post, Jafar J Jafar
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to report our operative technique and lessons learned using saphenous vein conduits to revascularize the rostral basilar circulation (ie, bypass to the posterior cerebral or superior cerebellar arteries). We also review the evolution of this technique for the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) and complex posterior fossa aneurysms. Data were collected retrospectively for 8 consecutive patients undergoing rostral basilar circulation saphenous vein bypass grafts at our institution between 1989 and 2004 for the treatment of VBI or in conjunction with Hunterian ligation of complex posterior circulation aneurysms. The indications for treatment, pre- and postoperative neurologic status, angiographic results, operative complications, and long-term clinical outcomes were analyzed for each patient. With clinical and angiographic follow-up ranging from 3 months to 15 years, 7 of 8 bypasses remained patent, 3 of 3 aneurysms remained obliterated, and 4 of 5 patients with VBI experienced resolution of their preoperative symptoms. There were no surgery-related deaths, but 2 patients did experience major neurologic morbidity. The outcomes for the 217 total patients reported in the literature were as follows: 135 excellent (62%), 26 good (12%), 30 poor (14%), and 26 dead (12%). Despite the risk of serious neurologic complications with this procedure, when one considers the natural history of untreated patients, saphenous vein revascularization of the rostral basilar circulation remains an acceptable option. Although surgical technique has varied, patient selection criteria, graft patency, and patient outcomes have been relatively constant over the past 25 years.
    Surgical Neurology 10/2006; 66(3):285-97. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to report the incidence and clinical evolution of neurological deficits in patients who underwent resection of gliomas confined to the parietal lobe. Patient demographics, findings of serial neurological examinations, tumor location and neuroimaging characteristics, extent of resection, and surgical outcomes were tabulated by reviewing inpatient and office records, as well as all pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 28 consecutive patients who underwent resection of a glial neoplasm found on imaging studies to be confined to the parietal lobe. Neurological deficits were correlated with hemispheric dominance, location of the lesion within the superior or inferior parietal lobules, subcortical extension, and involvement of the postcentral gyrus. The tumors were located in the dominant hemisphere in 18 patients (64%); had a mean diameter of 39 mm (range 14-69 mm); were isolated to the superior parietal lobule in six patients (21%) and to the inferior parietal lobule in eight patients (29%); and involved both lobules in 14 patients (50%). Gross-total resection, documented by MR imaging, was achieved in 24 patients (86%). Postoperatively, nine patients (32%) experienced new neurological deficits, whereas seven (25%) had an improvement in their preoperative deficit. A correlation was noted between larger tumors and the presence of neurological deficits both before and after resection. Postoperatively higher-level (association) parietal deficits were noted only in patients with tumors involving both the superior and inferior parietal lobules in the dominant hemisphere. At the 3-month follow-up examination, five of nine new postoperative deficits had resolved. Neurological deterioration and improvement occur after resection of parietal lobe gliomas. Parietal lobe association deficits, specifically the components of Gerstmann syndrome, are mostly associated with large tumors that involve both the superior and inferior parietal lobules of the dominant hemisphere. New hemineglect or sensory extinction was not noted in any patient following resection of lesions located in the nondominant hemisphere. Nevertheless, primary parietal lobe deficits (for example, a visual field loss or cortical sensory syndrome) occurred in patients regardless of hemispheric dominance.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2006; 103(6):1010-7. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Vallo Benjamin, Stephen M Russell
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent article, our experience and knowledge of the clinical picture, microsurgical anatomy, and long-term surgical outcome of resecting tuberculum sellae meningiomas was described in detail. We now present our surgical technique in a pictorial and video format for the benefit of neurosurgeons in training, as well as for general critique. Attention is given to the details of surgery: patient positioning, surgical approaches, technique of tumor removal, and postoperative care.
    Neurosurgery 05/2005; 56(2 Suppl):411-7; discussion 411-7. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Nicholas Post, Stephen M Russell, Jafar J Jafar
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    ABSTRACT: The pretemporal approach has gained popularity for the treatment of basilar apex aneurysms. However, it requires the sacrifice of anterior temporal bridging veins to allow posterior temporal lobe retraction and, for patients with dominant pretemporal venous drainage, has the attendant risk of venous hypertension, hemorrhagic venous infarction, or seizures postoperatively. Alternatively, we have found that splitting the sylvian fissure, resecting the uncus, and applying posterolateral retraction to the medial temporal lobe provides a similar exposure to the basilar apex while preserving the anterior temporal bridging veins. To evaluate the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach to the basilar apex, we report our initial clinical results using this exposure in eight consecutive patients. A morphometric cadaveric analysis comparing this approach with the pretemporal approach was also performed. For the clinical study, all hospital charts and imaging studies were retrospectively reviewed for patients undergoing the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach for the treatment of an upper basilar trunk aneurysm between July 2000 and July 2002. In the anatomic study, six formalin-fixed cadaver specimens were used. Two sequential exposures of the basilar apex were performed on each specimen side. First, the pretemporal exposure was performed with anteroposterior temporal lobe retraction. Next, after the temporal lobe had been allowed to return to normal anatomic position, the retractor was repositioned on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe superficial to the uncus, and a 10 x 10 x 15-mm volume of uncus was removed. Morphometric measurements were performed for each exposure. Four basilar bifurcation and four superior cerebellar segment aneurysms in eight consecutive patients were successfully clip-ligated by use of the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach. All patients had temporal bridging veins that were preserved, as documented by angiography and operative reports. No patient developed a venous infarction or new postoperative seizures, with a mean follow-up of 9.75 months (range, 0.5-28 mo). The cadaveric analysis revealed that in addition to providing a similar exposure of the upper basilar complex, the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach provided additional exposure of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries compared with the pretemporal approach. When approaching the basilar bifurcation, the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach provides superior exposure of the ipsilateral superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries compared with the pretemporal approach, while preserving the anterior temporal bridging veins. This approach is most valuable in patients with dominant temporal venous drainage or when additional exposure of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral or superior cerebellar arteries is required.
    Neurosurgery 05/2005; 56(2 Suppl):274-80; discussion 274-80. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Stephen M Russell, Vallo Benjamin
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    ABSTRACT: THE ANTERIOR SURGICAL APPROACH to the cervical spine in patients with discogenic compressive pathological findings causing radiculopathy or myelopathy is a commonly performed operation with several technical variations. We describe the normal and pathological anatomy and the techniques of surgical decompression of the dura with autograft fusion, which we have used for the past 35 years.
    Neurosurgery 06/2004; 54(5):1144-9; discussion 1149. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Stephen M Russell, Vallo Benjamin
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    ABSTRACT: A POSTERIOR FORAMINOTOMY (hemilaminotomy and medial facetectomy) is indicated for the treatment of nerve root compression secondary to posterolateral disc herniation or spondylotic foraminal stenosis. We describe the normal and pathological anatomy of the cervical neural foramen as well as our surgical technique, which has been highly effective in cases of cervical discogenic radiculopathy.
    Neurosurgery 04/2004; 54(3):662-5; discussion 665-6. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Stephen M Russell, J Thomas Roland, John G Golfinos
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    ABSTRACT: Despite being the foundation of, or supplement to, many skull base exposures, the retrolabyrinthine approach has not been adequately illustrated in the skull base literature. As an aid to skull base surgeons in training, this article provides a step-by-step description of the microsurgical anatomy and operative nuances of this important technique.
    Skull Base Surgery 03/2004; 14(1):63-71; discussion 71. · 0.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

355 Citations
68.84 Total Impact Points


  • 2009
    • Vienna General Hospital
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2004–2007
    • New York University
      • Department of Otolaryngology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Brooklyn, NY, United States