[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is one of the treatment options for prostate cancer (PCa) but up to 25 % of men report about severe nocturia (nocturnal voiding). The combination of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) resembles glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HA and CS on nocturia, in men with nocturia after PCa radiotherapy.
Twenty-three consecutive patients with symptomatic cystitis after external radiotherapy for PCa were enrolled. Patients underwent bladder instillation therapy with HA and CS weekly for the first month and, afterwards, on week 6, 8 and 12. Nocturnal voiding frequency was assessed by item 3 (Q3) of the Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (ICSI) and item 2 (Q2) of the Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI). Data were analyzed with paired-samples T-test and adjusted for age.
Eighteen patients (78 %) reported about nocturia. Pre- and post-treatment ICSI-Q3 was 2.13 ± 0.28 and 1.61 ± 0.21 (-24.4 %, p = 0.001). With logistic regression analysis, both age and baseline ICSI-Q3 had a significant impact on nocturnal voiding frequency (r = 0.293, p = 0.011 and r = 0.970, p < 0.001). Pre- and post-treatment ICPI-Q2 was 1.87 ± 0.26 and 1.30 ± 0.25 (-30.5 %, p = 0.016); logistic regression analysis was without significant findings.
Bladder instillation treatment with a combination of HA and CS was effective in reducing nocturnal voiding frequency in men with post-radiation bladder pain for PCa. Randomized, controlled trials with sham treatment are needed to confirm our result.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are usually chronic, with a high prevalence and a substantial impact on quality of life; therefore, adequate therapies are desirable and crucial for these men. First line treatment for all patients with storage LUTS should always be behavioral. The gold standard for pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder/storage symptoms is a muscarinic receptor antagonist such as tolterodine. First-marketed antimuscarinics were limited by several adverse events such as dry mouth, constipation, tachycardia, accommodation disorder, and cognitive dysfunction, resulting in poor compliance and early treatment discontinuation in a large number of patients. In order to improve compliance with oral drug treatment, tolterodine was developed, providing a better efficacy/adverse event profile. Tolterodine is available in the following two formulations: the intermediate release (IR) and extended release form (ER). Tolterodine ER 4 mg administered once daily is pharmacokinetically equivalent to tolterodine IR 2 mg twice daily but has a lower incidence of adverse events and increased efficacy. Combination therapy of tolterodine and an alpha-blocker is significantly more efficacious than either monotherapy. Even when compared and added to tamsulosin, tolterodine shows a good safety profile. The incidence of acute urinary retention requiring catheterization and treatment withdrawals due to adverse events are low in all the studies included in the present review.
Current Urology Reports 09/2015; 16(9):531. DOI:10.1007/s11934-015-0531-9 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the feasibility and safety of open radical cystectomy (RC) under combined regional anesthesia (CRA) in high-risk octogenarian patients.
We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of high-risk, octogenarian bladder cancer patients submitted to open RC with CRA. Demographic and clinical data, intraoperative parameters and perioperative and postoperative complications were recorded using the Clavien-Dindo classification.
In total, 14 male and 4 female patients, with a median age of 82.5 years were enrolled. Ureterocutaneostomy was performed in 15 patients and Bricker ileal conduit in the remaining 3. Operative time ranged from 97 to 184 minutes. Five patients were transfused and no major intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperative complications 30 days later included ileus (Grade II) in 3 patients, surgical trauma infection in 1 patient (Grade II), respiratory infection in 2 patients (Grade III), and hydronephrosis with concurrent urinary tract infection in 3 patients (Grade III). No deaths occurred.
Our study showed that octogenarian, high-risk bladder cancer patients with indications for RC can safely undergo the surgical procedure under CRA, without apparent increase in major complications.
Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 07/2015; 9(7-8):E500-4. DOI:10.5489/cuaj.2063 · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has traditionally focused on the management of benign prostatic obstruction, but the contribution of bladder dysfunction has been recently recognized. Therefore, it is well understood that LUTS have multifactorial etiology and often occur in clusters and not in isolation. Voiding LUTS are highly prevalent in men, but storage LUTS have been proved to be more bothersome. alpha(1)-Blockers are the most widely used pharmacologic agents for the treatment of symptoms relating to benign prostatic enlargement due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), while antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for overactive bladder symptoms. A combination of the two drug classes would be a reasonable approach to treat men with both storage and voiding symptoms, and several short-term studies have proved the efficacy and safety of different combinations with an alpha(1)-blocker and an antimuscarinic. Following previous studies on the separate administration of solifenacin and tamsulosin, a fixed-dose combination tablet of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg and solifenacin succinate 6 mg has been recently introduced, and the current review evaluates the available data on the use of this fixed-dose combination in the treatment of LUTS in men with BPH.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 03/2015; 9:1707. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S53184 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Overactive bladder (OAB)/ storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a high prevalence affecting up to 90% of men over 80 years. The role of sufficient therapies appears crucial. In the present review, we analyzed the mechanism of action of tolterodine extended-release (ER) with the aim to clarify its efficacy and safety profile, as compared to other active treatments of OAB/storage LUTS.
A wide Medline search was performed including the combination of following words: “LUTS”, “BPH”, “OAB”, “antimuscarinic”, “tolterodine”, “tolterodine ER”. IPSS, IPSS storage sub-score and IPSS QoL (International Prostate Symptom Score) were the validated efficacy outcomes. In addition, the numbers of urgency episodes/24 h, urgency incontinence episodes/24 h, incontinence episodes/24 h and pad use were considered. We also evaluated the most common adverse events (AEs) reported for tolterodine ER.
Of 128 retrieved articles, 109 were excluded. The efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine ER Vs. tolterodine IR have been evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study in 1529 patients with OAB. A 71% mean reduction in urgency incontinence episodes was found in the tolterodine ER group compared to a 60% reduction in the tolterodine IR (p < 0.05). Few studies evaluated the clinical efficacy of α-blocker/tolterodine combination therapy. In patients with large prostates (prostate volume >29 cc) only the combination therapy significantly reduced 24-h voiding frequency (2.8 vs. 1.7 with tamsulosin, 1.4 with tolterodine, or 1.6 with placebo). A recent meta-analysis evaluating tolterodine in comparison with other antimuscarinic drugs demonstrated that tolterodine ER was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing micturition/24 h, urinary leakage episodes/24 h, urgency episodes/24 h, and urgency incontinence episodes/24 h. With regard to adverse events, tolterodine ER was associated with a good adverse event profile resulting in the third most favorable antimuscarinic. Antimuscarinic drugs are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for OAB / storage LUTS; several studies have demonstrated that tolterodine ER is an effective and well tolerated formulation of this class of treatment.
Tolterodine ER resulted effective in reducing frequency urgency and nocturia and urinary leakage in male patients with OAB/storage LUTS. Dry mouth and constipation are the most frequently reported adverse events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Disseminated BCG infection presenting as granulomatous hepatitis or pneumonitis is a very rare complication of this treatment. Here we report a case series of seven patients previously treated with BCG presenting with pneumonitis. In two of the cases, identification of Mycobacterium bovis was achieved with molecular methods.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014; 32(4):438-9. DOI:10.4103/0255-0857.142254 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of previous bladder cancer history with the recurrence and progression of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with adjuvant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and to evaluate their natural history.
Patients were divided into two groups based on the existence of previous bladder cancer (primary, non-primary). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the possible differences in the probabilities of recurrence and progression with respect to tumor history, while potential differences due to gender, tumor size (> 3 cm, < 3 cm), stage (pTa, T1), concomitant carcinoma in situ (pTis) and number of tumors (single, multiple) were also assessed. Univariate and multivariate models were employed. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare recurrence- and progression-free survival between the groups.
A total of 192 patients were included (144 with primary and 48 with non-primary tumors). The rates of recurrence and progression for patients with primary tumors were 27.8% and 12.5%, respectively. The corresponding percentages for patients with non-primary tumors were 77.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The latter group of patients displayed significantly higher probabilities of recurrence (p=0.000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.067 to 18.804) and progression (p=0.002; 95% CI, 1.609 to 7.614) in a univariate logistic regression analysis. Previous bladder cancer history remained significant in the multivariate model accounting for history, age, gender, tumor size , number of tumors, stage and concomitant pTis (p=0.000; 95% CI, 4.367 to 21.924 and p=0.002; 95% CI, 1.611 to 8.182 for recurrence and progression respectively). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that the non-primary group hadreduced progression- and recurrence-free survival.
Previous non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer history correlates significantly with recurrence and progression in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive disease treated with adjuvant BCG.
Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2014; 47(3). DOI:10.4143/crt.2014.050 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To examine the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on postoperative infection rate in patients with negative urine cultures undergoing ureteroscopy (URS).
Patients and methods:
Using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) URS Global Study database, patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral stones (n=1141) or kidney stones (n=184) not receiving antibiotic prophylaxis were matched with those who were predefined by risk factors, including gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and ureteral stent placement. Patient characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcomes, including the development of urinary tract infection (UTI) and fever, in the two groups were compared.
Antibiotic prophylaxis use differed widely across participating countries (13%-100%). Differences were found between patients who did or did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis regarding the frequency of anticoagulation medication, previous treatment with URS, stone burden, previous presence of kidney stones, duration of current URS, and complications post-URS. The prevalence of fever and UTI was low (≤2.2%) and similar in both groups. Factors predictive of postoperative UTI or fever were female gender, Crohn's and cardiovascular disease, a high stone burden, and an ASA score of II or higher.
In patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral or renal stones, rates of postoperative UTI and fever were not reduced by preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Female gender and a high ASA score were specific risk factors for postoperative infection in this patient group.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 07/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1089/end.2014.0470 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors.
International Journal of Endocrinology 03/2014; 2014:470592. DOI:10.1155/2014/470592 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
There exist no global standards for defining patient outcomes in renal stone surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of reporting of outcomes in studies investigating percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and to propose standardized consensus definitions for common outcomes.
We performed a literature search in PubMed for randomized controlled studies that investigated PCNL between 2002 and 2012. All outcomes reported were analyzed for each study. Each article was examined to identify the definition of each reported patient outcome. Various aspects of patient outcomes were presented to a panel of 85 experts in a Delphi process consisting of three rounds. The experts were asked to select options that they believed would best describe each outcome. Finally, we composed recommendations for definition of the most common outcomes reported in PCNL studies.
Eighty-three RCTs were included in the review of patient outcomes. Stone-free rate (55, 63.9%), length of stay (47, 56.6%), complication rate (44, 53.0%), and changes in hemoglobin (40, 48.2%) were the most frequently reported outcomes in randomized controlled trials of PCNL. Only 24/53 (45.3%) studies had a formal definition of stone-free status. Only 31/40 (77.5%) studies, which reported change in hemoglobin, had a unit of measurement; however, 22/40 (55.0%) did not report the timing of postoperative hemoglobin measurement. A set of recommendations for defining patient outcomes in PCNL is presented for the 15 most commonly reported outcomes in PCNL.
Wide variations and underspecification exist in the definition and reporting of outcomes in PCNL. We propose recommendations for the definition of outcomes based on a review of the literature and expert opinion. Standardization of outcome definition and reporting will improve the quality of urologic research.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 02/2014; 28(7). DOI:10.1089/end.2014.0057 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of stapling devices use on overweight and obese bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC).
Fifty-two overweight and 24 obese patients underwent open RC for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Bladder removal was performed using standard suture technique (SST) or multifire autosuture articulated vascular Endo-GIA (eG). Twenty-three overweight and 11 obese patients formed the SST arms and the remaining 29 overweight and 13 obese patients formed the eG arms. Intra and postoperative parameters and early postoperative complications (30 days) using the Clavien-Dindo classification were recorded.
SST and eG arms of overweight and obese patients were comparable in intra and postoperative parameters. Both overweight and obese eG arms had significantly lower estimated blood loss, lower number of transfused packed red blood cells units (PRBC) and lower cystectomy intraoperative time compared with the SST ones (p < 0.05). In obese patients, staplers use led to significantly lower total length of stay compared with SST (p = 0.041). Complications rate was significantly higher in the obese group compared with the overweight group (58.33% versus 30.77%, p = 0.042). No difference in complications was found between the SST and eG arms of the overweight and obese patients. No deaths occurred.
Staplers use in RC in overweight/obese patients is accompanied by significantly shorter intraoperative time, lower blood loss and lower number of transfused PRBC units, compared with SST. In obese patients, eG use led to shorter length of stay.
The Canadian Journal of Urology 02/2014; 21(1):7114-9. · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prognostic significance of age, gender, associated carcinoma in situ, stage, number of tumors, and tumor size for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Data were evaluated on 144 high-risk patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with BCG immunotherapy after the initial treatment with transurethral resection. According to their response to BCG, patients were divided into groups, and the differences in factors, associated with recurrence and progression, were evaluated. Patients were categorized into two groups: group A, complete responders without recurrence and without progression, and group B, patients with recurrence and with progression. Furthermore, group B was divided into two subgroups: group B1, patients with recurrence, and group B2, patients with progression. Univariate analysis of group B showed that only tumor size of >3 cm diameter (hazard ratio (HR) 11.99; 95 % confidence interval (CI) range 5.69-25.3; p < 0.001) is associated with recurrence. After multivariate analysis, the same factor appeared to be prognostic for recurrence as well. In addition, group B2 was statistically correlated with group B1. Univariate analysis proved that tumor stage (Ta or T1) is the unique factor associated with progression (HR 6.4; 95 % CI 1.29-31.9; p = 0.02). Tumor stage seems to be associated with disease's progression after the multivariate analysis too. Tumor size and stage may serve as prognostic factors, because of its independent correlation with recurrence and progression for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors treated with BCG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucuronidation, mediated by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) enzyme, is an important metabolic process during which steroids are converted to more easily excreted compounds in steroid target tissues, such as the prostate. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible correlation between UGT1A1 promoter gene polymorphism and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 421 blood samples were obtained from 138 consecutive patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hypeplasia (BPH group) and 283 healthy volunteers (control group). A(TA)6TAA promoter polymorphism of UGT1A1 gene was studied using the Fragment Analysis Software of an automated DNA sequencer and three genotypes (homozygous 7/7, heterozygous 6/7 and normal homozygous 6/6) were identified. No significant differences were observed between the BPH group and controls regarding the genotyping distribution of the three UGT1A1 promoter genotypes (P = 0.39). Also, no association was found between overall disease risk and the presence of the polymorphic homozygous genotype (TA(7)/TA)7) vs. TA(6)/TA(7) + TA(6)/TA(6)) (P = 0.31). Our data suggest that the TA repeat polymorphism of UGT1A1 is not associated with increased BPH risk susceptibility in Caucasian men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To present a summary of the 2013 version of the European Association of Urology guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
We conducted a literature search in computer databases for relevant articles published between 1966 and 31 October 2012. The Oxford classification system (2001) was used to determine the level of evidence for each article and to assign the grade of recommendation for each treatment modality.
Men with mild symptoms are suitable for watchful waiting. All men with bothersome LUTS should be offered lifestyle advice prior to or concurrent with any treatment. Men with bothersome moderate-to-severe LUTS quickly benefit from α1-blockers. Men with enlarged prostates, especially those >40ml, profit from 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) that slowly reduce LUTS and the probability of urinary retention or the need for surgery. Antimuscarinics might be considered for patients who have predominant bladder storage symptoms. The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil can quickly reduce LUTS to a similar extent as α1-blockers, and it also improves erectile dysfunction. Desmopressin can be used in men with nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria. Treatment with an α1-blocker and 5-ARI (in men with enlarged prostates) or antimuscarinics (with persistent storage symptoms) combines the positive effects of either drug class to achieve greater efficacy. Prostate surgery is indicated in men with absolute indications or drug treatment-resistant LUTS due to benign prostatic obstruction. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the current standard operation for men with prostates 30-80ml, whereas open surgery or transurethral holmium laser enucleation is appropriate for men with prostates >80ml. Alternatives for monopolar TURP include bipolar TURP and transurethral incision of the prostate (for glands <30ml) and laser treatments. Transurethral microwave therapy and transurethral needle ablation are effective minimally invasive treatments with higher retreatment rates compared with TURP. Prostate stents are an alternative to catheterisation for men unfit for surgery. Ethanol or botulinum toxin injections into the prostate are still experimental.
These symptom-oriented guidelines provide practical guidance for the management of men experiencing LUTS. The full version is available online (www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/12_Male_LUTS.pdf).
European Urology 03/2013; 64(1). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2013.03.004 · 13.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
The desired goals of treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include sustained, clinically significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life and/or slowing or preventing the progression of the condition. There is a continuing interest in research for new therapies for BPH due to the high prevalence of the condition and the unmet expectations of patients and physicians from the efficacy of available therapies.
The aim of this paper is to provide the latest data on new medical treatments for LUTS/BPH, defined as pharmacological treatments not yet commonly available and/or currently under investigation. Articles were identified by means of a computerised Google and PubMed search and a search of the trial registries.
Many potential targets for future drugs have been evaluated but it is obvious that there is a wide variation in the degree of mature of each therapy. Time and high-quality studies will decide which of these potential drugs will fade away without fulfilling the initial promises. At the moment, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are claiming their position in the armamentarium of BPH treatment.