Stavros Gravas

University of Thessaly, Iolcus, Thessaly, Greece

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Publications (84)257.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) represent one of the most common clinical complaints in adult men and have multifactorial aetiology. To develop European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the assessment of men with non-neurogenic LUTS. A structured literature search on the assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS was conducted. Articles with the highest available level of evidence were selected. The Delphi technique consensus approach was used to develop the recommendations. As a routine part of the initial assessment of male LUTS, a medical history must be taken, a validated symptom score questionnaire with quality-of-life question(s) should be completed, a physical examination including digital rectal examination should be performed, urinalysis must be ordered, post-void residual urine (PVR) should be measured, and uroflowmetry may be performed. Micturition frequency-volume charts or bladder diaries should be used to assess male LUTS with a prominent storage component or nocturia. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) should be measured only if a diagnosis of prostate cancer will change the management or if PSA can assist in decision-making for patients at risk of symptom progression and complications. Renal function must be assessed if renal impairment is suspected from the history and clinical examination, if the patient has hydronephrosis, or when considering surgical treatment for male LUTS. Uroflowmetry should be performed before any treatment. Imaging of the upper urinary tract in men with LUTS should be performed in patients with large PVR, haematuria, or a history of urolithiasis. Imaging of the prostate should be performed if this assists in choosing the appropriate drug and when considering surgical treatment. Urethrocystoscopy should only be performed in men with LUTS to exclude suspected bladder or urethral pathology and/or before minimally invasive/surgical therapies if the findings may change treatment. Pressure-flow studies should be performed only in individual patients for specific indications before surgery or when evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying LUTS is warranted. These guidelines provide evidence-based practical guidance for assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS. An extended version is available online ( This article presents a short version of European Association of Urology guidelines for non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The recommended tests should be able to distinguish between uncomplicated male LUTS and possible differential diagnoses and to evaluate baseline parameters for treatment. The guidelines also define the clinical profile of patients to provide the best evidence-based care. An algorithm was developed to guide physicians in using appropriate diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European urology. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Overactive bladder (OAB)/ storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a high prevalence affecting up to 90% of men over 80 years. The role of sufficient therapies appears crucial. In the present review, we analyzed the mechanism of action of tolterodine extended-release (ER) with the aim to clarify its efficacy and safety profile, as compared to other active treatments of OAB/storage LUTS.
    BMC Urology 10/2014; 14(1):84. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Disseminated BCG infection presenting as granulomatous hepatitis or pneumonitis is a very rare complication of this treatment. Here we report a case series of seven patients previously treated with BCG presenting with pneumonitis. In two of the cases, identification of Mycobacterium bovis was achieved with molecular methods.
    Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014; 32(4):438-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of previous bladder cancer history with the recurrence and progression of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with adjuvant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and to evaluate their natural history. Patients were divided into two groups based on the existence of previous bladder cancer (primary, non-primary). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the possible differences in the probabilities of recurrence and progression with respect to tumor history, while potential differences due to gender, tumor size (> 3 cm, < 3 cm), stage (pTa, T1), concomitant carcinoma in situ (pTis) and number of tumors (single, multiple) were also assessed. Univariate and multivariate models were employed. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare recurrence- and progression-free survival between the groups. A total of 192 patients were included (144 with primary and 48 with non-primary tumors). The rates of recurrence and progression for patients with primary tumors were 27.8% and 12.5%, respectively. The corresponding percentages for patients with non-primary tumors were 77.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The latter group of patients displayed significantly higher probabilities of recurrence (p=0.000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.067 to 18.804) and progression (p=0.002; 95% CI, 1.609 to 7.614) in a univariate logistic regression analysis. Previous bladder cancer history remained significant in the multivariate model accounting for history, age, gender, tumor size , number of tumors, stage and concomitant pTis (p=0.000; 95% CI, 4.367 to 21.924 and p=0.002; 95% CI, 1.611 to 8.182 for recurrence and progression respectively). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that the non-primary group hadreduced progression- and recurrence-free survival. Previous non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer history correlates significantly with recurrence and progression in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive disease treated with adjuvant BCG.
    Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2014; · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on post-operative infection rate in patients with negative urine cultures undergoing ureteroscopy (URS). Patients and Methods: Using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) URS Global Study database, patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral stones (n = 1141) or kidney stones (n = 184) not receiving antibiotic prophylaxis were matched with those who were by predefined risk factors, including gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and ureteral stent placement. Patient characteristics, operative data and post-operative outcomes, including the development of urinary tract infection (UTI) and fever, in the two groups were compared. Results: Antibiotic prophylaxis use varied widely across participating countries (13-100%). Differences were found between patients who did or did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis regarding the frequency of anticoagulation medication, previous treatment with URS, stone burden, previous presence of kidney stones, duration of current URS, and complications post-URS. The prevalence of fever and UTI was low (≤ 2.2%) and similar in both groups. Factors predictive of post-operative UTI or fever were female gender, Crohn's and cardiovascular disease, a high stone burden, and an ASA score of II or higher. Conclusions: In patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral or renal stones, rates of post-operative UTI and fever were not reduced by pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis. Female gender, and high ASA score were specific risk factors for post-operative infection in this patient group.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 07/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: There exist no global standards for defining patient outcomes in renal stone surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of reporting of outcomes in studies investigating PCNL and to propose standardized consensus definitions for common outcomes. Methods: We performed literature search in PubMed for randomized controlled studies that investigated percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 2002 and 2012. All outcomes reported were analyzed for each study. Each article was examined to identify the definition of each reported patient outcome. Various aspects of patient outcomes were presented to a panel of 85 experts in a Delphi process consisting of three rounds. The experts were asked to select options that they believed would best describe each outcome. Finally, we composed recommendations for definition of the most common outcomes reported in PCNL studies. Results: Eighty-three RCTs were included in the review of patient outcomes. Stone free rate 55 (63.9%), length of stay 47 (56.6%), complication rate 44 (53.0%) and changes in hemoglobin 40 (48.2%) were the most frequently reported outcomes in RCTs of PCNL. Only 24/53 (45.3%) studies had a formal definition of stone free status. Only 31/40 (77.5%) studies, which reported change in hemoglobin, had a unit of measurement however 22/40 (55.0%) did not report the timing of postoperative hemoglobin measurement. A set of recommendations for defining patient outcomes in PCNL is presented for the 15 most commonly reported outcomes in PCNL. Conclusions: Wide variations and under specification exist in the definition and reporting of outcomes in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We propose recommendations for the definition of outcomes based on a review of literature and expert opinion. Standardization of outcome definition and reporting will improve the quality of urological research.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 02/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of stapling devices use on overweight and obese bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC). Fifty-two overweight and 24 obese patients underwent open RC for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Bladder removal was performed using standard suture technique (SST) or multifire autosuture articulated vascular Endo-GIA (eG). Twenty-three overweight and 11 obese patients formed the SST arms and the remaining 29 overweight and 13 obese patients formed the eG arms. Intra and postoperative parameters and early postoperative complications (30 days) using the Clavien-Dindo classification were recorded. SST and eG arms of overweight and obese patients were comparable in intra and postoperative parameters. Both overweight and obese eG arms had significantly lower estimated blood loss, lower number of transfused packed red blood cells units (PRBC) and lower cystectomy intraoperative time compared with the SST ones (p < 0.05). In obese patients, staplers use led to significantly lower total length of stay compared with SST (p = 0.041). Complications rate was significantly higher in the obese group compared with the overweight group (58.33% versus 30.77%, p = 0.042). No difference in complications was found between the SST and eG arms of the overweight and obese patients. No deaths occurred. Staplers use in RC in overweight/obese patients is accompanied by significantly shorter intraoperative time, lower blood loss and lower number of transfused PRBC units, compared with SST. In obese patients, eG use led to shorter length of stay.
    The Canadian Journal of Urology 02/2014; 21(1):7114-9. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014:470592. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prognostic significance of age, gender, associated carcinoma in situ, stage, number of tumors, and tumor size for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Data were evaluated on 144 high-risk patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with BCG immunotherapy after the initial treatment with transurethral resection. According to their response to BCG, patients were divided into groups, and the differences in factors, associated with recurrence and progression, were evaluated. Patients were categorized into two groups: group A, complete responders without recurrence and without progression, and group B, patients with recurrence and with progression. Furthermore, group B was divided into two subgroups: group B1, patients with recurrence, and group B2, patients with progression. Univariate analysis of group B showed that only tumor size of >3 cm diameter (hazard ratio (HR) 11.99; 95 % confidence interval (CI) range 5.69-25.3; p < 0.001) is associated with recurrence. After multivariate analysis, the same factor appeared to be prognostic for recurrence as well. In addition, group B2 was statistically correlated with group B1. Univariate analysis proved that tumor stage (Ta or T1) is the unique factor associated with progression (HR 6.4; 95 % CI 1.29-31.9; p = 0.02). Tumor stage seems to be associated with disease's progression after the multivariate analysis too. Tumor size and stage may serve as prognostic factors, because of its independent correlation with recurrence and progression for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors treated with BCG.
    Tumor Biology 12/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucuronidation, mediated by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) enzyme, is an important metabolic process during which steroids are converted to more easily excreted compounds in steroid target tissues, such as the prostate. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible correlation between UGT1A1 promoter gene polymorphism and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 421 blood samples were obtained from 138 consecutive patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hypeplasia (BPH group) and 283 healthy volunteers (control group). A(TA)6TAA promoter polymorphism of UGT1A1 gene was studied using the Fragment Analysis Software of an automated DNA sequencer and three genotypes (homozygous 7/7, heterozygous 6/7 and normal homozygous 6/6) were identified. No significant differences were observed between the BPH group and controls regarding the genotyping distribution of the three UGT1A1 promoter genotypes (P = 0.39). Also, no association was found between overall disease risk and the presence of the polymorphic homozygous genotype (TA(7)/TA)7) vs. TA(6)/TA(7) + TA(6)/TA(6)) (P = 0.31). Our data suggest that the TA repeat polymorphism of UGT1A1 is not associated with increased BPH risk susceptibility in Caucasian men.
    Molecular Biology Reports 09/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To present a summary of the 2013 version of the European Association of Urology guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a literature search in computer databases for relevant articles published between 1966 and 31 October 2012. The Oxford classification system (2001) was used to determine the level of evidence for each article and to assign the grade of recommendation for each treatment modality. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Men with mild symptoms are suitable for watchful waiting. All men with bothersome LUTS should be offered lifestyle advice prior to or concurrent with any treatment. Men with bothersome moderate-to-severe LUTS quickly benefit from α1-blockers. Men with enlarged prostates, especially those >40ml, profit from 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) that slowly reduce LUTS and the probability of urinary retention or the need for surgery. Antimuscarinics might be considered for patients who have predominant bladder storage symptoms. The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil can quickly reduce LUTS to a similar extent as α1-blockers, and it also improves erectile dysfunction. Desmopressin can be used in men with nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria. Treatment with an α1-blocker and 5-ARI (in men with enlarged prostates) or antimuscarinics (with persistent storage symptoms) combines the positive effects of either drug class to achieve greater efficacy. Prostate surgery is indicated in men with absolute indications or drug treatment-resistant LUTS due to benign prostatic obstruction. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the current standard operation for men with prostates 30-80ml, whereas open surgery or transurethral holmium laser enucleation is appropriate for men with prostates >80ml. Alternatives for monopolar TURP include bipolar TURP and transurethral incision of the prostate (for glands <30ml) and laser treatments. Transurethral microwave therapy and transurethral needle ablation are effective minimally invasive treatments with higher retreatment rates compared with TURP. Prostate stents are an alternative to catheterisation for men unfit for surgery. Ethanol or botulinum toxin injections into the prostate are still experimental. CONCLUSIONS: These symptom-oriented guidelines provide practical guidance for the management of men experiencing LUTS. The full version is available online (
    European Urology 03/2013; · 10.48 Impact Factor
  • Stavros Gravas, Jean Jmch de la Rosette
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The desired goals of treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include sustained, clinically significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life and/or slowing or preventing the progression of the condition. There is a continuing interest in research for new therapies for BPH due to the high prevalence of the condition and the unmet expectations of patients and physicians from the efficacy of available therapies. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to provide the latest data on new medical treatments for LUTS/BPH, defined as pharmacological treatments not yet commonly available and/or currently under investigation. Articles were identified by means of a computerised Google and PubMed search and a search of the trial registries. Expert opinion: Many potential targets for future drugs have been evaluated but it is obvious that there is a wide variation in the degree of mature of each therapy. Time and high-quality studies will decide which of these potential drugs will fade away without fulfilling the initial promises. At the moment, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are claiming their position in the armamentarium of BPH treatment.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 01/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines recommend prophylactic antibiotic therapy for all patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We examined the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy with negative preoperative urine cultures. Of the 5,803 patients in the CROES (Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society) Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study database, a group of 162 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy with a negative baseline urine culture who did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis were matched on preoperative nephrostomy, the presence of staghorn calculi and diabetes status with an equal number of patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis. Comparisons were made between the 2 groups in terms of operative and postoperative outcomes, including the incidence of fever and other complications. Patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis had a lower mean (SD) age at 44.9 (14.2) vs 50.1 (14.4) years (p = 0.001). They were also more likely to be in the prone position during the procedure (71.6% vs 39.5%, p <0.001) but less likely to receive postoperative stenting (17.3% vs 32.7%, p = 0.002) than those who did not receive prophylaxis. The 2 groups were comparable in terms of all other baseline characteristics and operative factors. Patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis were less likely to experience fever (2.5% vs 7.4%, p = 0.040) and other postoperative complications (1.9% vs 22.0%, p <0.0001), and had a higher stone-free rate after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (86.3% vs 74.4%, p = 0.006). Antibiotic prophylaxis of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy with a negative baseline urine culture is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative fever and other complications.
    The Journal of urology 07/2012; 188(3):843-7. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the female sexual function in relation to hormonal status in pre- and postmenopausal women with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A total of 43 premenopausal (mean age 42.1±4.9) and 58 postmenopausal (mean age 59.9±4.8) women were included in the study. All women filled out the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Testosterone, estradiol and progesterone were measured. After polysomnography, women were allocated to a not-severe OSA group (Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) 10-30) and a severe OSA group (AHI >30). Healthy subjects comprised the control group. Severe OSA women in both pre- and post-menopausal group were found to have significantly lower mean FSFI score (16.5±4.0 and 16.9±4.7, respectively) compared with not-severe OSA (23.4±5.5, P<0.01 and 21.8±7.5, P<0.05) and control subjects (27.0±5.5, P<0.01 and 24.0±6.7, P<0.01). Progesterone, which was significantly lower in severe OSA premenopausal women (0.26±0.2) compared with not-severe OSA (0.55±0.14, P<0.01) and control group (0.62±0.16, P<0.01), correlated significantly with FSFI (r=0.39, P<0.01). Our study demonstrated that OSA is associated with sexual dysfunction in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women in a dose-related fashion. Regarding premenopausal women, our results indicated that progesterone may play a role in the association between OSA and female sexual dysfunction.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 7 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ijir.2012.20.
    International journal of impotence research 06/2012; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the learning curve for fluorescence cystoscopy using hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride (HAL) in patients with bladder cancer. Fifty patients underwent bladder instillation with HAL. Two senior residents inspected separately the bladder using white light cystoscopy, followed by fluorescence cystoscopy and mapped the lesions. An experienced with photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) urologist also performed both cystoscopies, mapped, resected or cold biopsied suspect lesions under the supervision of another experienced urologist. To evaluate the learning curve, patients were divided into five subgroups, including group 1 (patients 1-10), group 2 (11-20), group 3 (21-30), group 4 (31-40) and group 5 (41-50). The kappa statistics was calculated to assess interobserver agreement between the physicians and the false positive rates of urologists and residents were also compared. Histologically verified tumors were diagnosed in 103 of 142 lesions identified by PDD. The interobserver agreement between urologists and residents was moderate, moderate, good, excellent, and excellent for group 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Both residents had increased false positive rates compared to urologists in all subgroups of patients but this difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, false positive rate of residents was declining as the number of procedures was increasing. Our data suggest that 20 cases of HAL PDD are required to achieve a good interobserver agreement between inexperienced and experienced operator, and excellent agreement is achieved after 30 cases. The false positive rate of inexperienced operators was comparable to the experts and showed a gradual decrease.
    The Canadian Journal of Urology 06/2012; 19(3):6269-73. · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 06/2012; 26(6):581-4. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although widely used, the validity and reliability of the Clavien classification of postoperative complications have not been tested in urologic procedures, such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). To validate the Clavien score and categorise complications of PCNL. Data for 528 patients with complications after PCNL were used to create a set of 70 unique complication-management combinations. Clinical case summaries for each complication-management combination were compiled in a survey distributed to 98 urologists, who rated each combination using the Clavien classification. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Interrater agreement for Clavien scores was estimated using Fleiss' kappa (κ). The relationship between Clavien score and the duration of postoperative hospital stay was analysed using multivariate nonlinear regression models that adjusted for operating time, preoperative urine microbial culture, presence of staghorn stone, and use of postoperative nephrostomy tube. Overall interrater agreement in grading postoperative complications was moderate (κ=0.457; p<0.001). Agreement was highest for Clavien score 5 and decreased with lower Clavien scores. Higher agreement was found for Clavien scores 3 and 4 than in subcategories of these scores. Postoperative stay increased with higher Clavien scores and was unaffected by inherent differences between study centres. A standard list of post-PCNL complications and their corresponding Clavien scores was created. Although the Clavien classification demonstrates high validity, interrater reliability is low for minor complications. To improve the reliability and consistency of reporting adverse outcomes of PCNL, we have assigned Clavien scores to complications of PCNL.
    European Urology 04/2012; 62(2):246-55. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laser treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) has become more prevalent in recent years. Although multiple surgical approaches exist, there is confusion about laser-tissue interaction, especially in terms of physical aspects and with respect to the optimal treatment modality. To compare available laser systems with respect to physical fundamentals and to discuss the similarities and differences among introduced laser devices. The paper is based on the second expert meeting on the laser treatment of BPO organised by the European Association of Urology Section of Uro-Technology. A systematic literature search was also carried out to cover the topic of laser treatment of BPO extensively. The principles of generation of laser radiation, laser fibre construction, the types of energy emission, and laser-tissue interaction are discussed in detail for the laser systems used in the treatment of BPO. The most relevant laser systems are compared and their physical properties discussed in depth. Laser treatment of BPO is gaining widespread acceptance. Detailed knowledge of the physical principles allows the surgeon to discriminate between available laser systems and their possible pitfalls to guarantee high safety levels for the patient.
    European Urology 02/2012; 61(2):317-25. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent stage migration toward low-risk prostate cancer, overtreatment of biologically insignificant tumors with radical prostatectomy at the additional expense of a non-negligible morbidity and undertreatment of patients improperly selected for active surveillance are the main reasons that have fueled the concept of focal therapy. Optimal selection of patients is the key for the successful implementation of focal therapy. Selection criteria for focal therapy vary widely and depend on clinical, histological and imaging characteristics of the patients that are highlighted in this article. In addition, the rationales, merits and limitations of the available methods for the assessment of potential candidates, the evaluation of treatment efficacy and follow-up of these patients are discussed.
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 01/2012; 12(1):77-86. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 70% to 80% of patients with urothelial carcinomas of the bladder are initially diagnosed with non-muscle invasive disease. Superficial, non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs) are managed with cystoscopic transurethral resection of all visible lesions followed by intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Despite this treatment, up to 70% of these tumors will recur within five years and 15% will ultimately progress to muscle-invasive disease, suggesting that novel therapeutic strategies are necessary. Recent studies have greatly advanced our understanding of urothelial carcinogenesis and have highlighted the distinct molecular pathogenesis of NMIBCs versus muscle-invasive bladder tumors. It is now clear that diverse genetic and epigenetic events are driving the oncogenesis of NMIBCs, thereby attesting to their potential as therapeutic targets for these tumors. This article reviews the molecular pathogenesis of NMIBCs, discusses recently completed and ongoing clinical trials and anticipates the future direction of molecular targeted agents in this disease.
    Current Molecular Medicine 09/2011; 11(8):623-32. · 3.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

581 Citations
257.65 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2013
    • University of Thessaly
      • Ουρολογική Κλινική
      Iolcus, Thessaly, Greece
  • 2012
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Urology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007–2012
    • General University Hospital of Larissa
      Lárissa, Thessaly, Greece
  • 2011
    • General Hospital of Komotini "Sismanoglio"
      Komotina, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece
  • 2004
    • Hygeia Hospital
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2003
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands