[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and lateral ventricles, and includes cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation, maturation and survival. In vitro studies suggest a role for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in neuronal differentiation/maturation and survival. This study aimed to investigate the effect of in vivo chronic inhibition of brain PLA2 in adult rats on the number of newborn mature neurons in the DG. Male Wistar rats were injected with BrdU (cell proliferation marker) and 2 weeks later (beginning of neuronal maturation) sham-operated or infused intracerebroventricularly with either vehicle (DMSO in saline) or PLA2 inhibitor (MAFP dissolved in the vehicle) for 14 days via osmotic minipump. The animals were euthanised 28 days post-BrdU and their brains immunostained for BrdU and BrdU plus NeuN (mature neuronal marker) for analysis of surviving cells. MAFP reduced the number of BrdU(+) cells in the ventral DG (p < 0.05 vs. sham; p < 0.01 vs. DMSO) and the number of BrdU(+)NeuN(+) cells in the ventral (p < 0.01 vs. sham and DMSO) and whole DG (p < 0.02 vs. sham and DMSO). There was no effect of MAFP in the dorsal DG. These findings show that chronic PLA2 inhibition in adult rat hippocampus decreases the number of newborn mature neurons in the ventral DG (reflecting in the whole DG), perhaps by impairing neuronal maturation and survival, and suggest that PLA2 inhibition reported in the hippocampus of Alzheimer disease subjects might partly contribute to the neurogenic abnormalities found in the DG in this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hippocampal atrophy is reported in several neuropathological disorders. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a brain region where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. There are some reports suggesting the ability of endogenous neurogenesis to initiate neuronal repair in the hippocampus in response to neuropathological conditions, but its capacity to compensate for neuronal loss is limited. Among strategies to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis are enriched environment and lithium. This study aimed to assess whether both strategies could interact to potentiate the generation of new cells in the adult DG. Healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four treatment groups for 28 days: control, lithium, enriched environment, enriched environment plus lithium. The animals were injected with BrdU (cell proliferation marker) shortly before the start of the treatments and killed 28 days later for analysis of newly generated cells. Two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed a significant synergistic interaction between enriched environment and lithium in the total number of BrdU(+) cells in the entire DG (p = 0.019), a trend towards significant synergistic interaction in the dorsal DG (p = 0.075), and a significant additive effect in the ventral DG (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the combination of enriched environment and lithium has both synergistic and additive effects on the generation of new cells in the healthy adult DG (these effects being possibly segregated along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus), and suggest that it might be worth investigating whether this combination would have a similar effect in neuropathological conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in the brain and in blood cells of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of developing AD. In the present study, we determined the activity of distinct PLA2 subgroups (iPLA2, sPLA2 and cPLA2) in older adults with MCI as compared to patients with mild dementia due to AD and to cognitively healthy controls. We investigated whether decreased PLA2 activity at baseline is associated with the progression of MCI to AD upon follow-up during a period of 4 years. The activity of PLA2 subgroups was determined in platelets from 169 elderly adults. Progression of MCI to AD was ascertained by standard clinical criteria for AD upon follow-up. At baseline, iPLA2 activity was significantly decreased (p = 0.001) in patients with AD and MCI as compared to controls. Patients with MCI who progressed to AD during follow-up showed significantly lower iPLA2 activity at baseline as compared to patients with MCI who did not progress to AD (p = 0.009). Moreover, subjects from the control group at baseline who progressed to MCI during follow-up had lower sPLA2 and cPLA2 (p = 0.014 and p = 0.009, respectively). Our findings suggest that low platelet iPLA2 activity may be a risk marker for AD in subjects with MCI. Moreover, low sPLA2 and cPLA2 were related to cognitive decline in healthy controls, suggesting a relationship with the very early stages of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiological enzymatic cleavage of membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) results in normal levels of phosphomonoester and phosphodiester, by which a normal dopamine neurotransmission is maintained. Data from postmortem tissue and in vivo imaging studies suggest that increased activity of intracellular calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) in the brain of schizophrenic patients might accelerate the breakdown of membrane phospholipids and alter the properties of neuronal membranes, which in turn contribute to a hypodopaminergy. Alterations in PLA2 activity are probably genetically determined and represent a possible pharmacological target for Schizophrenia.
Current topics in medicinal chemistry 12/2012; 12(21). DOI:10.2174/156802612805289845 · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a consequence of obstetric complications, neonatal hypoxia has been discussed as an environmental factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the biological consequences of hypoxia are unclear. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that the onset of abnormal brain development and neuropathology occurs perinatally, whereas symptoms of the disease appear in early adulthood. In our animal model of chronic neonatal hypoxia, we have detected behavioral alterations resembling those known from schizophrenia. Disturbances in cell proliferation possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. In the present study, we used postnatal rats to investigate cell proliferation in several brain areas following neonatal hypoxia. Rats were repeatedly exposed to hypoxia (89 % N(2), 11 % O(2)) from postnatal day (PD) 4-8. We then evaluated cell proliferation on PD 13 and 39, respectively. These investigations were performed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate-putamen (CPU), dentate gyrus, and subventricular zone. Rats exposed to hypoxia exhibited increased cell proliferation in the ACC at PD 13, normalizing at PD 39. In other brain regions, no alterations have been detected. Additionally, hypoxia-treated rats showed decreased CPU volume at PD 13. The results of the present study on the one hand support the assumption of chronic hypoxia influencing transient cell proliferation in the ACC, and on the other hand reveal normalization during ageing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly, accounting for ~60-70% of all cases of dementia. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are senile plaques (mainly containing p-amyloid peptide derived from amyloid precursor protein) and neurofibrillary tangles (containing hyperphosphorylated Tau protein), along with neuronal loss. At present there is no effective treatment for Alzheimer disease. Given the prevalence and poor prognosis of the disease, the development of animal models has been a research priority to understand pathogenic mechanisms and to test therapeutic strategies. Most cases of Alzheimer disease occur sporadically in people over 65 years old, and are not genetically inherited. Roughly 5% of patients with Alzheimer disease have familial Alzheimer disease--that is, related to a genetic predisposition, including mutations in the amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, and presenilin 2 genes. The discovery of genes for familial Alzheimer disease has allowed transgenic models to be generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial Alzheimer disease. Although none of these models fully replicates the human disease, they have provided valuable insights into disease mechanisms as well as opportunities to test therapeutic approaches. This review describes the main transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer disease which have been adopted in Alzheimer disease research, and discusses the insights into Alzheimer disease pathogenesis from studies in such models. In summary, the Alzheimer disease mouse models have been the key to understanding the roles of soluble b-amyloid oligomers in disease pathogenesis, as well as of the relationship between p-amyloid and Tau pathologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent findings showing significant correlations between phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and structural changes in schizophrenic brains contribute to the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia, which was hampered because a clean functional link between elevated PLA2 activity and brain structure was missing (Neuroimage, 2010; 52: 1314-1327). We measured membrane fluidity parameters and found that brain membranes isolated from the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients showed significantly increased flexibility of fatty acid chains. Our findings support a possible link between elevated PLA2 activity in cortical areas of schizophrenic patients and subsequent alterations of the biophysical parameters of neuronal membranes leading to structural changes in these areas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluidity is an important neuronal membrane property and it is influenced by the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in membrane phospholipids. Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) is a key enzyme in membrane phospholipid metabolism, generating free PUFAs. In Alzheimer disease (AD), reduced PLA(2) activity, specifically of calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)) and calcium-independent intracellular PLA(2) (iPLA(2)), and phospholipid metabolism was reported in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. This study investigated the effects of in vivo infusion of the dual cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) inhibitor MAFP into rat brain on PLA(2) activity and membrane fluidity parameters in the postmortem frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus. PLA(2) activity was measured by radioenzymatic assay and membrane fluidity was determined by fluorescence anisotropy technique using three different probes: DPH, TMA-DPH, and pyrene. MAFP significantly inhibited PLA(2) activity, reduced the flexibility of fatty acyl chains (indicated by increased DPH anisotropy), increased the fluidity in the lipid-water interface (indicated by decreased TMA-DPH anisotropy), and increased the lipid lateral diffusion in the hydrocarbon core (represented by pyrene excimer formation) of membranes in both brain areas. The findings suggest that reduced cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) activities in AD brain might contribute to the cognitive impairment, in part, through alterations in membrane fluidity parameters.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 05/2011; 35(7):1612-7. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2011.05.001 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microtubule-associated protein Tau promotes the assembly and stability of microtubules in neuronal cells. Six Tau isoforms are expressed in adult human brain. All six isoforms become abnormally hyperphosphorylated and form neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. In AD, reduced activity of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), specifically of calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)) and calcium-independent intracellular PLA(2) (iPLA(2)), was reported in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which positively correlated with the density of neurofibrillary tangles. We previously demonstrated that treatment of cultured neurons with a dual cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) inhibitor, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP), decreased total Tau levels and increased Tau phosphorylation at Ser(214) site. The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the effects of in vivo infusion of MAFP into rat brain on PLA(2) activity and total Tau levels in the postmortem frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus. PLA(2) activity was measured by radioenzymatic assay and Tau levels were determined by Western blotting using the anti-Tau 6 isoforms antibody. MAFP significantly inhibited PLA(2) activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. The reactivity to the antibody revealed three Tau protein bands with apparent molecular weight of close to 40, 43 and 46 kDa in both brain areas. MAFP decreased the 46 kDa band intensity in the frontal cortex, and the 43 and 46 kDa band intensities in the hippocampus. The results indicate that in vivo PLA(2) inhibition in rat brain decreases the levels of total (nonphosphorylated plus phosphorylated) Tau protein and corroborate our previous in vitro findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The involvement of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in Alzheimer disease (AD) was first investigated nearly 15 years ago. Over the years, several PLA(2) isoforms have been detected in brain tissue: calcium-dependent secreted PLA(2) or sPLA(2) (IIA, IIC, IIE, V, X, and XII), calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA(2) or cPLA(2) (IVA, IVB, and IVC), and calcium-independent PLA(2) or iPLA(2) (VIA and VIB). Additionally, numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested the role of different brain PLA(2) in both physiological and pathological events. This review aimed to summarize the findings in the literature relating the different brain PLA(2) isoforms with alterations found in AD, such as neuronal cell death and impaired neurogenesis process. The review showed that sPLA(2)-IIA, sPLA(2)-V and cPLA(2)-IVA are involved in neuronal death, whereas sPLA(2)-III and sPLA(2)-X are related to the process of neurogenesis, and that the cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) groups can be involved in both neuronal death and neurogenesis. In AD, there are reports of reduced activity of the cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) groups and increased expression of sPLA(2)-IIA and cPLA(2)-IVA. The findings suggest that the inhibition of cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) isoforms (yet to be determined) might contribute to impaired neurogenesis, whereas stimulation of sPLA(2)-IIA and cPLA(2)-IVA might contribute to neurodegeneration in AD.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 12/2010; 34(8):1381-9. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.08.019 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstetric complications play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the biological consequences during neurodevelopment until adulthood are unknown. Microarrays have been used for expression profiling in four brain regions of a rat model of neonatal hypoxia as a common factor of obstetric complications. Animals were repeatedly exposed to chronic hypoxia from postnatal (PD) day 4 through day 8 and killed at the age of 150 days. Additional groups of rats were treated with clozapine from PD 120–150. Self-spotted chips containing 340 cDNAs related to the glutamate system (“glutamate chips”) were used. The data show differential (up and down) regulations of numerous genes in frontal (FR), temporal (TE) and parietal cortex (PAR), and in caudate putamen (CPU), but evidently many more genes are upregulated in frontal and temporal cortex, whereas in parietal cortex the majority of genes are downregulated. Because of their primary presynaptic occurrence, five differentially expressed genes (CPX1, NPY, NRXN1, SNAP-25, and STX1A) have been selected for comparisons with clozapine-treated animals by qRT-PCR. Complexin 1 is upregulated in FR and TE cortex but unchanged in PAR by hypoxic treatment. Clozapine downregulates it in FR but upregulates it in PAR cortex. Similarly, syntaxin 1A was upregulated in FR, but downregulated in TE and unchanged in PAR cortex, whereas clozapine downregulated it in FR but upregulated it in PAR cortex. Hence, hypoxia alters gene expression regionally specific, which is in agreement with reports on differentially expressed presynaptic genes in schizophrenia. Chronic clozapine treatment may contribute to normalize synaptic connectivity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00406-010-0159-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 10/2010; 260 Suppl 2(S2):S81-9. DOI:10.1007/s00406-010-0159-1 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: With the discovery that constitutive neurogenesis persists in the adult brain, has emerged the hypothesis in the literature that Alzheimer disease (AD) could be overcome, or at least ameliorated, since the generation of new neurons might help to compensate for the loss of neurons in the disease. OBJECTIVES: In this work the literature on endogenous neurogenesis in the brain of subjects with AD and animal models of AD, the effects of cognitive activity on neurogenesis, and the relationship between the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and neurogenesis was reviewed. METHODS: MedLine database was searched using the keywords Alzheimer disease, cognitive activity, phospholipase A2, neurogenesis, and neuritogenesis. RESULTS: The literature review evidenced increased neuroproliferation in AD brain, however, the new neurons fail to differentiate into mature neurons. A non-pharmacological strategy, enriched environment, increases neurogenesis (including neuronal maturation) in experimental animals. Relationship between PLA2 and neurogenesis has been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. DISCUSSION: The data indicate that environmental enrichment (with cognitive and physical stimulations) might be a suitable strategy to promote endogenous neurogenesis in AD, and suggest the participation of PLA2 in the neurogenesis promoted by cognitive stimulation.
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica 12/2009; 37(2):73-80. · 0.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ). New SGZ neurons migrate into the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG). New SVZ neurons seem to enter the association neocortex and entorhinal cortex besides the olfactory bulb. Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by neuron loss in the hippocampus (DG and CA1 field), entorhinal cortex, and association neocortex, which underlies the learning and memory deficits. We hypothesized that, if the AD brain can support neurogenesis, strategies to stimulate the neurogenesis process could have therapeutic value in AD. We reviewed the literature on: (a) the functional significance of adult-born neurons; (b) the occurrence of endogenous neurogenesis in AD; and (c) strategies to stimulate the adult neurogenesis process. We found that: (a) new neurons in the adult DG contribute to memory function; (b) new neurons are generated in the SGZ and SVZ of AD brains, but they fail to differentiate into mature neurons in the target regions; and (c) numerous strategies (Lithium, Glatiramer Acetate, nerve growth factor, environmental enrichment) can enhance adult neurogenesis and promote maturation of newly generated neurons. Such strategies might help to compensate for the loss of neurons and improve the memory function in AD.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 10/2009; 33(7-33):1087-1102. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.06.024 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid is released from cellular membranes by the action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and is implicated in microtubule-associated protein Tau phosphorylation. Tau hyperphosphorylation affects its ability to stabilize microtubules.
To determine the effect of PLA(2) inhibition on the phosphorylation state of Tau phosphoepitopes in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons.
4 DIC neurons were incubated at different concentrations of methyl-arachidonylfluorophosphonate (MAFP), an irreversible inhibitor of cPLA(2) and iPLA(2). Changes on Tau phosphorylation were determined by Western blotting with a panel of anti-Tau antibodies (C-terminal, Ser199/202, Ser202/205, Ser396 and Ser214).
The Ser214 site was hyperphosphorylated upon MAFP treatment. Significant differences were observed with 10 microM (p=0.01), 50 microM (p=0.01) and 100 microM (p=0.05) of MAFP. Less-intense changes were found in other phosphoepitopes.
The present findings indicate that the phosphorylation of Ser214 is regulated by c- and/or iPLA(2), whereas other phosphoepitopes primarily regulated by GKS3b were not affected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rats, phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity was found to be increased in the hippocampus immediately after training and retrieval of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm (step-down inhibitory avoidance [IA] task). In the present study we investigated whether PLA(2) is also activated in the cerebral cortex of rats in association with contextual fear learning and retrieval. We observed that IA training induces a rapid (immediately after training) and long-lasting (3 h after training) activation of PLA(2) in both frontal and parietal cortices. However, immediately after retrieval (measured 24 h after training), PLA(2) activity was increased just in the parietal cortex. These findings suggest that PLA(2) activity is differentially required in the frontal and parietal cortices for the mechanisms of contextual learning and retrieval. Because reduced brain PLA(2) activity has been reported in Alzheimer disease, our results suggest that stimulation of PLA(2) activity may offer new treatment strategies for this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and has no known cure. Evidence suggests that reduced activity of specific subtypes of intracellular phospholipases A2 (cPLA2 and iPLA2) is an early event in AD and may contribute to memory impairment and neuropathology in the disease.
The objective of this study was to review the literature focusing on the therapeutic role of PLA2 stimulation by cognitive training and positive modulators, or of supplementation with arachidonic acid (PLA2 product) in facilitating memory function and synaptic transmission and plasticity in either research animals or human subjects.
MEDLINE database was searched (no date restrictions) for published articles using the keywords Alzheimer disease (mild, moderate, severe), mild cognitive impairment, healthy elderly, rats, mice, phospholipase A(2), phospholipid metabolism, phosphatidylcholine, arachidonic acid, cognitive training, learning, memory, long-term potentiation, protein kinases, dietary lipid compounds, cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and neuritogenesis. Reference lists of the identified articles were checked to select additional studies of interest.
Overall, the data suggest that PLA2 activation is induced in the healthy brain during learning and memory. Furthermore, learning seems to regulate endogenous neurogenesis, which has been observed in AD brains. Finally, PLA2 appears to be implicated in homeostatic processes related to neurite outgrowth and differentiation in both neurodevelopmental processes and response to neuronal injury.
The use of positive modulators of PLA2 (especially of cPLA2 and iPLA2) or supplementation with dietary lipid compounds (e.g., arachidonic acid) in combination with cognitive training could be a valuable therapeutic strategy for cognitive enhancement in early-stage AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem studies showed volume loss in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. The noted tissue reduction in the posterior section suggests that some cellular subfractions within this structure might be reduced in schizophrenia. To address this, we investigated numbers and densities of neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the posterior hippocampal subregions in postmortem brains from ten patients with schizophrenia and ten matched controls using design-based stereology performed on Nissl-stained sections. Compared to the controls, the patients with schizophrenia showed a significant decrease in the mean number of oligodendrocytes in the left and right CA4. This is the first finding of reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes in CA4 of the posterior part of the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Our results are in line with earlier findings in the literature concerning decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Our results may indicate disturbed connectivity of the CA4 of the posterior part of the hippocampus in schizophrenia and, thus, contribute to the growing number of studies showing the involvement of posterior hippocampal pathology in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. A combination of cholinergic and glutamatergic dysfunction appears to underlie the symptomatology of AD, and thus, treatment strategies should address impairments in both systems. Evidence suggests the involvement of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzyme in memory impairment and neurodegeneration in AD via actions on both cholinergic and glutamatergic systems.
To review cholinergic and glutamatergic alterations underlying cognitive impairment and neuropathology in AD and attempt to link PLA(2) with such alterations.
Medline databases were searched (no date restrictions) for published articles with links among the terms Alzheimer disease (mild, moderate, severe), mild cognitive impairment, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, NGF, NGF receptor, muscarinic receptor, nicotinic receptor, NMDA, AMPA, metabotropic glutamate receptor, atrophy, glucose metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid, membrane fluidity, phospholipase A(2), arachidonic acid, attention, memory, long-term potentiation, beta-amyloid, tau, inflammation, and reactive species. Reference lists of the identified articles were checked to identify additional studies of interest.
Overall, results suggest the hypothesis that persistent inhibition of cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) isoforms at early stages of AD may play a central role in memory deficits and beta-amyloid production through down-regulation of cholinergic and glutamate receptors. As the disease progresses, beta-amyloid induced up-regulation of cPLA(2) and sPLA(2) isoforms may play critical roles in inflammation and oxidative stress, thus participating in the neurodegenerative process.
Activation and inhibition of specific PLA(2) isoforms at different stages of AD could be of therapeutic importance and delay cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration.