[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: T1-mapping using the Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (ShMOLLI) technique enables non-invasive assessment of important myocardial tissue characteristics. However, tachyarrhythmia may cause mistriggering and inaccurate T1 estimation. We set out to test whether systolic T1-mapping might overcome this, and whether T1 values or data quality would be significantly different compared to conventional diastolic T1-mapping.
Methods: Native T1 maps were acquired using ShMOLLI at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens Healthcare) in 10 healthy volunteers (5 male) in sinus rhythm, at varying prescribed trigger delay (TD) times: 0, 50, 100 and 150 ms (all " systolic "), 340 ms (MOLLI TD 500 ms, the conventional TD for ShMOLLI) and also " end diastolic ". T1 maps were also acquired using a shorter readout, to explore the effect of reducing image readout time and sensitivity to systolic motion. The feasibility and image quality of systolic T1-mapping was tested in 15 patients with tachyarrhythmia (n = 13 atrial fibrillation, n = 2 sinus tachycardia; mean HR range 93–121 bpm).
Results: In healthy volunteers, systolic readout increased the thickness of myocardium compared to the diastolic readout. There was a small overall effect of TD on T1 values (p = 0.04), with slightly shorter T1 values in systole compared to diastole (maximum difference 10 ms). While there were apparent gender differences (with no effect of TD on T1 values in males, more marked differences in females, and exaggeration of this effect in thinner myocardial segments in females), dilatation and erosion of contours suggested that the effect of TD on T1 in females was almost entirely due to more partial-volume effects in diastole. All T1 maps were of excellent quality, but systolic TD and shorter readout were associated with less variability in segmental T1 values. In tachycardic patients, systolic acquisitions produced consistently excellent T1 maps (median R 2 = 0.993).
Conclusions: In healthy volunteers, systolic ShMOLLI T1-mapping reduces T1 variability and reports clinically equivalent T1 values to conventional diastolic readout; slightly shorter T1 values in systole are mostly explained by reduced partial-volume effects due to the increase in functional myocardial thickness. In patients with tachyarrhythmia, systolic ShMOLLI T1-mapping is feasible, circumvents mistriggering and produces excellent quality T1 maps. This extends its clinical applicability to challenging rhythms (such as rapid atrial fibrillation) and aids the investigation of thinner myocardial segments. With further validation, systolic T1-mapping may become a new and convenient standard for myocardial T1-mapping.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 08/2015; 17(77). DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0182-5 · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Extracellular volume (ECV) quantification by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measures the extracellular space. Current methodologies require blood haematocrit (Hct) correction, a barrier to easy clinical use. We hypothesised that the relationship between Hct and longitudinal relaxation time of blood (T1blood) could be calibrated and used to generate a synthetic ECV without Hct.
Methods 427 subjects with a wide range of health and disease were divided into derivation (n = 214) and validation (n = 213) cohorts (Table 1 for patient characteristics). All subjects underwent T1 mapping with ShMOLLI at 1.5 Tesla for ECV quantification. Venous blood for Hct was obtained prior to scanning with 44 patients having a repeat Hct within 6 h.
ECV was calculated as: ECV = (Δ[1/T1myo] / Δ[1/T1blood]) * [1-haematocrit]).
Synthetic Hct was approximated from the linear relationship between Hct and native T1blood, and used to calculate synthetic ECV. Histological validation was performed on 18 patients with severe aortic stenosis (age 71 ± 10 years, 78% male). ECV was compared with collagen volume fraction from intra-operative biopsies taken during surgical valve replacement.
Results In the derivation cohort, native T1blood and Hct showed a linear relationship (R2=0.45; p < 0.001, Figure 1). This was used to derive synthetic Hct = 0.88 – (T1blood/ 3240). Synthetic ECVcorrelated well with ECV (R2 = 0.99; p < 0.001). These results were maintained in the validation cohort. Test:retest variability of haematocrit was higher than expected (n = 44, variability 10% with Hct:Hct R2 = 0.86). On histological validation, synthetic and conventional ECV both correlated well with collagen volume fraction (R2 = 0.61 and 0.69, p < 0.001).
Conclusion Synthetic ECV allows instantaneous non-invasive quantification of the myocardial extracellular space without blood sampling. Inline application of synthetic ECV may be an attractive alternative in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived native myocardial T1 is decreased in patients with Fabry disease even before left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) occurs and may be the first non-invasive measure of myocyte sphingolipid storage. The relationship of native T1 lowering prior to hypertrophy and other candidate early phenotype markers are unknown. Furthermore, the reproducibility of T1 mapping has never been assessed in Fabry disease.
Sixty-three patients, 34 (54%) female, mean age 48 ± 15 years with confirmed (genotyped) Fabry disease underwent CMR, ECG and echocardiographic assessment. LVH was absent in 25 (40%) patients. Native T1 mapping was performed with both Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequences and a shortened version (ShMOLLI) at 1.5 Tesla. Twenty-one patients underwent a second scan within 24 hours to assess inter-study reproducibility. Results were compared with 63 healthy age and gender-matched volunteers.
Mean native T1 in Fabry disease (LVH positive), (LVH negative) and healthy volunteers was 853 ± 50 ms, 904 ± 46 ms and 968 ± 32 ms (for all p < 0.0001) by ShMOLLI sequences. Native T1 showed high inter-study, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.99, 0.98, 0.97 (ShMOLLI) and 0.98, 0.98, 0.98 (MOLLI). In Fabry disease LVH negative individuals, low native T1 was associated with reduced echocardiographic-based global longitudinal speckle tracking strain (-18 ± 2% vs -22 ± 2%, p = 0.001) and early diastolic function impairment (E/E' = 7 [6-8] vs 5 [5-6], p = 0.028).
Native T1 mapping in Fabry disease is a reproducible technique. T1 reduction prior to the onset of LVH is associated with early diastolic and systolic changes measured by echocardiography.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 12/2014; 16(1):99. DOI:10.1186/s12968-014-0099-4 · 4.56 Impact Factor