Somenath Mitra

New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (119)419.1 Total impact

  • Zhiqian Wang, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: We present the development of flexible secondary alkaline battery with rechargeability similar to that of conventional secondary alkaline batteries. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added to both electrodes to reduce internal resistance, and a cathode containing carbon black and purified MWCNTs was found to be most effective. A polyvinyl alcohol-poly (acrylic acid) copolymer separator served the dual functions of electrolyte storage and enhancing flexibility. Additives to the anode and cathode were effective in reducing capacity fades and improving rechargeability.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may cause adverse pulmonary responses due to their nanoscale, fibrous morphology and/or biopersistance. This study tested multiple factors (dose, time, physicochemical characteristics, and administration method) shown to affect MWCNT toxicity with the hypothesis that these factors will influence significantly different responses upon MWCNT exposure. The study is unique in that (1) multiple administration methods were tested using particles from the same stock; (2) bulk MWCNT formulations had few differences (metal content, surface area/functionalization); and (3) MWCNT retention was quantified using a specialized approach for measuring unlabeled MWCNTs in rodent lungs. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to original (O), purified (P), and carboxylic acid functionalized (F) MWCNTs via intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissues were collected at postexposure days 1 and 21 for quantifying biological responses and MWCNTs in lung tissues by programmed thermal analysis. At day 1, MWCNT instillation produced significant BALF neutrophilia and MWCNT-positive macrophages. Instilled O- and P-MWCNTs produced significant inflammation in lung tissues, which resolved by day 21 despite MWCNT retention. MWCNT inhalation produced no BALF neutrophilia and no significant histopathology past day 1. However, on days 1 and 21 postinhalation of nebulized MWCNTs, significantly increased numbers of MWCNT-positive macrophages were observed in BALF. Results suggest (1) MWCNTs produce transient inflammation if any despite persistence in the lungs; (2) instilled O-MWCNTs cause more inflammation than P- or F-MWCNTs; and (3) MWCNT suspension media produce strikingly different effects on physicochemical particle characteristics and pulmonary responses.
    ACS Nano 08/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • Zheqiong Wu, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: Length dependent dispersibility of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes is presented using a novel approach where a batch of carboxylated nanotubes was size sorted via ultracentrifugation into different fractions with lengths ranging from 150 to 950 nm. The different fractions had the same tube diameter and degree of oxidation. The dispersibility of the nanotube fractions showed dependence on the length where the longer tubes showed more aggregation in terms of larger particle size, zeta potential and lower critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) in the presence of electrolytes. It is hypothesized that the longer tubes formed a more complex electrostatic double layer that increased their entanglement and aggregation.
    Environmental science. Processes & impacts. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A flexible alkaline battery with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) enhanced composite electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) copolymer separator has been developed. Purified MWCNTs appear to be the most effective conductive additive, while the flexible copolymer separator not only enhances flexibility but also serves as electrolyte storage.
    Advanced Materials 02/2014; 26(6):970-6. · 14.83 Impact Factor
  • Xinbo C Lau, Zheqiong Wu, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate for the first time the efficiency improvement of organic photovoltaics by the addition of shorter multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) generated by size sorting. The different size MWNTs were generated by size sorting a batch of carboxylated MWNTs and were introduced as charge carriers in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells. As compared to a control with only PCBM, the addition of the long and short MWNT resulted in 12% and 34% improvement in short circuit current density (Jsc) respectively. The results indicate that length of carbon nanotubes is an important consideration in photovoltaic and possibly other nanoelectronic devices.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 01/2014; · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Madhuleena Bhadra, Somenath Mitra
    01/2014;
  • Madhuleena Bhadra, Sagar Roy, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: Recent years have witnessed the emergence of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) as a new member of the nanocarbon family. This paper reports the immobilization of DNDs within a hydrophobic membrane for desalination applications. A dispersion of DNDs in polyvinylidene fluoride polymer was injected through a hydrophobic membrane, which incorporated the DNDs within the membrane. Embedding only a minimal quantity of (approximately 2%) the nanocarbon favorably altered the water vapor–membrane interactions to enhance water vapor permeability while preventing liquid penetration into the membrane pores thereby enhancing water vapor flux. Overall, desalination was consistently better with DND immobilized membrane than with conventional polypropylene, with flux enhancement as high as 118% in the sweep gas membrane distillation mode.
    Desalination. 01/2014; 341:115–119.
  • Xinbo C. Lau, Zhiqian Wang, Somenath Mitra
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 01/2014; 128:69–76. · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Chintal Desai, Kun Chen, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: The colloidal behavior of aqueous dispersions of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) and carboxylated nanodiamonds (DND-COOH) which were synthesized via a microwave process is presented. Both forms of DNDs were found to be relatively stable in aqueous solutions, but aggregated rapidly in the presence of mono and divalent salts. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values for DNDs and DND-COOH were estimated to be between 8 and 10 mM for NaCl and 7 and 8 mM for MgCl2. In general, the formation of carboxyl groups on the DND surface did not alter colloidal behavior as dramatically as it is known to do for other nanocarbons especially carbon nanotubes.
    Environmental science. Processes & impacts. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Several properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have the potential to affect their bioactivity. This study examined the in vitro and in vivo outcomes of the influence of diameter, length, purification and carboxylation (in vitro testing only) of MWCNT. Three original 'as received' MWCNT that varied in size (diameter and length) were purified and functionalized by carboxylation. The resulting MWCNT were characterized and examined for cytotoxicity and inflammasome activation in vitro using THP-1 cells and primary alveolar macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. Oropharyngeal aspiration administration was used to deliver original MWCNT and in vivo bioactivity and lung retention was examined at 1 and 7 days. Studies with THP-1 macrophages demonstrated that increased length or diameter corresponded with increased bioactivity as measured by inflammasome activation. Purification had little effect on the original MWCNT, and functionalization completely eliminated bioactivity. Similar results were obtained using alveolar macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice. The in vivo studies demonstrated that all three original MWCNT caused similar neutrophil influx at one day, but increasing length or diameter resulted in the lavaged cells to release more inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta) ex vivo. Seven-day histology revealed that, consistent with the in vitro results, increasing width or length of MWCNT caused more severe pathology with the longest MWCNT causing the most severe inflammation. In addition, the same two larger MWCNT were retained more in the lung at 7 days. Taken together, the results indicated that in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of MWCNT increased with diameter and length. Purification had no significant modifying effect from the original MWCNT. Functionalization by carboxylation completely eliminated the bioactive potential of the MWCNT regardless of size in in vitro testing.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 11/2013; 10(1):57. · 9.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we report for the first time the development of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PAMAC) hydrophilized porous polypropylene composite membrane for dehumidification applications. The sorption of water vapor on PAMAC functional groups was found to be quite high, and reached nearly a gram per gram of the membrane. This allowed high water vapor permeance and percent water removal that reached 2 × 10−9 gm mol/cm2 min cm Hg and 37%, respectively.
    Separation and Purification Technology 11/2013; 107:54–60. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Differences in interlaboratory research protocols contribute to the conflicting data in the literature regarding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) bioactivity. Therefore, grantees of a NIEHS-funded consortium program performed two phases of in vitro testing with selected ENM in an effort to identify and minimize sources of variability. METHODS: Consortium Program Participants (CPP) conducted ENM bioactivity evaluations on ZnO, three forms of TiO2, and three forms of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). In addition, CPP performed bioassays using three mammalian cell lines (BEAS-2B, RLE-6TN, and THP-1) selected in order to cover two different species (rat and human), two different lung epithelial cells (alveolar type II and bronchial epithelial cells), and two different cell types (epithelial cells and macrophages). CPP also measured cytotoxicity in all cell types while measuring inflammasome activation (IL-1β release) only using THP-1 cells. RESULTS: The overall in vitro toxicity profiles of ENM were: ZnO was cytotoxic to all cell types at 50 μg/mL or higher, but did not induce IL-1β. TiO2 was not cytotoxic except for the nanobelt form, which was cytotoxic and induced significant IL-1β production in THP-1 cells. MWCNT did not produce cytotoxicity, but stimulated lower levels of IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, with the original MWCNT producing the most IL-1β. CONCLUSIONS: The results provided justification for the inclusion of mechanism-linked bioactivity assays along with traditional cytotoxicity assays for in vitro screening. In addition, the results suggest that conducting studies with multiple relevant cell types to avoid false negative outcomes is critical for accurate evaluation of ENM bioactivity.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2013; · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • Chintal Desai, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: Microwave-assisted chemical functionalization of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) is reported for the first time. The diamond core is not a microwave absorber, and consequently NDs required relatively long reaction times. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the successful grafting of carboxylic group on the NDs surface while X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the NDs core was unaffected by microwave treatment. The carboxylation led to altered colloidal behavior in terms of reduced in agglomeration in both aqueous and polar organic solvents, which was accompanied by increased solubility.
    Diamond and Related Materials 04/2013; 34:65–69. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Madhuleena Bhadra, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: Sample-preparation techniques based on membrane extraction can be highly selective, provide high enrichment and facilitate on-line measurements. Membranes also provide a platform for automated analysis via interfacing with analytical instruments. With the development of nanomaterials, which can serve as nanosorbents or provide specific morphology for selective analyte transport, membrane-based sample preparation may be ready for the next level of breakthrough.This review discusses nanostructured membranes, their fabrication and their potential applications. Of particular interest are carbon-nanotube-based membranes that have found some interesting applications in extraction, pervaporation and distillation.
    TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 02/2013; · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In biological environments, nanomaterials associate with proteins forming a protein corona (PC). The PC may alter the nanomaterial's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, thereby influencing toxicity. Using a label-free mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, the composition of the PC is examined for a set of nanotubes (NTs) including unmodified and carboxylated single- (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated MWCNT (MWCNT-PVP), and nanoclay. NTs are incubated for 1 h in simulated cell culture conditions, then washed, resuspended in PBS, and assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for their associated PC. To determine those attributes that influence PC formation, the NTs are extensively characterized. NTs had negative zeta potentials in water (SWCNT-COOH < MWCNT-COOH < unmodified NTs) while carboxylation increases their hydrodynamic sizes. All NTs are also found to associate a common subset of proteins including albumin, titin, and apolipoproteins. SWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-COOH are found to bind the greatest number of proteins (181 and 133 respectively) compared to unmodified NTs (<100), suggesting covalent binding to protein amines. Modified NTs bind a number of unique proteins compared to unmodified NTs, implying hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions are involved in PC formation. PVP-coating of MWCNT did not influence PC composition, further reinforcing the possibility of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. No relationships are found between PC composition and corresponding isoelectric point, hydropathy, or aliphatic index, implying minimal roles of hydrophobic interaction and pi-stacking.
    Small 01/2013; · 7.82 Impact Factor
  • Madhuleena Bhadra, Sagar Roy, Somenath Mitra
    Separation and Purification Technology 01/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the biological effects of low level, water dispersible, functionalised carbon nanotube (f-CNT) exposure in an in vitro model simulating the digestive tract, cellular protein expression was quantified and compared using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS). Co-cultured cells were exposed to well-characterised SWCNT-COOH, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-PVP. The relative expression of 2,282 unique proteins was compared across the dose groups. 428 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. At the high dose, the extent of differential protein expression was CNT-specific and directly related to CNT colloidal stability. Cells responded to low level MWCNT-PVP exposure with three-fold greater differential expression. Bioinformatic analysis indicated significant and f-CNT-specific effects on relevant molecular and cellular functions and canonical pathways, with little overlap across f-CNT type and in the absence of overt toxicity.
    International journal of biomedical nanoscience and nanotechnology. 01/2013; 3(1-2).
  • Xinbo C. Lau, Zhiqian Wang, Somenath Mitra
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    ABSTRACT: A C70 fullerene-multi-walled carbon nanotube (C70-CNT) complex has been used as a component of the photoactive layer in a bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell. As compared to a control device with only C70, the addition of CNTs led to improvements in short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), and power conversion efficiency by 31.8, 17.5, and 69.5%, respectively. This device takes advantage of both the electron accepting feature of C70 and the high electron transport capability of CNTs. These results indicate that C70 decorated CNT is a promising additive for performance enhancement of polymer photovoltaic cells.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2013; 103(24):243108-243108-5. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in industry and in the consumer market including drug delivery will increase the likelihood of human exposure and the contamination of the ecosystems. The aggregation state of CNTs has a strong influence on their fate and transport in the environment, as well as their bioavailability. Studies on their colloidal behaviour suggest that they can be relatively stable in aqueous and biological medium, and the presence of surfactants and macromolecules may enhance their dispersibility and persistence. This paper is a review of the aggregation behaviour of CNTs as well as their functional analogues, and the possible role of the dispersal state on toxicity.
    International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the strongest materials known, making their use in composites, a field with very high commercial potential for structural applications. Many of the methods reported to date to form metal composites have an excessive number of steps. Here, a facile chemical vapor deposition method to infiltrate multiwalled carbon nanotubes directly into pure stainless steel pellets and pellets from stainless steel mixed with iron particles is reported. The iron powder was dry-coated before vapor filtration with nanosized iron oxide catalyst precursor, a critical step to increase catalytic activity. This CVD method results in a substantial increase in the elastic modulus, yield strength, and hardness by 47, 104, and over 93 %, respectively, for composites made from mixed, dry-coated particles compared with corresponding control samples without nanotubes. This is the highest enhancement reported, to the best of our knowledge, of the mechanical properties for a metal–nanotube composite prepared using a metal other than copper. The addition of CNTs results in a relatively small increase in corrosion rate which can be mitigated to negligible levels by coating with a thin epoxy–carbon nanotube composite.
    Journal of Materials Science 01/2013; 48(3):1387-1395. · 2.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

857 Citations
419.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • New Jersey Institute of Technology
      • Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 2013
    • East Carolina University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Greenville, NC, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology
      • • Department of Biology
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi
      Amphoe Thanyaburi, Pathum Thani, Thailand
  • 2012
    • Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning
      Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • 2011
    • Sri Sai University
      Patampar, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • 2006–2009
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • National Center for Environment and Hazardous Waste management
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2004–2007
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States