[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The overall treatment time of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer is usually 3 to over 10 days. If it is longer than 7 days, tumor volume expansion during SBRT may jeopardize the target dose coverage. In this study, volume change of stage I NSCLC during SBRT was investigated.
Fifty patients undergoing 4-fraction SBRT with a total dose of 48 Gy (n = 36) or 52 Gy (n = 14) were analyzed. CT was taken for registration at the first and third SBRT sessions with an interval of 7 days in all patients. Patient age was 29-87 years (median, 77), and 39 were men. Histology was adenocarcinoma in 28, squamous cell carcinoma in 17, and others in 5. According to the UICC 7th classification, T-stage was T1a in 9 patients, T1b in 27, and T2a in 14. Tumor volumes on the first and 8th days were determined on CT images taken during the exhalation phase, by importing the data into the Dr. View/LINAX image analysis system. After determining the optimal threshold for distinguishing tumor from pulmonary parenchyma, the region above -250 HU was automatically extracted and the tumor volumes were calculated.
The median tumor volume was 7.3 ml (range, 0.5-35.7) on day 1 and 7.5 ml (range, 0.5-35.7) on day 8. Volume increase of over 10 % was observed in 16 cases (32 %); increases by >10 to <=20 %, >20 to <=30 %, and >30 % were observed in 9, 5, and 2 cases, respectively. The increase in the estimated tumor diameter was over 2 mm in 3 cases and 1-2 mm in 6. A decrease of 10 % or more was seen in 3 cases. Among the 16 tumors showing a volume increase of over 10 %, T-stage was T1a in 2 patients, T1b in 9, and T2a in 5. Histology was adenocarcinoma in 10 patients, squamous cell carcinoma in 5, and others in 1.
Volume expansion >10 % was observed in 32 % of the tumors during the first week of SBRT, possibly due to edema or sustained tumor progression. When planning SBRT, this phenomenon should be taken into account.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model to single and fractionated irradiation in EMT6 cells. First, the α/β ratio of the cells was determined from single-dose experiments, and a biologically effective dose (BED) for 20 Gy in 10 fractions (fr) was calculated. Fractional doses yielding the same BED were calculated for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 7-, 15- and 20-fraction irradiation using LQ formalism, and then irradiation with these schedules was actually given. Cell survival was determined by a standard colony assay. Differences in cell survival between pairs of groups were compared by t-test. The α/β ratio of the cells was 3.18 Gy, and 20 Gy in 10 fr corresponded to a BED3.18 of 32.6 Gy. The effects of 7-, 15- and 20-fraction irradiation with a BED3.18 of 32.6 Gy were similar to those of the 10-fraction irradiation, while the effects of 1- to 5-fraction irradiation were lower. In this cell line, the LQ model was considered applicable to 7- to 20-fraction irradiation or doses per fraction of 2.57 Gy or smaller. The LQ model might be applicable in the dose range below the α/β ratio.
Journal of Radiation Research 12/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the applicability of the repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) model and the multi-target (MT) model to dose conversion in high-dose-per-fraction radiotherapy in comparison with the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. Cell survival data of V79 and EMT6 single cells receiving single doses of 2-12 Gy or 2 or 3 fractions of 4 or 5 Gy each, and that of V79 spheroids receiving single doses of 5-26 Gy or 2-5 fractions of 5-12 Gy, were analyzed. Single and fractionated doses to actually reduce cell survival to the same level were determined by a colony assay. Single doses used in the experiments and surviving fractions at the doses were substituted into equations of the RCR, MT and LQ models in the calculation software Mathematica, and each parameter coefficient was computed. Thereafter, using the coefficients and the three models, equivalent single doses for the hypofractionated doses were calculated. They were then compared with actually-determined equivalent single doses for the hypofractionated doses. The equivalent single doses calculated using the RCR, MT and LQ models tended to be lower than the actually determined equivalent single doses. The LQ model seemed to fit relatively well at doses of 5 Gy or less. At 6 Gy or higher doses, the RCR and MT models seemed to be more reliable than the LQ model. In hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, the LQ model should not be used, and conversion models incorporating the concept of the RCR or MT models, such as the generalized linear-quadratic models, appear to be more suitable.
Journal of Radiation Research 10/2012; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organizing pneumonia (OP), so called bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after postoperative irradiation for breast cancer has been often reported. There is little information about OP after other radiation modalities. This cohort study investigated the clinical features and risk factors of OP after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of the lung (SABR).
Patients undergoing SABR between 2004 and 2010 in two institutions were investigated. Blood test and chest computed tomography were performed at intervals of 1 to 3 months after SABR. The criteria for diagnosing OP were: 1) mixture of patchy and ground-glass opacity, 2) general and/or respiratory symptoms lasting for at least 2 weeks, 3) radiographic lesion in the lung volume receiving < 0.5 Gy, and 4) no evidence of a specific cause.
Among 189 patients (164 with stage I lung cancer and 25 with single lung metastasis) analyzed, nine developed OP. The incidence at 2 years was 5.2% (95% confidence interval; 2.6-9.3%). Dyspnea were observed in all patients. Four had fever. These symptoms and pulmonary infiltration rapidly improved after corticosteroid therapy. Eight patients had presented with symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) around the tumor 2 to 7 months before OP. The prior RP history was strongly associated with OP (hazard ratio 61.7; p = 0.0028) in multivariate analysis.
This is the first report on OP after SABR. The incidence appeared to be relatively high. The symptoms were sometimes severe, but corticosteroid therapy was effective. When patients after SABR present with unusual pneumonia, OP should be considered as a differential diagnosis, especially in patients with prior symptomatic RP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the dose delivery pattern in high-precision radiotherapy is different from that in conventional radiation, radiobiological assessment of the physical dose used in stereotactic irradiation and intensity-modulated radiotherapy has become necessary. In these treatments, the daily dose is usually given intermittently over a time longer than that used in conventional radiotherapy. During prolonged radiation delivery, sublethal damage repair takes place, leading to the decreased effect of radiation. This phenomenon is almost universarily observed in vitro. In in vivo tumors, however, this decrease in effect can be counterbalanced by rapid reoxygenation, which has been demonstrated in a laboratory study. Studies on reoxygenation in human tumors are warranted to better evaluate the influence of prolonged radiation delivery. Another issue related to radiosurgery and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is the mathematical model for dose evaluation and conversion. Many clinicians use the linear-quadratic (LQ) model and biologically effective dose (BED) to estimate the effects of various radiation schedules, but it has been suggested that the LQ model is not applicable to high doses per fraction. Recent experimental studies verified the inadequacy of the LQ model in converting hypofractionated doses into single doses. The LQ model overestimates the effect of high fractional doses of radiation. BED is particularly incorrect when it is used for tumor responses in vivo, since it does not take reoxygenation into account. For normal tissue responses, improved models have been proposed, but, for in vivo tumor responses, the currently available models are not satisfactory, and better ones should be proposed in future studies.
Journal of Radiation Research 02/2012; 53(1):1-9. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the compliance of linear-quadratic (LQ) model calculations in the high-dose range as used in stereotactic irradiation in a murine tumor model.
Female 10-week-old Balb/c mice bearing 1-cm-diameter EMT6 tumors in the hind legs were used. Single doses of 10-25 Gy were compared with 2-5 fractions of 4-13 Gy given at 4-hour intervals. Cell survival after irradiation was determined by an in vivo-in vitro assay. Using an α/β ratio determined for in vitro EMT6 cells and the LQ formalism, equivalent single doses for the hypofractionated doses were calculated. They were then compared with actually measured equivalent single doses for the hypofractionated doses. These fractionation schedules were also compared simultaneously to investigate the concordance/divergence of dose-survival curves plotted against actual radiation doses and biologically effective doses (BED).
Equivalent single doses for hypofractionated doses calculated from LQ formalism were lower than actually measured doses by 21%-31% in the 2- or 3-fraction experiments and by 27%-42% in the 4- or 5-fraction experiments. The differences were all significant. When a higher α/β ratio was assumed, the discrepancy became smaller. In direct comparison of the 2- to 5-fraction schedules, respective dose-response curves almost overlapped when cell survival was plotted against actual radiation doses. However, the curves tended to shift downward by increasing the fraction number when cell survival was plotted against BED calculated using an α/β ratio of 3.5 Gy for in vitro EMT6 cells.
Conversion of hypofractionated radiation doses to single doses using the LQ formalism underestimated the in vivo effect of hypofractionated radiation by approximately 20%-40%. The discrepancy appeared to be larger than that seen in the previous in vitro study and tended to increase with the fraction number. BED appeared to be an unreliable measure of tumor response.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 12/2011; 81(5):1538-43. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment schedules for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer vary from institution to institution. Several reports have indicated that stage IB patients had worse outcomes than stage IA patients when the same dose was used. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of SBRT for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with different doses depending on tumor diameter.
Between February 2004 and November 2008, 124 patients with stage I NSCLC underwent SBRT. Total doses of 44, 48, and 52 Gy were administered for tumors with a longest diameter of less than 1.5 cm, 1.5-3 cm, and larger than 3 cm, respectively. All doses were given in 4 fractions.
For all 124 patients, overall survival was 71%, cause-specific survival was 87%, progression-free survival was 60%, and local control was 80%, at 3 years. The 3-year overall survival was 79% for 85 stage IA patients treated with 48 Gy and 56% for 37 stage IB patients treated with 52 Gy (p = 0.05). At 3 years, cause-specific survival was 91% for the former group and 79% for the latter (p = 0.18), and progression-free survival was 62% versus 54% (p = 0.30). The 3-year local control rate was 81% versus 74% (p = 0.35). The cumulative incidence of grade 2 or 3 radiation pneumonitis was 11% in stage IA patients and 30% in stage IB patients (p = 0.02).
There was no difference in local control between stage IA and IB tumors despite the difference in tumor size. The benefit of increasing the SBRT dose for larger tumors should be investigated further.