[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human olfactory cells obtained by rapid nasal biopsy have been suggested to be a good surrogate system to address brain disease-associated molecular changes. Nonetheless, whether use of this experimental strategy is justified remains unclear. Here we compared expression profiles of olfactory cells systematically with those from the brain tissues and other cells. Principal component analysis indicated that the expression profiles of olfactory cells are very different from those of blood cells, but are closer to those of stem cells, in particular mesenchymal stem cells, that can be differentiated into the cells of the central nervous system.
Neuroscience Research 10/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Four to eight-week exposure to cuprizone, a copper chelator, causes robust demyelination and has been used to build a model for multiple sclerosis. In contrast, we report here the effects of one-week cuprizone exposure in mice. This short-term cuprizone exposure elicits behavioral changes that include augmented responsiveness to methamphetamine and phencyclidine, as well as impaired working memory. The cellular effects of one-week cuprizone exposure differ substantially from the longer-term exposure; perturbation of astrocytes and microglia is induced without any sign of demyelination. Furthermore, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 was significantly up-regulated in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells. We propose that this cuprizone short-term exposure may offer a model to study some aspects of biology relevant to schizophrenia and related conditions.
Neurobiology of Disease 07/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that has a strong genetic component. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, as indicated by their dysregulation in post-mortem brain tissues and in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients. The Olfactory Epithelium (OE) is one of the few accessible neural tissues that contain neurons and their stem cells. Previous studies showed that OE-derived tissues and cells can be safely and easily collected from live human subjects and may provide a "window" into neuronal processes involved in disorders such as schizophrenia, while avoiding the limitations of using postmortem brain samples or non-neuronal tissues. In this study, we found that the brain-enriched miR-382 (miR-382-5p) expression was elevated in in vitro cultured olfactory cells, in a cohort of seven schizophrenia patients compared to seven non-schizophrenic controls. MiR-382 elevation was further confirmed in laser-capture microdissected OE neuronal tissue (LCM-OE), enriched for mature olfactory neurons, in a cohort of 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 non-schizophrenic controls. In sharp contrast, miR-382 expression could not be detected in lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from schizophrenic or non-schizophrenic individuals. We further found that miR-382 directly regulates the expression of two genes, FGFR1 and SPRY4, which are downregulated in both the cultured olfactory cells and LCM-OE derived form schizophrenia patients. These genes are involved in the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling pathway, while impairment of this pathway may underlie abnormal brain development and function associated with schizophrenia. Our data suggest that miR-382 elevation detected in patients' OE-derived samples might serve to strengthen current biomarker studies in schizophrenia. This study also illustrates the potential utility of OE-derived tissues and cells as surrogate samples for the brain.
Neurobiology of Disease 03/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) ıplays a crucial role in the antiviral responses of Type I interferons (IFNs). The role of IFITM3 in the central nervous system (CNS) is, however, largely unknown, despite the fact that its expression is increased in the brains of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we show the role of IFITM3 in long-lasting neuronal impairments in mice following polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C, a synthetic double-stranded RNA)-induced immune challenge during the early stages of development. We found that the induction of IFITM3 expression in the brain of mice treated with polyI:C was observed only in astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes were activated by polyI:C treatment, leading to an increase in the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines as well as Ifitm3. When cultured neurons were treated with the conditioned medium of polyI:C-treated astrocytes (polyI:C-ACM), neurite development was impaired. These polyI:C-ACM-induced neurodevelopmental abnormalities were alleviated by ifitm3(-) (/) (-) astrocyte-conditioned medium. Furthermore, decreases of MAP2 expression, spine density, and dendrite complexity in the frontal cortex as well as memory impairment were evident in polyI:C-treated wild-type mice, but such neuronal impairments were not observed in ifitm3(-) (/) (-) mice. We also found that IFITM3 proteins were localized to the early endosomes of astrocytes following polyI:C treatment and reduced endocytic activity. These findings suggest that the induction of IFITM3 expression in astrocytes by the activation of the innate immune system during the early stages of development has non-cell autonomous effects that affect subsequent neurodevelopment, leading to neuropathological impairments and brain dysfunction, by impairing endocytosis in astrocytes. GLIA 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental stressors during childhood and adolescence influence postnatal brain maturation and human behavioral patterns in adulthood. Accordingly, excess stressors result in adult-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe an underlying mechanism in which glucocorticoids link adolescent stressors to epigenetic controls in neurons. In a mouse model of this phenomenon, a mild isolation stress affects the mesocortical projection of dopaminergic neurons in which DNA hypermethylation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene is elicited, but only when combined with a relevant genetic risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. These molecular changes are associated with several neurochemical and behavioral deficits that occur in this mouse model, all of which are blocked by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. The biology and phenotypes of the mouse models resemble those of psychotic depression, a common and debilitating psychiatric disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychiatric disease with plausible neurodevelopmental etiology. Although genetic studies show significant association of immune molecules loci such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I with SZ, it is not clear whether these immune molecules are involved in the pathology observed in SZ brains. MHC class I and the classical pathway components of complement system (C1q and C3) have been shown to regulate brain neuronal maturation and function. We have examined the expression of MHC class I and complement protein C3 in two frontal cortical regions of postmortem brains of SZ patients. Since cigarette smoking may modulate MHC class I protein expression and a higher rate of smoking is observed in SZ patients, we studied the expression of MHC class I and C3 in relation to the presence of smoking. We found that MHC class I protein expression is reduced in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) but not in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of nonsmoker SZ patients. We did not observe SZ-associated changes in C3 mRNA expression. Our exploratory research suggests a potential involvement of MHC class I in SZ and implies that smoking might modulate its expression.
Neuroscience Research 07/2011; 71(3):289-93. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of phencyclidine (PCP) is acknowledged to generate a model of psychosis in animals. With the identification of genetic susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, great efforts have been made to generate genetic animal models for major mental illnesses. As these disorders are multifactorial, comparisons among drug-induced (non-genetic) and genetic models are becoming an important issue in biological psychiatry. A major barrier is that the standard mouse strain used in the generation of genetic models is C57BL/6, whereas almost all studies with PCP-induced models have utilized other strains. To fill this technical gap, we systematically compared the behavioural changes upon PCP administration in different mouse strains, including C57BL/6N, C57BL/6J, ddY, and ICR. We observed strain differences in PCP-induced hyperlocomotion and enhanced immobility in the forced swim test (ddY>C57BL/6N and 6J>ICR). In contrast, there was no strain difference in the impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition memory test after withdrawal of chronic PCP administration. This study provides practical guidance for comparing genetic with PCP-induced models of psychosis in C57BL/6. Furthermore, such strain differences may provide a clue to the biological mechanisms underlying PCP-induced endophenotypes possibly relevant to major mental illnesses.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2011; 15(6):767-79. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: l-Serine is required for the synthesis of glycine and d-serine, both of which are NMDA receptor co-agonists. Although roles for d-serine and glycine have been suggested in schizophrenia, little is known about the role of the l-serine synthesizing cascade in schizophrenia or related psychiatric conditions. Here we report a patient with schizophrenia carrying a balanced chromosomal translocation with the breakpoints localized to 3q13.12 and 9q21.2. We examined this proband and her son with schizotypal personality disorder for chromosomal abnormalities, molecular expression profiles, and serum amino acids. Marked decrease of l-serine and glutamate was observed in the sera of the patient and her son, compared with those in normal controls. Interestingly, expression of PSAT1 gene, which is located next to the breakpoint and encodes one of the enzymes in the l-serine synthesizing cascade, was reduced in both patient and her son. Direct effect of impaired PSAT1 gene expression on decreased serum l-serine level was strongly implicated by rat astrocyte experiments. In summary, we propose an idea that PSAT1 may be implicated in altered serine metabolism and schizophrenia spectrum conditions.
Neuroscience Research 10/2010; 69(2):154-60. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) are promising susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. Both are multifunctional proteins with roles in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes, including progenitor cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Here, we provide evidence linking these factors together in a single pathway, which is mediated by ErbB receptors and PI3K/Akt. We show that signaling by NRG1 and NRG2, but not NRG3, increase expression of an isoform of DISC1 in vitro. Receptors ErbB2 and ErbB3, but not ErbB4, are responsible for transducing this effect, and PI3K/Akt signaling is also required. In NRG1 knockout mice, this DISC1 isoform is selectively reduced during neurodevelopment. Furthermore, a similar decrease in DISC1 expression is seen in beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) knockout mice, in which NRG1/Akt signaling is reportedly impaired. In contrast to neuronal DISC1 that was reported and characterized, expression of DISC1 in other types of cells in the brain has not been addressed. Here we demonstrate that DISC1, like NRG and ErbB proteins, is expressed in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and radial progenitors. These findings may connect NRG1, ErbBs, Akt, and DISC1 in a common pathway, which may regulate neurodevelopment and contribute to susceptibility to schizophrenia.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2010; 107(12):5622-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor