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Publications (6)20.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a major component of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is commonly used as a culture medium during vaccine production. Because BSA can cause allergic reactions in humans the World Health Organization (WHO) has set a guidance of 50 ng or less residual BSA per vaccine dose. Vaccine manufacturers are expected to develop sensitive assays to detect residual BSA. Generally, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used in the industry to detect these low levels of BSA. We report the development of a new improved method for residual BSA detection using the Simple Western(TM) technology to analyze residual BSA in an attenuated virus vaccine. The method is based on automated Capillary Western and has linearity of two logs, > 80% spike recovery (accuracy), intermediate precision of CV < 15%, and LOQ of 5.2 ng/mL. The final method was applied to analyze BSA in four lots of bulk vaccine products and was used to monitor BSA clearance during vaccine process purification.
    Analytical Biochemistry 05/2014; · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, science has greatly improved in the area of protein sizing and characterization. Efficient high-throughput methods are now available to substitute for the traditional labor-intensive SDS-PAGE methods, which alternatively take days to analyze a very limited number of samples. Currently, PerkinElmer (Caliper) has designed an automated chip-based fluorescence detection method capable of analyzing proteins in minutes with sensitivity similar to standard SDS-PAGE. Here, we describe the use and implementation of this technology to characterize and screen a large number of formulations of target glycoproteins in the 14-200 kDa molecular weight range.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 988:199-209. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many CE-based technologies such as imaged capillary IEF, CE-SDS, CZE, and MEKC are well established for analyzing proteins, viruses, or other biomolecules such as polysaccharides. For example, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (charge-based protein separation) and CE-SDS (size-based protein separation) are standard replacement methods in biopharmaceutical industries for tedious and labor intensive IEF and SDS-PAGE methods, respectively. Another important analytical tool for protein characterization is a Western blot, where after size-based separation in SDS-PAGE the proteins are transferred to a membrane and blotted with specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Western blotting analysis is applied in many areas such as biomarker research, therapeutic target identification, and vaccine development. Currently, the procedure is very manual, laborious, and time consuming. Here, we evaluate a new technology called Simple Western™ (or Simon™) for performing automated Western analysis. This new technology is based on CE-SDS where the separated proteins are attached to the wall of capillary by a proprietary photo activated chemical crosslink. Subsequent blotting is done automatically by incubating and washing the capillary with primary and secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and detected with chemiluminescence. Typically, Western blots are not quantitative, hence we also evaluated the quantitative aspect of this new technology. We demonstrate that Simon™ can quantitate specific components in one of our vaccine candidates and it provides good reproducibility and intermediate precision with CV <10%.
    Electrophoresis 09/2012; 33(17):2790-7. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first full length IgG produced in Pichia pastoris was reported in late 1980. However, use of a wild-type Pichia expression system to produce IgGs with human-like N-linked glycans was not possible until recently. Advances in glycoengineering have enabled organisms such as Pichia to mimic human N-glycan biosynthesis and produce IgGs with human glycans on an industrial scale. Since there are only a few reports of the analytical characterization of Pichia-produced IgG, we summarize the results known in this field, and provide additional characterization data generated in our laboratories. The data suggest that Pichia-produced IgG has the same stability as that produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. It has similar aggregation profiles, charge variant distribution and oxidation levels as those for a CHO IgG. It contains human N-linked glycans and O-linked single mannose. Because of the comparable biophysical and biochemical characteristics, glycoengineered Pichia pastoris is an attractive expression system for therapeutic IgG productions.
    mAbs 09/2011; 3(5):453-60. · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) at asparigine residue 297 plays a critical role in antibody stability and immune cell-mediated Fc effector function. Current understanding pertaining to Fc glycosylation is based on studies with IgGs that are either fully glycosylated [both heavy chain (HC) glycosylated] or aglycosylated (neither HC glycosylated). No study has been reported on the properties of hemi-glycosylated IgGs, antibodies with asymmetrical glycosylation in the Fc region such that one HC is glycosylated and the other is aglycosylated. We report here for the first time a detailed study of how hemi-glycosylation affects the stability and functional activities of an IgG1 antibody, mAb-X, in comparison to its fully glycosylated counterpart. Our results show that hemi-glycosylation does not impact Fab-mediated antigen binding, nor does it impact neonatal Fc receptor binding. Hemi-glycosylated mAb-X has slightly decreased thermal stability in the CH2 domain and a moderate decrease (∼20%) in C1q binding. More importantly, the hemi-glycosylated form shows significantly decreased binding affinities toward all Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) including the high-affinity FcγRI, and the low-affinity FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB, FcγRIIIA and FcγRIIIB. The decreased binding affinities to FcγRs result in a 3.5-fold decrease in antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). As ADCC often plays an important role in therapeutic antibody efficacy, glycosylation status will not only affect the antibody quality but also may impact the biological function of the product.
    Glycobiology 04/2011; 21(8):1087-96. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromatographic separation plays a key role in the identification, quantification, and characterization of protein variants. Here we describe separation of species containing two post-translational modifications (glycosylation and methionine oxidation) in the Fc fragment of a monoclonal antibody. The method is based on cation-exchange chromatography under mildly acidic conditions that destabilize mainly the CH2 domain. Our data suggest that the separation is not mediated by the chemical modification itself, but rather by subtle structural changes induced by the chemical modification in the domain-decoupled conformation that monoclonal antibodies adopt around pH 4. Compared to other procedures already described in the literature, this method demonstrates an improved separation and allows purification of species in the native fold for additional functional characterization. This approach of separation under conditions where the protein assumes an alternative conformation could find a more general utility for the separation of chemical modifications in proteins.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2010; 1217(42):6496-502. · 4.61 Impact Factor