S Packman

Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (102)683.39 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. The National MPS Society (2013) reports that MPS II affects 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 150,000 males worldwide. Two distinct forms of the disease are based on age of onset and clinical course: attenuated and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Clinical manifestations can include progressive hearing loss, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. This study focuses on the health-related quality of life of individuals (HRQOL) with MPS II as measured by the parent and self-report versions of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). Both parents of patients with MPS II as well as patients themselves reported lower scores on all domains of the PedsQL™ (physical, emotional, social and school functioning) indicating that children with MPS II have an overall lower HRQOL when compared to a healthy sample. When compared with patients with other chronic illnesses (cancer, MSUD, galactosemia,), the MPS II sample had significantly lower scores on a number of PedsQL™ scales, suggesting an overall lower HRQOL. No significant relationships were found using scores from parent or self report PedsQL™ measures and length of time on ERT.
    Journal of Genetic Counseling 11/2014; · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. It occurs in 1 in every 65,000 to 1 in 132,000 births. There are two distinct forms of the disease based on age of onset and clinical course: mild and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Complications can include vision problems, progressive hearing loss, thickened and elastic skin, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. We herein focus on the adaptive behavior of individuals with MPS II, and the impact of MPS II on the family system. Outcomes from the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales showed that the MPS II patient sample experienced significantly lower functioning in communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills compared to normative data. Patients with severe MPS II were found to have significantly lower adaptive functioning in all domains, as compared to those with mild MPS II. Length of time on ERT had no significant relationship to adaptive functioning. Results from the Peds QL Family Impact Module indicated that families of patients with MPS II experienced a lower overall health-related quality of life and overall lower family functioning (including lower emotional and cognitive functioning) than those with chronic illnesses residing in an inpatient setting.
    Journal of Genetic Counseling 11/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common hereditary lysosomal storage disorder. Of the three variants of GD, type 1 accounts for 90% of cases. Patients with GD suffer from multiple medical symptoms and conditions. Clinical features of type 1 GD include hepatosplenomegaly; hematologic complications such as anemia and thrombocytopenia; and skeletal disease leading to avascular necrosis, osteopenia, and osteosclerosis. GD has unique features as a chronic illness: the disorder often presents with mild symptoms, and is frequently diagnosed in later childhood or adulthood. The treatment, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), is efficacious. However, that same effective treatment is intrusive, expensive, and requires that patients restructure their work and personal schedules. Since the age of presentation can be anywhere between infancy and the eighth decade, the diagnostic process can be prolonged and stressful. The success of ERT notwithstanding, GD patients show distinct psychological complications [Packman et al. (2006); J Inherit Metab Dis 29:99-105]. In the present study, we describe the concerns, needs, challenges and positive effects of GD from the patients' perspective using in depth interviews of 28 individual affected by GD. Five core themes emerge: (1) difficulty coping with the diagnosis; (2) impact of pain on work, career, and recreational activities; (3) insurance concerns; (4) psychological distress (e.g., mood changes and anxiety); and (5) positive effects-strengthened family and social relationships and positive outlook. Our results highlight and expand awareness of the psychological and social needs of GD patients. This study calls for a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort in treating these patients and their families.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2010; 152A(8):2002-10. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is a rare X-linked deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (alphagal), which causes glycosphingolipid accumulation. This study analysed the cardiovascular manifestations of a cohort of Fabry patients, and sought to define relationships between disease severity, alphagal activity, and cardiac abnormalities. We prospectively analysed Fabry patients (139 subjects: 92 males and 47 females) undergoing screening for potential enzyme replacement therapy. Baseline echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and exams were obtained as part of two multinational clinical trials. Cardiovascular symptoms were present in 60.4%. By echocardiography, the mean left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was increased at 165.5 +/- 66.9 g/m(2), and 84.8% of patients displayed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Electrocardiographic LVH was present in >50% of adult subjects. In females, log-corrected plasma alphagal activity was inversely associated with LVMI (r = -0.45, P < 0.040). Males with extremely low alphagal activity and renal disease displayed the most LVH and cardiac symptoms, but LVH was prevalent even in females <20 years old. Concentric LVH was the predominant cardiac pathology seen in patients with Fabry disease, and was prevalent in both genders by the third decade of life. Left ventricular mass index was inversely correlated with alphagal activity, but was prevalent even in younger females.
    European Heart Journal 05/2010; 31(9):1088-97. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in any of the three different genes-BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT-encoding for the E1alpha, E1beta, and E2 catalytic components of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex can cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Disease severity ranges from the classic to the mildest variant types and precise genotypes, mostly based on missense mutations, have been associated to the less severe presentations of the disease. Herein, we examine the consequences at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of the novel intronic alteration c.288+9C>T found in heterozygous fashion in a BCKDHA variant MSUD patient who also carries the nucleotide change c.745G>A (p.Gly249Ser), previously described as a severe change. Direct analysis of the processed transcripts from the patient showed-in addition to a low but measurable level of normal mRNA product-an aberrantly spliced mRNA containing a 7-bp fragment of intron 2, which could be rescued when the patient's cells were treated with emetine. This aberrant transcript with a premature stop codon would be unstable, supporting the possible activation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Consistent with this finding, minigene splicing assays demonstrated that the point mutation c.288+9C>T is sufficient to create a cryptic splice site and cause the observed 7-bp insertion. Furthermore, our results strongly suggest that the c.288+9C>T allele in the patient generates both normal and aberrant transcripts that could sustain the variant presentation of the disease, highlighting the importance of correct genotyping to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and as basis for the development of therapeutic interventions.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 04/2010; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    Shelly L Henderson, Wendy Packman, Seymour Packman
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    ABSTRACT: Health-care providers have only begun to understand the medical aspects of Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPDB), a relatively rare disease. Even less information is known about the psychological effects of living with NPDB. Patients with NPDB and their families face numerous psychological stressors including extensive medical testing, uncertainty of diagnosis, living and coping with a chronic illness, and grief and bereavement surrounding this progressively debilitating, and, ultimately, fatal disease. We used a qualitative case study approach to explore the human experiences of NPDB patients and families. To assess psychosocial adjustment, all participants were administered a semi-structured, qualitative interview, as well as quantitative measures. Five major findings emerged: (1) limited physical activity, social isolation, and peer rejection were identified as significant stressors; (2) stressors had a specific impact during the age span of 10-16 years; (3) parents and adult patients expressed frustration regarding the lack of available information and treatment; (4) patients described close family relationships as a way of coping with illness; and (5) adult patients identified early medical experiences as having a considerable psychological impact. The results of this investigation highlight and expand awareness of the psychological and social needs of NPDB patients and families. This study calls for a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort in the treatment of these patients and their families.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2009; 149A(11):2430-6. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Minnesota Muliphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) is widely used in chronic illness and chronic pain populations to assess psychological functioning. We report the results of the first investigation using the MMPI-2 to assess psychological aspects of patients with Fabry disease. Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, is a multisystem progressive disease affecting the kidney, heart, and central nervous system, and is particularly associated with chronic symptoms including pain. In this study, 28 patients with Fabry disease completed the MMPI-2 and a background questionnaire. Fabry disease patients scored significantly higher than the MMPI-2 normative sample on seven clinical scales (Hs, D, Hy, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc) and two validity scales (L, F). Individuals with elevated scores on the Hs, D, and Hy scales tend to have somatic complaints, sadness, and emotional distress. Under stress, they may experience an increase in physical symptoms. Elevated Pd, Pa, Pt, and Sc scales suggest social maladjustment, suspiciousness, and feelings of isolation. An elevated L scale suggests defensiveness; a high score on F suggests emotional turmoil. When compared with cohorts of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), chronic heart disease (CRHD), and chronic pain, the Fabry disease patients had significantly higher scores than GD patients and CRHD patients on numerous clinical (Hs, D, Si), and validity (F) scales underscoring the relative amount of suffering and pain experienced by Fabry disease patients. No significant differences on any MMPI-2 scales were found between the Fabry disease patients and the pain patients, suggesting that Fabry disease patients may be comparable to pain patient populations.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 10/2009; 32(6):745-53. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 05/2009; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Fabry disease, progressive glycolipid accumulation leads to organ damage and early demise, but the incidence of renal, cardiac and cerebrovascular events has not been well characterized. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 279 affected males and 168 females from 27 sites (USA, Canada, Europe). The pre-defined study endpoints included progression of renal, cardiac and cerebrovascular involvement and/or death before the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy. The mean rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline for patients was -2.93 for males, and -1.02 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year for females. Prevalence and severity of proteinuria, baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and hypertension were associated with more rapid loss of eGFR. Advanced Fabry nephropathy was more prevalent and occurred earlier among males than females. Cardiac events (mainly arrhythmias), strokes and transient ischaemic attacks occurred in 49, 11, 6% of males, and in 35, 8, 4% of females, respectively. The mean age at death for 20 male patients was 49.9 years. Baseline proteinuria, reduced baseline eGFR, hypertension and male gender were associated with more rapid progression of Fabry nephropathy. The eGFR progression rate may increase with advancing nephropathy, and may differ between subgroups of patients with Fabry disease.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2009; 24(7):2102-11. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism - MOL GENET METAB. 01/2009; 96(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid beta-glucosidase. The most prevalent mutant genotype in type I Gaucher disease, N370S/N370S, is commonly thought to confer a mild phenotype presenting in adulthood. To characterize a subset of more severely affected N370S homozygotes, we assessed the phenotypes at or near the time of diagnosis of all N370S homozygotes with available data enrolled in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry. N370S compound heterozygotes were analyzed for comparison, as they are expected to present with a more severe phenotype. Of 798 N370S homozygotes and 1,278 N370S compound heterozygotes identified, 32% (251/788) and 65% (820/1269), respectively, were diagnosed before age 20 years. At diagnosis, N370S homozygotes as compared to N370S compound heterozygotes had the following clinical characteristics: irreversible skeletal lesions 17% (34/198) for N370S homozygotes versus 26% (76/290) for N370S compound heterozygotes; anaemia 18% (59/327) versus 29% (145/494); thrombocytopenia 52% (170/327) versus 62% (281/453); hepatomegaly 44% (83/190) versus 72% (141/195); splenomegaly 73% (142/194) versus 91% (178/195); and osteopenia or osteoporosis 48.6% (34/70) versus 51% (25/49). Some N370S homozygotes exhibited more severe clinical manifestations: 9% (29/327) had severe thrombocytopenia; 3% (5/190) had severe hepatomegaly; 11% (22/194) had severe splenomegaly; 7% (18/255) reported bone crises; 11% (8/70) had osteoporosis. In conclusion, N370S homozygosity does not consistently confer a mild, adult-onset phenotype. Gaucher disease patients with the N370S/N370S genotype exhibit a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity and some may be at risk for early disease onset and severe clinical manifestations.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 12/2008; 31(6):738-44. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an X-linked urea cycle defect. While hemizygous males typically present with hyperammonemic coma in infancy, reports of rare late-onset presentations exist, with poor outcomes in males up to 58 years old. Relatives with mutations identical to affected patients often remain asymptomatic, and it is likely that environmental and genetic factors influence disease penetrance and expression. Here, we present our investigation of a patient with late-onset presentation, and we emphasize the potential role of environmental and genetic factors on disease expression. The patient was a previously healthy 62-year-old man who developed mental slowing, refractory seizures, and coma over an 8-day period. Interestingly, the patient had recently used home gardening fertilizers and pesticides. Evaluations for drug and alcohol use, infections, and liver disease were negative. Despite aggressive therapy, blood NH(3) concentration peaked at 2,050 muM and the patient died from cerebral edema and cerebellar herniation. Analysis of the OTC gene showed a Pro-225-Thr (P225T) change in exon 7, a mutation that has been previously implicated in OTC deficiency. This case illustrates that OTC deficiency can cause acute, severe hyperammonemia in a previously healthy adult and that the P225T mutation can be associated with late-onset OTC deficiency. We speculate that exposure to organic chemicals might have contributed to the onset of symptoms in this patient. This case also emphasizes that persistent hyperammonemia may cause irreversible neurologic damage and that after the diagnosis of hyperammonemia is established in an acutely ill patient, certain diagnostic tests should be performed to differentiate between urea cycle disorders and other causes of hyperammonemic encephalopathy.
    Hepatology International 10/2008; 2(3):390-4. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive skeletal disease accounts for some of the most debilitating complications of type 1 Gaucher disease. In this 48-month, prospective, non-randomized, open-label study of the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on bone response, 33 imiglucerase-naïve patients (median age 43 years with one or more skeletal manifestations such as osteopenia, history of bone crisis, or other documented bone pathology) received imiglucerase 60 U/kg/2 weeks. Substantial improvements were observed in bone pain (BP), bone crises (BC), and bone mineral density (BMD). Improvements in BP were observed at 3 months (p < 0.001 vs baseline) and continued progressively throughout the study, with 39% of patients reporting pain at 48 months vs 73% at baseline. Eleven of the 13 patients with a pre-treatment history of BC had no recurrences. Biochemical markers for bone formation increased; markers for bone resorption decreased. Steady improvement of spine and femoral neck BMD, measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was noted. Mean Z score for spine increased from -0.72 +/- 1.302 at baseline to near-normal levels (-0.09 +/- 1.503) by month 48 (p = 0.042) and for femoral neck from -0.59 +/- 1.352 to -0.17 +/- 1.206 (p = 0.035) at month 36. This increase was sustained at 48 months. With imiglucerase treatment, patients should anticipate resolution of BC, rapid improvement in BP, increases in BMD, and decreased skeletal complications.
    Clinical Genetics 05/2008; 73(5):430-40. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2008; 93(2):41-42. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the psychosocial issues faced by families affected by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). The psychosocial adjustment and quality of life of children with MSUD were also described. Participants included 55 families and their children (ages 5 to 18 years) and teachers. Measures included a MSUD Family Survey, the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Parents reported via the MSUD Family Survey that the greatest sources of stress were financial and emotional. Many parents reported difficulty interacting with the medical staff and with schools. On the BASC, half of the children fell within the average range in psychosocial adjustment, although there were elevations in scales measuring attention, hyperactivity, and learning problems. On the PedsQL, the mean quality of life scores were closer to children with cancer than to a healthy sample. Despite the emotional and financial burden, parents reported that MSUD has also had a positive influence on their lives, leading to a world-view that is more compassionate and caring.
    Journal of Genetic Counseling 01/2008; 16(6):799-809. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study addresses the effects of dietary adherence, phenylalanine (phe) levels, and age on performance of executive functioning (EF) tasks in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU). We herein collate formerly discrete findings to understand the relationship among actual clinical parameters and EF in PKU. Fifteen subjects (age range 8-20 years) with PKU were compared with the normative sample on the Delis-Kaplan EF Battery and on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence to examine the relationship between EF skills, phe levels, age, and dietary adherence. At the time of the assessment, the mean age of participants was 14.8 years, mean lifetime phe levels ranged from 216 to 1200 microM (mean 594 microM); and concurrent phe levels ranged from 222 to 1730 microM (mean 660 microM). Children and adolescents with PKU showed lower performance in several EF skills: initiation of problem solving, concept formation, and reasoning. Performance on EF tasks requiring inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and set shifting decreased at higher phe levels. Phe levels were positively correlated to age and inversely related to dietary adherence. We conclude that dynamic clinical parameters appear to govern EF in patients with PKU. We suggest that when adolescents decrease dietary compliance, changes in EF skills occur. Therefore, there is a need to specifically monitor EF skills in patients with PKU during the transition to, and during, adolescence.
    Clinical Genetics 08/2007; 72(1):13-8. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) can be diminished in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) owing to the debilitating clinical manifestations of this chronic disease. This study investigates the impact of imiglucerase treatment on HRQOL of patients with type 1 GD and bone involvement. Thirty-two previously untreated type 1 GD patients with skeletal manifestations including bone pain, medullary infarctions, avascular necrosis, and lytic lesions received biweekly imiglucerase (at 60 U/kg). The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was administered at regular intervals to assess HRQOL. Mean baseline SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) scores were diminished relative to US general population norms. Low PCS scores were more common in patients with medullary infarction, lytic lesions, and higher bone pain severity scores. Statistically significant improvements were observed for all eight SF-36 subscales after 2 years of treatment. Mean PCS and mental component summary (MCS) scores increased to within the normal range after 2 years of treatment and were maintained through year 4. Large HRQOL gains were observed even in patients with the most advanced disease and lowest baseline PCS scores. Imiglucerase treatment has a significant positive impact on HRQOL of type 1 GD patients with skeletal disease, including those with bone infarctions, lytic lesions, and avascular necrosis.
    Clinical Genetics 07/2007; 71(6):576-88. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease (alpha-galactosidase A deficiency) is a rare, X-linked lysosomal storage disorder that can cause early death from renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular involvement. To see whether agalsidase beta delays the onset of a composite clinical outcome of renal, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular events and death in patients with advanced Fabry disease. Randomized (2:1 treatment-to-placebo randomization), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 41 referral centers in 9 countries. 82 adults with mild to moderate kidney disease; 74 of whom were protocol-adherent. Intravenous infusion of agalsidase beta (1 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo every 2 weeks for up to 35 months (median, 18.5 months). The primary end point was the time to first clinical event (renal, cardiac, or cerebrovascular event or death). Six patients withdrew before reaching an end point: 3 to receive commercial therapy and 3 due to positive or inconclusive serum IgE or skin test results. Three patients assigned to agalsidase beta elected to transition to open-label treatment before reaching an end point. Thirteen (42%) of the 31 patients in the placebo group and 14 (27%) of the 51 patients in the agalsidase-beta group experienced clinical events. Primary intention-to-treat analysis that adjusted for an imbalance in baseline proteinuria showed that, compared with placebo, agalsidase beta delayed the time to first clinical event (hazard ratio, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.21 to 1.03]; P = 0.06). Secondary analyses of protocol-adherent patients showed similar results (hazard ratio, 0.39 [CI, 0.16 to 0.93]; P = 0.034). Ancillary subgroup analyses found larger treatment effects in patients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates greater than 55 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.19 [CI, 0.05 to 0.82]; P = 0.025) compared with 55 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or less (hazard ratio, 0.85 [CI, 0.32 to 2.3]; P = 0.75) (formal test for interaction, P = 0.09). Most treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate infusion-associated reactions, reported by 55% of patients in the agalsidase-beta group and 23% of patients in the placebo group. The study sample was small. Only one third of the patients experienced clinical events, and some patients withdrew before experiencing any event. Agalsidase-beta therapy slowed progression to the composite clinical outcome of renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular complications and death compared with placebo in patients with advanced Fabry disease. Therapeutic intervention before irreversible organ damage may provide greater clinical benefit.
    Annals of internal medicine 02/2007; 146(2):77-86. · 13.98 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Therapeutics 01/2007; 29. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 447(1):414 - 416. · 4.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
683.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Palo Alto University
      • Pacific Graduate School of Psychology
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1978–2010
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of Medical Genetics
      • • Institute for Human Genetics
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2009
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Family and Community Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1997
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Teikyo University Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1996
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 1993–1996
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1994
    • Keesler Medical Center
      Gulfport, Mississippi, United States
  • 1985
    • Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico
      San Juan, San Juan, Puerto Rico