[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fabry disease results from deficient α-galactosidase A activity and globotriaosylceramide accumulation causing renal insufficiency, strokes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and early demise. We assessed the 10-year outcome of recombinant α-galactosidase A therapy.
The outcomes (severe clinical events, renal function, cardiac structure) of 52/58 patients with classic Fabry disease from the phase 3 clinical trial and extension study, and the Fabry Registry were evaluated. Disease progression rates for patients with low renal involvement (LRI, n=32) or high renal involvement (HRI, n=20) at baseline were assessed.
81% of patients (42/52) did not experience any severe clinical event during the treatment interval and 94% (49/52) were alive at the end of the study period. Ten patients reported a total of 16 events. Patients classified as LRI started therapy 13 years younger than HRI (mean 25 years vs 38 years). Mean slopes for estimated glomerular filtration rate for LRI and HRI were -1.89 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year and -6.82 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year, respectively. Overall, the mean left ventricular posterior wall thickness and interventricular septum thickness remained unchanged and normal. Patients who initiated treatment at age ≥40 years exhibited significant increase in left ventricular posterior wall thickness and interventricular septum thickness. Mean plasma globotriaosylceramide normalised within 6 months.
This 10-year study documents the effectiveness of agalsidase beta (1 mg/kg/2 weeks) in patients with Fabry disease. Most patients remained alive and event-free. Patients who initiated treatment at a younger age and with less kidney involvement benefited the most from therapy. Patients who initiated treatment at older ages and/or had advanced renal disease experienced disease progression.
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Journal of Medical Genetics 03/2015; 52(5). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2014-102797 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease type 1 is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and skeletal disease. A safe, effective oral therapy is needed.
To determine whether eliglustat, a novel oral substrate reduction therapy, safely reverses clinical manifestations in untreated adults with Gaucher disease type 1.
Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 18 sites in 12 countries from November 2009 to July 2012 among eligible patients with splenomegaly plus thrombocytopenia and/or anemia. Of 72 patients screened, 40 were enrolled.
Patients were stratified by spleen volume and randomized 1:1 to receive eliglustat (50 or 100 mg twice daily; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 9 months.
The primary efficacy end point was percentage change in spleen volume in multiples of normal from baseline to 9 months; secondary efficacy end points were change in hemoglobin level and percentage changes in liver volume and platelet count.
All patients had baseline splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia (mostly moderate or severe), most had mild or moderate hepatomegaly, and 20% had mild anemia. Least-square mean spleen volume decreased by 27.77% (95% CI, -32.57% to -22.97%) in the eliglustat group (from 13.89 to 10.17 multiples of normal) vs an increase of 2.26% (95% CI, -2.54% to 7.06%) in the placebo group (from 12.50 to 12.84 multiples of normal) for an absolute treatment difference of -30.03% (95% CI, -36.82% to -23.24%; P < .001). For the secondary end points, the least-square mean absolute differences between groups all favored eliglustat, with a 1.22-g/dL increase in hemoglobin level (95% CI, 0.57-1.88 g/dL; P < .001), 6.64% decrease in liver volume (95% CI, -11.37% to -1.91%; P = .007), and 41.06% increase in platelet count (95% CI, 23.95%-58.17%; P < .001). No serious adverse events occurred. One patient in the eliglustat group withdrew (non-treatment related); 39 of the 40 patients transitioned to an open-label extension study.
Among previously untreated adults with Gaucher disease type 1, treatment with eliglustat compared with placebo for 9 months resulted in significant improvements in spleen volume, hemoglobin level, liver volume, and platelet count. The clinical significance of these findings is uncertain, and more definitive conclusions about clinical efficacy and utility will require comparison with the standard treatment of enzyme replacement therapy as well as longer-term follow-up.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00891202.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2015; 313(7):695-706. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.459 · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. The National MPS Society (2013) reports that MPS II affects 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 150,000 males worldwide. Two distinct forms of the disease are based on age of onset and clinical course: attenuated and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Clinical manifestations can include progressive hearing loss, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. This study focuses on the health-related quality of life of individuals (HRQOL) with MPS II as measured by the parent and self-report versions of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). Both parents of patients with MPS II as well as patients themselves reported lower scores on all domains of the PedsQL™ (physical, emotional, social and school functioning) indicating that children with MPS II have an overall lower HRQOL when compared to a healthy sample. When compared with patients with other chronic illnesses (cancer, MSUD, galactosemia,), the MPS II sample had significantly lower scores on a number of PedsQL™ scales, suggesting an overall lower HRQOL. No significant relationships were found using scores from parent or self report PedsQL™ measures and length of time on ERT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. It occurs in 1 in every 65,000 to 1 in 132,000 births. There are two distinct forms of the disease based on age of onset and clinical course: mild and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Complications can include vision problems, progressive hearing loss, thickened and elastic skin, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. We herein focus on the adaptive behavior of individuals with MPS II, and the impact of MPS II on the family system. Outcomes from the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales showed that the MPS II patient sample experienced significantly lower functioning in communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills compared to normative data. Patients with severe MPS II were found to have significantly lower adaptive functioning in all domains, as compared to those with mild MPS II. Length of time on ERT had no significant relationship to adaptive functioning. Results from the Peds QL Family Impact Module indicated that families of patients with MPS II experienced a lower overall health-related quality of life and overall lower family functioning (including lower emotional and cognitive functioning) than those with chronic illnesses residing in an inpatient setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common hereditary lysosomal storage disorder. Of the three variants of GD, type 1 accounts for 90% of cases. Patients with GD suffer from multiple medical symptoms and conditions. Clinical features of type 1 GD include hepatosplenomegaly; hematologic complications such as anemia and thrombocytopenia; and skeletal disease leading to avascular necrosis, osteopenia, and osteosclerosis. GD has unique features as a chronic illness: the disorder often presents with mild symptoms, and is frequently diagnosed in later childhood or adulthood. The treatment, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), is efficacious. However, that same effective treatment is intrusive, expensive, and requires that patients restructure their work and personal schedules. Since the age of presentation can be anywhere between infancy and the eighth decade, the diagnostic process can be prolonged and stressful. The success of ERT notwithstanding, GD patients show distinct psychological complications [Packman et al. (2006); J Inherit Metab Dis 29:99-105]. In the present study, we describe the concerns, needs, challenges and positive effects of GD from the patients' perspective using in depth interviews of 28 individual affected by GD. Five core themes emerge: (1) difficulty coping with the diagnosis; (2) impact of pain on work, career, and recreational activities; (3) insurance concerns; (4) psychological distress (e.g., mood changes and anxiety); and (5) positive effects-strengthened family and social relationships and positive outlook. Our results highlight and expand awareness of the psychological and social needs of GD patients. This study calls for a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort in treating these patients and their families.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2010; 152A(8):2002-10. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33527 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is a rare X-linked deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (alphagal), which causes glycosphingolipid accumulation. This study analysed the cardiovascular manifestations of a cohort of Fabry patients, and sought to define relationships between disease severity, alphagal activity, and cardiac abnormalities.
We prospectively analysed Fabry patients (139 subjects: 92 males and 47 females) undergoing screening for potential enzyme replacement therapy. Baseline echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and exams were obtained as part of two multinational clinical trials. Cardiovascular symptoms were present in 60.4%. By echocardiography, the mean left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was increased at 165.5 +/- 66.9 g/m(2), and 84.8% of patients displayed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Electrocardiographic LVH was present in >50% of adult subjects. In females, log-corrected plasma alphagal activity was inversely associated with LVMI (r = -0.45, P < 0.040). Males with extremely low alphagal activity and renal disease displayed the most LVH and cardiac symptoms, but LVH was prevalent even in females <20 years old.
Concentric LVH was the predominant cardiac pathology seen in patients with Fabry disease, and was prevalent in both genders by the third decade of life. Left ventricular mass index was inversely correlated with alphagal activity, but was prevalent even in younger females.
European Heart Journal 05/2010; 31(9):1088-97. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehp588 · 15.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in any of the three different genes-BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT-encoding for the E1alpha, E1beta, and E2 catalytic components of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex can cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Disease severity ranges from the classic to the mildest variant types and precise genotypes, mostly based on missense mutations, have been associated to the less severe presentations of the disease. Herein, we examine the consequences at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of the novel intronic alteration c.288+9C>T found in heterozygous fashion in a BCKDHA variant MSUD patient who also carries the nucleotide change c.745G>A (p.Gly249Ser), previously described as a severe change. Direct analysis of the processed transcripts from the patient showed-in addition to a low but measurable level of normal mRNA product-an aberrantly spliced mRNA containing a 7-bp fragment of intron 2, which could be rescued when the patient's cells were treated with emetine. This aberrant transcript with a premature stop codon would be unstable, supporting the possible activation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Consistent with this finding, minigene splicing assays demonstrated that the point mutation c.288+9C>T is sufficient to create a cryptic splice site and cause the observed 7-bp insertion. Furthermore, our results strongly suggest that the c.288+9C>T allele in the patient generates both normal and aberrant transcripts that could sustain the variant presentation of the disease, highlighting the importance of correct genotyping to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and as basis for the development of therapeutic interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health-care providers have only begun to understand the medical aspects of Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPDB), a relatively rare disease. Even less information is known about the psychological effects of living with NPDB. Patients with NPDB and their families face numerous psychological stressors including extensive medical testing, uncertainty of diagnosis, living and coping with a chronic illness, and grief and bereavement surrounding this progressively debilitating, and, ultimately, fatal disease. We used a qualitative case study approach to explore the human experiences of NPDB patients and families. To assess psychosocial adjustment, all participants were administered a semi-structured, qualitative interview, as well as quantitative measures. Five major findings emerged: (1) limited physical activity, social isolation, and peer rejection were identified as significant stressors; (2) stressors had a specific impact during the age span of 10-16 years; (3) parents and adult patients expressed frustration regarding the lack of available information and treatment; (4) patients described close family relationships as a way of coping with illness; and (5) adult patients identified early medical experiences as having a considerable psychological impact. The results of this investigation highlight and expand awareness of the psychological and social needs of NPDB patients and families. This study calls for a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort in the treatment of these patients and their families.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2009; 149A(11):2430-6. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33077 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Minnesota Muliphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) is widely used in chronic illness and chronic pain populations to assess psychological functioning. We report the results of the first investigation using the MMPI-2 to assess psychological aspects of patients with Fabry disease. Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, is a multisystem progressive disease affecting the kidney, heart, and central nervous system, and is particularly associated with chronic symptoms including pain. In this study, 28 patients with Fabry disease completed the MMPI-2 and a background questionnaire. Fabry disease patients scored significantly higher than the MMPI-2 normative sample on seven clinical scales (Hs, D, Hy, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc) and two validity scales (L, F). Individuals with elevated scores on the Hs, D, and Hy scales tend to have somatic complaints, sadness, and emotional distress. Under stress, they may experience an increase in physical symptoms. Elevated Pd, Pa, Pt, and Sc scales suggest social maladjustment, suspiciousness, and feelings of isolation. An elevated L scale suggests defensiveness; a high score on F suggests emotional turmoil. When compared with cohorts of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), chronic heart disease (CRHD), and chronic pain, the Fabry disease patients had significantly higher scores than GD patients and CRHD patients on numerous clinical (Hs, D, Si), and validity (F) scales underscoring the relative amount of suffering and pain experienced by Fabry disease patients. No significant differences on any MMPI-2 scales were found between the Fabry disease patients and the pain patients, suggesting that Fabry disease patients may be comparable to pain patient populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Fabry disease, progressive glycolipid accumulation leads to organ damage and early demise, but the incidence of renal, cardiac and cerebrovascular events has not been well characterized.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of 279 affected males and 168 females from 27 sites (USA, Canada, Europe). The pre-defined study endpoints included progression of renal, cardiac and cerebrovascular involvement and/or death before the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy.
The mean rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline for patients was -2.93 for males, and -1.02 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year for females. Prevalence and severity of proteinuria, baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and hypertension were associated with more rapid loss of eGFR. Advanced Fabry nephropathy was more prevalent and occurred earlier among males than females. Cardiac events (mainly arrhythmias), strokes and transient ischaemic attacks occurred in 49, 11, 6% of males, and in 35, 8, 4% of females, respectively. The mean age at death for 20 male patients was 49.9 years.
Baseline proteinuria, reduced baseline eGFR, hypertension and male gender were associated with more rapid progression of Fabry nephropathy. The eGFR progression rate may increase with advancing nephropathy, and may differ between subgroups of patients with Fabry disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid beta-glucosidase. The most prevalent mutant genotype in type I Gaucher disease, N370S/N370S, is commonly thought to confer a mild phenotype presenting in adulthood. To characterize a subset of more severely affected N370S homozygotes, we assessed the phenotypes at or near the time of diagnosis of all N370S homozygotes with available data enrolled in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry. N370S compound heterozygotes were analyzed for comparison, as they are expected to present with a more severe phenotype. Of 798 N370S homozygotes and 1,278 N370S compound heterozygotes identified, 32% (251/788) and 65% (820/1269), respectively, were diagnosed before age 20 years. At diagnosis, N370S homozygotes as compared to N370S compound heterozygotes had the following clinical characteristics: irreversible skeletal lesions 17% (34/198) for N370S homozygotes versus 26% (76/290) for N370S compound heterozygotes; anaemia 18% (59/327) versus 29% (145/494); thrombocytopenia 52% (170/327) versus 62% (281/453); hepatomegaly 44% (83/190) versus 72% (141/195); splenomegaly 73% (142/194) versus 91% (178/195); and osteopenia or osteoporosis 48.6% (34/70) versus 51% (25/49). Some N370S homozygotes exhibited more severe clinical manifestations: 9% (29/327) had severe thrombocytopenia; 3% (5/190) had severe hepatomegaly; 11% (22/194) had severe splenomegaly; 7% (18/255) reported bone crises; 11% (8/70) had osteoporosis. In conclusion, N370S homozygosity does not consistently confer a mild, adult-onset phenotype. Gaucher disease patients with the N370S/N370S genotype exhibit a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity and some may be at risk for early disease onset and severe clinical manifestations.