Shelley L Deeks

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (59)196.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) disease is a low incidence but severe infection (mean annual incidence 0.19/100,000/year, case fatality 11%, major long-term sequelae 10%) in Ontario, Canada. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of a novel MenB vaccine from the Ontario healthcare payer perspective.
    Vaccine. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of new digital technologies has 'disrupted' traditional vaccine information communication. This article reviews the impact of the Internet, social media, digital detection and mobile applications on both fueling anti-vaccine sentiment and providing a mechanism by which to address vaccine hesitancy. While the anti-vaccine community has leveraged the Internet and social media to bypass traditional sources of information and communicate with susceptible parents, digital surveillance and mobile apps offer an important opportunity for public health officials to develop new strategies to identify and address concerns in a real-time manner.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 06/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • International journal of antimicrobial agents 05/2014; · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Infectious Diseases 05/2014; 14(5):369-70. · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluating the features and performance of health information systems can serve to strengthen the systems themselves as well as to guide other organizations in the process of designing and implementing surveillance tools. We adapted an evaluation framework in order to assess electronic immunization data collection systems, and applied it in two Ontario public health units. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems are broad in nature and serve as an organizational tool to guide the development of comprehensive evaluation materials. Based on these Guidelines, and informed by other evaluation resources and input from stakeholders in the public health community, we applied an evaluation framework to two examples of immunization data collection and examined several system attributes: simplicity, flexibility, data quality, timeliness, and acceptability. Data collection approaches included key informant interviews, logic and completeness assessments, client surveys, and on-site observations. Both evaluated systems allow high-quality immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion. However, neither system is currently able to link to other providers' immunization data or provincial data sources, limiting the comprehensiveness of coverage assessments. We recommended that both organizations explore possibilities for external data linkage and collaborate with other jurisdictions to promote a provincial immunization repository or data sharing platform. Electronic systems such as the ones described in this paper allow immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion, and represent the infostructure required to establish a population-based immunization registry, critical for comprehensively assessing vaccine coverage.
    BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 01/2014; 14(1):5. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In September 2007, a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program targeting grade 8 girls (approximately 13 years old) and delivered by public health was implemented in Ontario, Canada. We assessed reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) from the school-based program as part of quadrivalent HPV (HPV4) vaccine safety surveillance and to contribute to a comprehensive HPV vaccine program evaluation. AEFIs following HPV4 vaccine (Gardasil(®)) administered between September 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011 were extracted from the province's reportable disease system. Confirmed AEFI reports among females 12-15 years old (i.e. assumed to have received vaccine through the program) were included. Events were grouped according to provincial AEFI case definitions. Rates were calculated using doses distributed as the denominator. Between 2007 and 2011, 133 confirmed AEFIs were reported while 691,994 HPV4 vaccine doses were distributed in the school-based program. The overall reporting rate was 19.2 HPV4 AEFI per 100,000 doses distributed. Annual reporting rates decreased from 30.0 to 18.3 per 100,000 doses distributed. Frequently reported events included 'allergic reaction-dermatologic/mucosa' (25%), 'rash' (22%), and 'local/injection site reaction' (20%); 26% of reports had a non-specific event of 'other severe/unusual events' selected. Ten serious AEFIs were reported (7.5% of reports) including 2 anaphylaxis, 2 seizures, 1 thrombocytopenia and 1 death. Further review found that the reports of anaphylaxis did not meet the Brighton anaphylaxis definition and the death was attributed to a preexisting cardiac condition. Overall these findings are consistent with the safety profile of HPV4 vaccine from pre-licensure clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance reports and importantly, no new safety signals were identified, especially no reports of VTE in this younger female population. Continued assessment of HPV4 AEFI surveillance data may be important to detect and investigate safety signals.
    Vaccine 01/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    Vaccine. 01/2014; 32(10):1225.
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    ABSTRACT: Countries of the Americas have been working towards rubella elimination since 2003 and endemic rubella virus transmission appears to have been interrupted since 2009. To contribute towards monitoring of rubella elimination, we assessed rubella seroprevalence among prenatal screening tests performed in Ontario. Specimens received for prenatal rubella serologic testing at the Public Health Ontario Laboratory, the provincial reference laboratory, between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. A patient-based dataset was created using all tests occurring among 15--49 year-old females, where prenatal screening was indicated. Multiple tests were assigned to the same patient on the basis of health card number, name and date of birth. Only unique tests performed at least nine months apart were included. SAS version 9.2 was used for analysis. Between 2006 and 2010, we identified 459,963 women who underwent 551,160 unique prenatal screening tests for rubella. Of these, 81.6%, 17.1% and 1.4% had one, two and three or more tests respectively.Rubella immunity remained stable at approximately 90% overall; the proportion of susceptible women was 4.4%. Additionally, 0.6% of women were initially susceptible and subsequently developed immunity. Across the province, susceptibility was highest in the north and declined with increasing age (p < 0.0001). Among women with multiple tests, the proportion who remained susceptible declined as the number of years between tests increased (p < .0001). Based on age at first test, younger women had the highest susceptibility (4.2% among 15--19 year-olds) and were significantly more likely to develop immunity if previously susceptible (p < .0001). Rubella susceptibility among prenatal women in Ontario supports elimination goals as population immunity in this group is relatively high. Higher susceptibility among young women and women living in the north highlights an opportunity for greater focus on identification and immunization of susceptible women in these groups.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 08/2013; 13(1):362. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The quadrivalent and bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are now licensed in several countries. We compared the cost-effectiveness of the HPV vaccines to provide evidence for policy decisions. We developed HPV-ADVISE, a multi-type individual-based transmission-dynamic model of HPV infection and disease (anogenital warts, and cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers). We calibrated the model to sexual behavior and epidemiologic data from Canada, and estimated quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost and costs ($CAN 2010) from the literature. Vaccine-type efficacy was based on a systematic literature review. The analysis was performed from the healthcare provider perspective, and costs and benefits were discounted at 3%. Predictions are presented using the median [10th;90th percentiles] of simulations. Under base-case assumptions (vaccinating 10-year-old girls, 80% coverage, $95/dose), using the quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines is estimated to cost $15,528 [12,056;19,140] and $20,182 [15,531;25,240] per QALY-gained, respectively. At equal price, the quadrivalent vaccine is more cost-effective than bivalent under all scenarios investigated, except when assuming longer duration of protection for the bivalent and minimal anogenital warts burden. Under base-case assumptions, the maximum additional cost per dose for the quadrivalent vaccine to remain more cost-effective than the bivalent is $32 [17;46] (using a $40,000/QALY-gained threshold). Results were most sensitive to discounting, time-horizon, differences in durations of protection and anogenital warts burden. Vaccinating pre-adolescent girls against HPV is predicted to be highly cost-effective. If equally priced, the quadrivalent is the most economically desirable vaccine. However, ultimately, the most cost-effective HPV vaccine will be determined by their relative price.
    Vaccine 07/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The possible risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome from influenza vaccines remains a potential obstacle to achieving high vaccination coverage. However, influenza infection might also be associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and after influenza-coded health-care encounters. We used the self-controlled risk interval design and linked universal health-care system databases from Ontario, Canada, with data obtained between 1993 and 2011. We used physician billing claims for influenza vaccination and influenza-coded health-care encounters to ascertain exposures. Using fixed-effects conditional Poisson regression, we estimated the relative incidence of hospitalisation for primary-coded Guillain-Barré syndrome during the risk interval compared with the control interval. We identified 2831 incident admissions for Guillain-Barré syndrome; 330 received an influenza vaccine and 109 had an influenza-coded health-care encounter within 42 weeks before hospitalisation. The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome within 6 weeks of vaccination was 52% higher than in the control interval of 9-42 weeks (relative incidence 1·52; 95% CI 1·17-1·99), with the greatest risk during weeks 2-4 after vaccination. The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome within 6 weeks of an influenza-coded health-care encounter was greater than for vaccination (15·81; 10·28-24·32). The attributable risks were 1·03 Guillain-Barré syndrome admissions per million vaccinations, compared with 17·2 Guillain-Barré syndrome admissions per million influenza-coded health-care encounters. The relative and attributable risks of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination are lower than those after influenza illness. Patients considering immunisation should be fully informed of the risks of Guillain-Barré syndrome from both influenza vaccines and influenza illness. Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 06/2013; · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To validate an algorithm to identify cases of intussusception using the health administrative data of Ontario, Canada, and to apply the algorithm to estimate provincial incidence of intussusception, preceding the introduction of the universal rotavirus vaccination program. We determined the accuracy of various combinations of diagnostic, procedural, and billing codes using the chart-abstracted diagnoses of patients of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario as the reference standard. We selected an algorithm that maximized positive predictive value while maintaining a high sensitivity and used it to ascertain annual incidence of intussusception for fiscal years 1995-2010. We explored temporal trends in incidence using Poisson regression. The selected algorithm included only the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for intussusception in the hospitalization database and was sensitive (89.3%) and highly specific (>99.9%). The positive predictive value of the ICD code was 72.4%, and the negative predictive value was >99.9%. We observed the highest mean incidence (34 per 100 000) in male children <1 year of age. Temporal trends in incidence varied by age group. There was a significant mean decrease in incidence of 4% per year in infants (<1 year) until 2004 and rates stabilized thereafter. We have demonstrated that intussusception can be accurately identified within health administrative data using validated algorithms. We have described changes in temporal trends in intussusception incidence in Ontario and established a baseline to allow ongoing monitoring as part of vaccine safety surveillance.
    The Journal of pediatrics 06/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With publically funded meningococcal immunization programs established in infants, children and adolescents, Canada is at the forefront of invasive meningococcal disease prevention. The advent of two new serogroup B vaccines that may protect against multiple disease-causing strains offers the potential to reduce endemic disease to very low levels in Canada. Canada likely will be one of the first countries with approval to use recombinant serogroup B vaccine. However, inclusion of these new vaccines into public immunization programs will be decided at the provincial/territorial level, rather than nationally, and may result initially in different immunization schedules throughout the country as we have seen with conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Such heterogeneous use and adoption of new vaccines complicates disease control, but may assist in evaluation of effectiveness. Minimally, it requires regionally specific information. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the Canadian epidemiology, serogroup B vaccine characteristics, potential strain coverage, immunization strategies and remaining postmarketing research questions.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 05/2013; 12(5):505-17. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Publicly funded infant 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in Ontario, Canada in 2005 and was replaced by 10- and 13-valent vaccines (PCV10, PCV13) in October 2009 and November 2010, respectively. Among adults≥65 years, a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has been universally available since 1996. In January 2012, PCV13 was approved for adults ≥50 years. This study examines the impact of publicly funded vaccination programmes on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: Laboratory data from population-based surveillance for IPD conducted at the Toronto Invasive Bacterial Disease Network and from Public Health Ontario Laboratories between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010 were analyzed. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2010 there were 3259 cases of IPD; overall incidence was 7.4/9.3/8.3 per 100,000 in 2008/9/10, respectively. Incidence increased significantly among adults 65+ years during the period; this group had the highest incidence (21.5-25.6/100,000). The second highest incidence in 2008 and 2009 was in infants <1 year, whereas in 2010 it was in children 1-4 years. Among children <5 years, 68% and 19% of serotypes were covered by PCV13 and PCV10, respectively, between 2008 and 2010. In 2009, 6 cases with the 3 additional PCV10 serotypes were reported in infants compared with 2 in 2010. Among persons eligible for PCV7 (born≥2004), there was a 77% decrease in the rate of IPD due to PCV7 serotypes between 2008 and 2010 and a 60% decrease in PCV7 serotypes among persons not vaccine-eligible (born<2004). There was a 15% difference in serotype coverage between PCV13 and the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adults≥50 years. CONCLUSIONS: During Ontario's PCV7 programme, serotype-specific decreases in IPD were observed, suggesting vaccine programme success, including herd immunity. Our results also suggest some early impact among infants from PCV10 introduction. A substantial burden of disease was also observed among older adults.
    Vaccine 04/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Papanicolaou smear screening has significantly reduced cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. However, inequalities still persist across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. These inequalities have been associated with differential participation in screening. However, even with equal participation to screening, some women may still have greater risk of cervical cancer because of sexual behavior. We aim to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of women who reported greater sexual activity and/or screening underuse. We used data from (i) the Canadian Community Health Survey-2005, a population-based survey of 130,000 Canadians, and (ii) a multicenter study including 952 women screened for cervical cancer. Aboriginals and women with lower SES reported greater sexual activity and lower screening participation, which may produce synergetic effects toward higher cervical cancer risk. Women who did not complete high school and aboriginals were, respectively, 3.6 and 2.5 times more likely to report sexual debut before 15 years old compared with women with university degree and Caucasians. Women who did not complete high school were 2.2 times more likely to have never been screened compared with women with university degree. East and South Asian women were, respectively, 4.3 and 3.1 times more likely to have never been screened than Canadian-born women but reported lower levels of sexual activity and were adherent to screening guidelines when screened at least once. The success of human papillomavirus vaccination at reducing cervical cancer and inequalities will depend on achieving high coverage among high-risk subpopulations. Impact: These groups must be monitored closely, and if need be, targeted for additional interventions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(4); 641-52. ©2013 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 04/2013; 22(4):641-52. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When responding to a novel infectious disease outbreak, policies are set under time constraints and uncertainty which can limit the ability to control the outbreak and result in unintended consequences including lack of public confidence. The H1N1 pandemic highlighted challenges in public health decision-making during a public health emergency. Understanding this process to identify barriers and modifiable influences is important to improve the response to future emergencies. The purpose of this study is to examine the H1N1 pandemic decision-making process in Canada with an emphasis on the use of evidence for public health decisions. Using semi-structured key informant interviews conducted after the pandemic (July-November 2010) and a document analysis, we examined four highly debated pandemic policies: use of adjuvanted vaccine by pregnant women, vaccine priority groups and sequencing, school closures and personal protective equipment. Data were analysed for thematic content guided by Lomas' policy decision-making framework as well as indicative coding using iterative methods. We interviewed 40 public health officials and scientific advisors across Canada and reviewed 76 pandemic policy documents. Our analysis revealed that pandemic pre-planning resulted in strong beliefs, which defined the decision-making process. Existing ideological perspectives of evidence strongly influenced how information was used such that the same evidentiary sources were interpreted differently according to the ideological perspective. Participants recognized that current models for public health decision-making failed to make explicit the roles of scientific evidence in relation to contextual factors. Conflict avoidance theory explained policy decisions that went against the prevailing evidence. Clarification of roles and responsibilities within the public health system would reduce duplication and maintain credibility. A more transparent and iterative approach to incorporating evidence into public health decision-making that reflects the realities of the external pressures present during a public health emergency is needed.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 04/2013; 83:1-9. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The most appropriate public health approach to vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients is unknown, mainly because these cases are rare and transmission of vaccine-associated measles has not been previously documented. In this case report, we describe Peel Public Health's response to a vaccine-associated measles case in an immunocompromised child in Ontario, Canada. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old Canadian-born boy with a history of a hematopoetic stem cell transplant three years previously received live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Over the subsequent 7 to 14 days, he developed an illness clinically consistent with measles. There was no travel history or other measles exposure. Serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed acute measles infection. Following discussion with pediatric infectious diseases specialists, but prior to the availability of virus sequencing, it was felt that this case was most likely due to vaccine strain. Although no microbiologically confirmed secondary cases of vaccine-associated measles have been previously described, we sent notification letters to advise all contacts of measles symptoms since the likelihood of transmission from an immunocompromised patient was low, but theoretically possible. We decided to stratify contacts into immune competent and compromised and to deal with the latter group conservatively by excluding them as if they were exposed to wild-type measles because the risk of transmission of disease in this population, while presumably very low, is unknown. However, no contacts self-identified as immunocompromised and there were no secondary cases. Subsequent genotyping confirmed that this case was caused by vaccine strain measles virus. CONCLUSION: The public health approach to contact tracing and exclusions for vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients is unclear. The rarity of secondary cases provides further evidence that the risk to the general public is likely extremely low. Although the risk appears negligible, exclusion and administration of immune globulin may be considered for susceptible, immunocompromised contacts of cases of vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients.
    BMC Public Health 03/2013; 13(1):269. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st), 2006 and March 31(st), 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI) of events among 1(st)-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR). For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57), which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99), representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st) vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48), or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21), or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st)-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81070. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In 2007, Ontario implemented a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program targeting grade 8 girls. Girls may complete the series in grade 9 (extended eligibility). Limitations in the existing provincial data sources for assessing HPV vaccine coverage in Ontario prompted the use of two surveys of Health Units (HUs) to calculate provincial vaccine coverage for the first three years of the vaccination program. METHODS: We surveyed Ontario's 36 HUs in March and November 2011 to obtain vaccine coverage information, including source of denominator data, and use of local information systems. The second survey was necessary in order to assess coverage including extended eligibility for the third year. HU-reported HPV vaccine coverage was compared to coverage estimates obtained from two provincial systems: the Immunization Records Information System (IRIS) and the HPV reimbursement database, a system used to remunerate HUs for HPV vaccine doses administered. RESULTS: 100% of HUs participated in the two surveys. The provincial coverage estimates using HU-reported data were: 51% (2007-2008), 58% (2008-2009), and 59% (2009-2010) with large variation by HU. Coverage increased significantly over time. The number of HUs that were able to report on doses given as part of extended eligibility also increased over time (47% in 2007-2008 to 89% in 2009-2010; p=0.0008). Comparisons across the three data sources (survey, IRIS and reimbursement database) revealed significantly different coverage estimates. Class or school lists were the most common source of denominator data used by HUs (27/36, 75%), however independent schools were not included by all. CONCLUSIONS: As not all HUs were able to report on HPV vaccine coverage including extended eligibility doses these findings likely underestimate the true coverage attained by Ontario's program. Although coverage is below the Canadian Immunization Committee benchmark of 80% within two years of program implementation, the upward trend in coverage is encouraging.
    Vaccine 12/2012; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The availability of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines has provided powerful tools for primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-associated diseases. Since 2006, the quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines have each been licensed in over 100 countries. By the beginning of 2012, HPV vaccine had been introduced into national immunization programs in at least 40 countries. Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada were among the first countries to introduce HPV vaccination. In Europe, the number of countries having introduced vaccine increased from 3 in 2007 to 22 at the beginning of 2012. While all country programs target young adolescent girls, specific target age groups vary as do catch-up recommendations. Different health care systems and infrastructure have resulted in varied implementation strategies, with some countries delivering vaccine in schools and others through health centers or primary care providers. Within the first 5 years after vaccines became available, few low- or middle-income countries had introduced HPV vaccine. The main reason was budgetary constraints due to the high vaccine cost. Bhutan and Rwanda implemented national immunization after receiving vaccine through donation programs in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The GAVI Alliance decision in 2011 to support HPV vaccination should increase implementation in low-income countries. Evaluation of vaccination programs includes monitoring of coverage, safety, and impact. Vaccine safety monitoring is part of routine activities in many countries. Safety evaluations are important and communication about vaccine safety is critical, as events temporally associated with vaccination can be falsely attributed to vaccination. Anti-vaccination efforts, in part related to concerns about safety, have been mounted in several countries. In the 5 years since HPV vaccines were licensed, there have been successes as well as challenges with vaccine introduction and implementation. Further progress is anticipated in the coming years, especially in low- and middle-income countries where the need for vaccine is greatest. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 11/2012; 30 Suppl 5:F139-48. · 3.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

350 Citations
196.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010–2014
    • Public Health Ontario
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Queensland Government
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • University of Sydney
      • Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Medicine
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2012
    • Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2009
    • Children's Hospital at Westmead
      • National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2006
    • Public Health Agency of Canada
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada