Shogo Tokuyama

Kobe Gakuin University, Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan

Are you Shogo Tokuyama?

Claim your profile

Publications (75)135.6 Total impact

  • Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In clinical pharmacotherapy, therapeutic benefits and adverse effects of medicines differ substantially between individuals and are often determined by their blood levels. Critical regulators influencing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs include drug transporters and drug-metabolizing enzymes. Among these, we have focused on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux transporter. A growing body of evidence indicates that the expression and functional activity of P-gp are altered under several pathological conditions, by exposure to substrate drugs of P-gp, and by ingestion of certain foods. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanisms by which anticancer drugs, most of which are P-gp substrates, alter the expression and functional activity of P-gp in tumors and normal tissues after chronic treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that various transcription factors, in addition to epigenetic and post-translational factors, modulate P-gp expression, which alters the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of drugs. Therefore, it is important to consider individual patients with regard to drug-taking history, as well as levels of P-gp expression and function, when providing clinical pharmacotherapy.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 07/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors in astrocytes are increased in damaged brains. To clarify the regulatory mechanisms of VEGF receptors, the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were examined in rat cultured astrocytes. Expressions of VEGF-R1 and -R2 receptor mRNA were at similar levels, while the mRNA expressions of VEGF-R3 and Tie-2, a receptor for angiopoietins, were lower. Placenta growth factor (PLGF), a selective agonist of the VEGF-R1 receptor, induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Phosphorylations of FAK and ERK 1/2 were also stimulated by VEGF-E, a selective VEGF-R2 agonist. Increased phosphorylations of FAK and ERK1/2 by VEGF165 were reduced by selective antagonists for VEGF-R1 and -R2. Treatment with ET-1 increased VEGF-R1 mRNA and protein levels. The effects of ET-1 on VEGF-R1 mRNA were mimicked by Ala(1,3,11,15) -ET-1, a selective agonist for ETB receptors, and inhibited by BQ788, an ETB antagonist. ET-1 did not affect the mRNA levels of VEGF-R2, -R3 and Tie-2. Pre-treatment with ET-1 potentiated the effects of PLGF on phosphorylations of FAK and ERK1/2. These findings suggest that ET-1 induces up-regulation of VEGF-R1 receptors in astrocytes, and potentiates VEGF signals in damaged nerve tissues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2014; · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The functional role of brain G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) remains unclear. We investigated GPR40 signaling in depression-related behavior in mice via the forced swim test. A repeated but not a single intracerebroventricular administration of the GPR40 agonist, GW9508, reduced the duration of immobility behavior. Moreover, the levels of hippocampal nonesterified docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid were decreased immediately after the forced swimming. These results suggested that brain GPR40 signaling may regulate depression-related behavior.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 04/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an acute peripheral neuropathy triggered by cold in almost all patients during or within hours after its infusion. We recently reported that a single administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hypersensitivity 2 h after the administration in mice. In this study, we examined whether standard analgesics relieve the oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity. Gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate significantly inhibited and morphine and milnacipran decreased the acute cold hypersensitivity, while diclofenac and amitriptyline had no effects. These results suggest that gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate are effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 03/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fatty acids, one class of essential nutrients for humans, are an important source of energy and an essential component of cell membranes. They also function as signal transduction molecules in a variety of biological phenomena. The important functional role of fatty acids in both onset and suppression of pain has become increasingly apparent in recent years. Recently, we have also demonstrated that the release of an endogenous opioid peptide, β-endorphin, plays an important role in the induction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced antinociception. It is well known that fatty acids affect intracellular and intercellular signaling as well as the membrane fluidity of neurons. In addition to intracellular actions, unbound free fatty acids (FFAs) can also carry out extracellular signaling by stimulating the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Among these receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids such as DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid. In the peripheral area, GPR40 is preferentially expressed in pancreatic β-cells and is known to relate to the secretion of hormone and peptides. On the other hand, even though this receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system, reports studying the role and functions of GPR40 in the brain have not been found. In this review, we summarize the findings of our recent study about the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR40 as a novel pain regulatory system.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 01/2014; 134(3):397-403. · 0.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e95433. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Y. Yamazaki, S. Harada, S. Tokuyama
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerebral ischemia can be exacerbated by post-ischemic hyperglycemia, which may involve the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT). However, the contribution of each SGLT isoform in cerebral ischemia is still unclear. SGLT-1, -3, -4, and -6 have been reported to be expressed in various brain regions. Among these isoforms, only SGLT-3 does not transport glucose, but depolarizes the plasma membrane when glucose is bound, suggesting that SGLT-3 is a glucose sensor. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the involvement of cerebral SGLT-3 in the development of ischemia. The mouse model of focal ischemia was generated by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuronal damage was assessed by histological and behavioral analyses. Fasting blood glucose levels on day 1 after MCAO were not affected in SGLT-3 siRNA-mediated knockdown of SGLT-3. The development of infarct volume and behavioral abnormalities on day 1 after MCAO were exacerbated in SGLT-3 knockdown mice (control group: n = 7, 94.2 ± 21.8 mm3, 2 (1.6–2.4), SGLT-3 knockdown group: n = 6, 1414.8 ± 492.4 mm3, 6 (5.8–6.3), P < 0.05). Moreover, SGLT-3 expression levels were significantly decreased in the striatum (65.0 ± 8.1%, P < 0.05) on day 1, and in the hippocampus (67.6 ± 7.2%, P < 0.05) and hypothalamus (47.5 ± 5.1%, P < 0.01) on day 3 after MCAO (n = 12–13). These effects were significantly inhibited by donepezil (DPZ) treatment (SGLT-3 knockdown group: n = 6, 1419.0 ± 181.5 mm3, 3.6 (3.4–3.7), SGLT-3 knockdown and 3 mg/kg DPZ-treated group: n = 5, 611.3 ± 205.3 mm3, 1.5 (1.4–1.8), P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence revealed that SGLT-3 and choline acetyltransferase were co-localized in the cortex. Our results indicated that cerebral SGLT-3 suppressed neuronal damage by the activation of cholinergic neurons, which are neuroprotective. In contrast, other cerebral SGLT isoforms may be involved in the development of ischemia.
    Neuroscience 01/2014; 269:134–142. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 01/2014; 134(6):689-99. · 0.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that repeated oral administration of etoposide (ETP) increases P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in association with activation of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) via Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in the small intestine. However, the detailed mechanisms of this pathway have yet to be fully elucidated. Recently, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], one of the most abundant phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane, has attracted attention regarding its involvement in the plasma membrane localization of various membrane proteins. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is an essential factor in the dissociation and subsequent membrane translocation (activation) of ERM, and its synthetic pathway is known to be highly regulated by RhoA/ROCK signaling. Here, we examined the involvement of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the mechanism by which ETP treatment increases small intestinal P-gp levels, and we determined which protein within ERM contributes to this phenomenon. Repeated oral treatment with ETP (10 mg/kg/d) over 5 d significantly increased PtdIns(4,5)P2 expression in the ileal membrane as measured by dot blot. Furthermore, this increase was suppressed by co-administration of a RhoA inhibitor, rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg/d, per os (p.o.)), or a ROCK inhibitor, fasudil (5 mg/kg/d, p.o.). In immunoprecipitation assays, radixin (but not ezrin or moesin) binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 was observed to increase in association with the up-regulation of P-gp in the same fraction, and immunofluorescence studies indicated that radixin co-localized with PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the ileal tissue. In conclusion, ETP treatment appears to up-regulate PtdIns(4,5)P2 expression via RhoA/ROCK signaling, leading to the activation of ERM, presumably through the physical interaction of radixin with PtdIns(4,5)P2. This in turn increases the expression of ileal P-gp.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2014; 37(7):1124-31. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that repeated oral administration of etoposide (ETP) activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) scaffold proteins for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) via Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling, leading to increased ileal P-gp expression. Recent studies indicate that phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] regulates the plasma-membrane localization of certain proteins, and its synthase, the type I phosphatidyl inositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5K), is largely controlled by RhoA/ROCK. Here, we examined whether PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PI4P5K are involved in the increased expression of ileal P-gp following the ERM activation by ETP treatment. Male ddY mice (4-week-old) were treated with ETP (10 mg/kg/day, per os, p.o.) for 5 days. Protein-expression levels were measured by either western blot or dot blot analysis and molecular interactions were assessed using immunoprecipitation assays. ETP treatment significantly increased PI4P5K, ERM, and P-gp expression in the ileal membrane. This effect was suppressed following the coadministration of ETP with rosuvastatin (a RhoA inhibitor) or fasudil (a ROCK inhibitor). Notably, the PtdIns(4,5)P2 expression in the ileal membrane, as well as both P-gp and ERM levels coimmunoprecipitated with anti-PtdIns(4,5)P2 antibody, were increased by ETP treatment. PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PI4P5K may contribute to the increase in ileal P-gp expression observed following the ETP treatment, possibly through ERM activation via the RhoA/ROCK pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism are the most important risk factors for stroke. We recently demonstrated that cerebral ischemic stress causes hyperglycemia (i.e., post-ischemic hyperglycemia) and may worsen ischemic neuronal damage in a mouse model of focal ischemia. However, the detailed mechanisms are still unknown. The sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) generates inward currents in the process of transporting glucose into cells, resulting in depolarization and increased excitability, which is well known to be caused by cerebral ischemia. Hence, we focused on the role of SGLT on the development of neuronal damage using a global ischemic model. Male ddY mice were subjected to 30min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO). The neuronal damage was estimated by histological analysis using HE staining on day 3 after BCAO. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of phlorizin (a specific and competitive inhibitor of SGLT, 200mg/kg immediately after reperfusion) suppressed the development of post-ischemic hyperglycemia on day 1 after BCAO. In contrast, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of phlorizin (40μg/mouse immediately and 6h after reperfusion) had no effect on day 1 after BCAO. Interestingly, the development of ischemic neuronal damage was significantly suppressed by i.p. and i.c.v. administration of phlorizin on day 3 after BCAO. In addition, BCAO-induced spasticity was significantly suppressed by PHZ (40μg/mouse, i.c.v.) from using gait analysis. Our results indicated that cerebral SGLT was involved in the development of ischemic neuronal damage in global ischemia.
    Brain research 10/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Shinichi Harada, Kazuo Nakamoto, Shogo Tokuyama
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims Systemic administration of opiate analgesics such as morphine remains the most effective treatment for alleviating severe pain across a range of conditions including acute pain. However, chronic or repeated administration of opiate analgesics results in the development of analgesic tolerance. Glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes are known to release various inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors leading to regulation of neuronal function. Recently, glial cells were reported to play important roles in the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine. Here, we focused on the involvement of midbrain glial cells, particularly astrocytes, in the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine. Main methods Mice were treated with morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle once a day for 5days. Pentoxifilline (an inhibitor of glial activation; 20mg/kg, i.p. or 50 and 100μg/mouse, i.c.v.) was administered 30min before morphine treatment. Flavopiridol (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; 5nmol/mouse, i.c.v.) was administered 10min before and 10hr after morphine treatment. The analgesic effect of morphine was measured using the tail flick method. Key findings The development of analgesic tolerance to morphine was gradually observed during daily treatment of morphine for 5days in mice. On day 1 and 3 after repeated morphine treatment, astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein expression levels were significantly increased, as determined by western blot analyses. These phenomena were significantly inhibited following pre-treatment with pentoxifilline or flavopiridol. Significance We demonstrated that midbrain astrocytes play an important role in the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine.
    Life sciences 08/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) has a high risk of hepatic dysfunction and intestinal atrophy. The present study investigated the effect of PN-induced intestinal atrophy and hepatic impairment on drug pharmacokinetics by using 2 contrasting compounds: phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) and cyclosporin A (CyA). Materials and Methods: PSP or CyA was administered to 7-day PN-fed Rats (PN rats) and sham operated rats (control rats) via intravenous (IV) or intraloop administration of the intestine. Pharmacokinetic parameters with 2-compartment analysis including area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC) and the permeability after in situ intraloop administration (Ploop) were obtained from both concentration profiles after different administration routes. Results: After IV administration of PSP to control and PN rats, there was no notable difference in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. In contrast, after intraloop administration, AUC and Ploop in PN rats were approximately 2.6- and 2.0-fold higher than that in control rats, respectively. On the other hand, after IV administration of CyA, the terminal half-life and total body clearance were prolonged and decreased in PN rats, respectively, resulting in 2.0-fold increase in AUC. After intraloop administration, the AUC of PN rats was increased to approximately 1.3-fold that of control rats, whereas no notable difference was observed in Ploop. Conclusion: The intestinal permeability of PSP was enhanced by intestinal atrophy induced by PN, while the metabolism of CyA was diminished by hepatic impairment by PN. These results revealed the physicochemical property-based pharmacokinetic alterations during PN; for a more detailed understanding, however, further studies are needed.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 07/2013; · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the world. Central post-stroke pain (CPSP), an intractable secondary disease, is a serious problem that occurs following cerebral stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying CPSP and standard treatments for it are not well established. Therefore, we examined the nociceptive threshold and alterations in the current stimulus threshold of primary afferent neurons in bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) mice. METHODS: Male ddY mice were subjected to 30 min of BCAO. The development of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and changes in current stimulus threshold in the hind paws were measured after BCAO using the von Frey test, plantar test and a Neurometer, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: The threshold for mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in both hind paws was significantly decreased on day 3 after BCAO as compared with pre-BCAO treatment. Furthermore, the sensitivity of C and Aβ fibres (at stimulation of 5 and 2000 Hz, respectively) was increased on day 3 after BCAO as compared with pre-BCAO treatment, while that of Aδ fibres was not altered. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the development of bilateral hyperalgesia in this model. Potentially, C and Aβ fibre-specific hypersensitization after stroke may have contributed to these symptoms.
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 04/2013; 65(4):615-620.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that repeated oral treatment with etoposide (ETP) increased ileal membrane localization of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and that this was possibly mediated by increased expression of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM)/phosphorylated ERM (p-ERM) via activation of RhoA/ROCK. These changes caused decreases in the analgesia of oral morphine (substrate drug for P-gp). However, there are no reports indicating the temporal changes in the above-mentioned factors after initiation and cessation of repeated treatment with the substrate drugs for P-gp including ETP. We examined the relationships between time-dependent changes in protein expressions of ileal P-gp and those of RhoA, ROCK, ERM, and p-ERM, and in oral morphine analgesia after initiation or cessation of repeated oral treatment with ETP. Ileal membrane localization of RhoA was increased 3 days after initiating ETP treatment; on 5 or 7 days, that of ROCK, ERM, and p-ERM was increased along with increments in P-gp expression, leading to decreases in oral morphine analgesia. All these changes returned toward normal levels 3 days after cessation. These data suggest that regulating the active state of the above-mentioned proteins during cancer chemotherapy or creating a timeframe of discontinuation a few days after cessation may enable effective palliative care using oral opioids. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that repeated oral treatment with etoposide (ETP) causes attenuation of oral morphine analgesia through upregulation of ileal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated by Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) activation. However, the detailed mechanism of the increase in ileal P-gp via RhoA activation remains unknown. Recently, it has been reported that ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins, linking several plasma-membrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton, are involved in the membrane localization and functional activity of P-gp. Moreover, the cross-linking activities of ERM are known to be regulated by RhoA and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK). Here, we examined the involvement of ERM in the changes in expression of P-gp via RhoA and ROCK in ileal membrane induced by ETP. Repeated oral treatment with ETP significantly increased the ileal membrane localization of ERM and phosphorylated ERM (p-ERM) in association with upregulation of P-gp and activation of RhoA and ROCK. Interestingly, coadministration of rosuvastatin (inhibitor of RhoA activation) and fasudil (ROCK inhibitor) prevented increments in the activation and phosphorylation of ERM, respectively. In conclusion, upregulation of ileal membrane localization of ERM and p-ERM via activation of RhoA/ROCK induced by ETP treatment may be involved in the regulation of ileal membrane localization of P-gp. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Shinichi Harada, Yui Yamazaki, Shogo Tokuyama
    Folia Pharmacologica Japonica 01/2013; 142(1):4-8.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently increased at day 7, but not at days 1, 3 and 14, after CFA injection. GPR40 was co-localized with NeuN, a neuron marker, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker. At day 1 after CFA injection, GFAP protein expression was markedly increased in the hypothalamus. These increases were significantly inhibited by the intracerebroventricular injection of flavopiridol (15 nmol), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, depending on the decreases in both the increment of GPR40 protein expression and the induction of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7 after CFA injection. Furthermore, the level of DHA in the hypothalamus tissue was significantly increased in a flavopiridol reversible manner at day 1, but not at day 7, after CFA injection. The intracerebroventricular injection of DHA (50 µg) and GW9508 (1.0 µg), a GPR40-selective agonist, significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7, but not at day 1, after CFA injection. These effects were inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with GW1100 (10 µg), a GPR40 antagonist. The protein expression of GPR40 was colocalized with that of β-endorphin and proopiomelanocortin, and a single intracerebroventricular injection of GW9508 (1.0 µg) significantly increased the number of neurons double-stained for c-Fos and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that hypothalamic GPR40 activated by free long chain fatty acids might have an important role in this pain control system.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81563. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that repeated oral administration of etoposide (ETP) increases P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in association with activation of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) in the small intestine. Radixin has recently attracted attention for its critical role in the plasma membrane localization of certain drug transporters including P-gp by working as a scaffold protein. However, there have been no report investigating that radixin really interacts with small intestinal P-gp and is involved in the mechanism by which the levels of P-gp are altered. Here, we examined whether radixin is involved in the increased P-gp expression in the small intestine after ETP treatment. Repeated oral treatment with ETP (10 mg/kg/day) for 7 d significantly increased ERM proteins bound to P-gp in the small intestine as determined by immunoprecipitation analysis. In particular, radixin but not ezrin or moesin bound to P-gp was dramatically increased in association with the up-regulation of P-gp in the small intestinal membrane, and radixin was highly co-localized with P-gp as measured by immunofluorescence analysis. In conclusion, radixin may contribute, at least in part, to an increase in the expression of the small intestinal P-gp upon induction with repeated oral treatment with ETP.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2013; 36(11):1822-8. · 1.85 Impact Factor